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Abalone (Haliotis midae) farming and seaweed harvesting in South Africa: Industry interdependencies and socio-economic importance
 

Abalone (Haliotis midae) farming and seaweed harvesting in South Africa: Industry interdependencies and socio-economic importance

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This is a presentation that I gave at the University of the Western Cape Science Faculty Research open day in 2008. Its the story of how abalone cultivation has link with and improved the seaweed ...

This is a presentation that I gave at the University of the Western Cape Science Faculty Research open day in 2008. Its the story of how abalone cultivation has link with and improved the seaweed cultivation industry in temperate Southern Africa.

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    Abalone (Haliotis midae) farming and seaweed harvesting in South Africa: Industry interdependencies and socio-economic importance Abalone (Haliotis midae) farming and seaweed harvesting in South Africa: Industry interdependencies and socio-economic importance Presentation Transcript

    • Abalone ( Haliotis midae ) farming and seaweed harvesting in South Africa: Industry interdependencies and socio-economic importance Robertson-Andersson Deborah 1;4 ; Troell 2 , M.; Halling 2 , C.; Anderson 3 , R.; Maneveldt 1 , G. and Bolton 4 J. J. 1 Botany Department, U WC 2 Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University 3 Seaweed Research Unit, MCM 4 Botany Department, UCT FACULTY OF NATURAL SCIENCES
    • “ Abalone farming in South Africa has developed rapidly and the country is now the largest producer outside Asia”. World Aquaculture March 2003
    • Abalone industry development in SA Farm Types: 22 rights holders 13 exporting farms 2 hatcheries
    • South African abalone farming Cleaning Feeding Eating
    • Roman Bay Sea Farm
    • SA kelp resources
        • Seaweed Concession Areas
    • Kelp harvest vs abalone production
    • Seaweed concession areas and MSY
        • Kelp: Maximum Sustainable Yields, harvests, and beach-cast amounts of fronds supplied as abalone feed, for the year 2003, by concession area (MCM Data).
      1872 52 4050 10399 Totals 112 75 1158 1550 11 (2) 0 99 951 956 8 (3) 528 54 348 644 7 (3) 878 33 897 2680 6 (3) 354 60 696 1165 5 (3) Beach cast (t f wt) Total Harvest as % of MSY Harvest (t f wt) MSY (t f wt) Concession Area
    • SCA 8 – Relationships between abalone produced and seaweed harvested
    • SCA 8 – Relationships between abalone produced and seaweed harvested
    • Potential Problems
      • Largest farm 120 T expanding to 360 T
      • Smallest farm 35 T
      • Average 70 T
      • 18 farms with 70 T of abalone
      • Feeding 10 % body mass
      • kelp demand has the potential to increase or exceed 35 280 T per year just for abalone feed
      • Farms are concentrated in certain areas
    • Poaching G. Marharaj
    • Abalone distribution
    • Abalone exports to Hong Kong from Southern Africa for 2004 were 500 kg and for 2007 1000 kg dried abalone
      • 500 kg dried abalone ( H. midae ) from: Namibia, Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Botswana.
      • Wet to dry ratio – 10 kg wet (live abalone meat shucked) = 1 kg dried abalone
      • 500 X 10 = > 5 000 kg illegally harvested abalone from South Africa.
      • “… if poaching continues at the current rate, abalone will be fished to extinction in less than three years …” (Duvenhage 2002 of the South African abalone resource).
      • Data from Hong Kong Department of Statistics (2006)
    • Abalone industry multiplier effects ABALONE FARMING EXPORT AND TRANSPORT SEAWEED HARVESTING EDUCATION AND TRAINING CANNING RESEARCH AND R & D SECURITY FEED INDUSTRY VETERINARY CIVILS AND MAINTENANCE ELECTRICITY
    • Growth in industry
      • *Decrease in employment is due to economies of scale
      • FOB (free on board - describes a price which includes goods plus the services of loading those goods onto some vehicle or vessel at a named location.) is around 26.8 $.kg and has remained at this level for the last three years (Loubser, 2005)
      7.6* 840 21 890 182 13 2006 28 776 27 745 197 13 2005 556 576 13 2004 Percentage increase in employees No of employees Annual Percentage increase Tons.a -1 Investment (R millions) No of producing farms Year
    • Some facts and figures of the abalone industry:
      • Gross Industry turnover for 2005 = ZAR 200 million
      • Race distribution within the abalone industry: Black* 49 %
      • Coloured* 35 %
      • White* 16 %
      • An immature non producing farm has almost 100 % male workers while a mature farm has approximately 74 % males with 26 % females.
      *South African government classification to quantify racial imbalances introduced during the apartheid era 1.1 1.62 0.6 Employees per ton 814 ZAR 346.5 Total 63 110 17 Workers per farm ZAR 15.75 ZAR 30 ZAR 1.6 Investment per farm (millions) Average Max Min
    • Distribution of running costs of the abalone industry: Salaries and wages 31.27 Cost of sales 21.5 Kelp 10.63 Repairs and maintenance 7.22 Electricity 6.77 Artificial feed 5.63 R & D 3.2 Security 2.5 Technology 2.08 Insurance 4.2 Miscellaneous 5.0 From Gerber 2004
    • Seaweed work force
      • Increased profitability - R 900 – R 1 200 per ton fresh harvested kelp vs. R 2 142 per ton dried kelp for overseas alginate production FOB, (Wet:Dry = 5:1 Anderson et al. 1989).
      • Start up costs range from R 250 000 to R 10 million.
      • The total investment in 2004 was R 255.8 million.
      • The average rand value of turnover per SCA allocated in 2004 was approximately R 2.3 million (GPR, 2005).
      • Expenditure into research and development ranged from R 60 000 to R 600 000.
      • The gross industry turnover for 2004 was R 125 44 364.91 (GPR, 2005)
    • Abalone canning sector
      • The first abalone factories built in the 1960’s and canned wild caught abalone.
      • Jobs in this sector are of a more permanent nature with the staff being well trained and skilled.
      • Decrease in wild quota has caused several factories to close.
      2 200 estimated 7.5 2006 3 123 23 2004 6 30 36 2002 15 4 54 2000 50 0 95 1998 No of contract divers Farmed tons Wild tons
    • Other employment sectors
      • Electrical industry - 5 – 15 % of a farms running costs. If this compared to the area of Gansbaai, the total usage of the three farms in Gansbaai is 13% of the total usage in that area, (Lawson-Smith, 2003)
      • Security Industry - 2 – 5 % - outsourced security is maintained
      • Scientific equipment, generating of research projects - 3.2 % - An example at the UCT, UWC, University of Stockholm and the University of the Western Cape through 2 projects in collaboration two farms, 3 Honours, 14 MSc. students and 1 PhD student have obtained their degrees and bursaries through research on the abalone industry.
      • 12 research institutes have been or currently are involved with research into aspects of abalone and seaweed physiology and cultivation (Gerber 2004).
      • “… unemployment is high and rising and is considered to be one of the most critical socio-political challenges for the government” (Kingdon & Knight, 2003).
      • Lewis (2001), the overall unemployment in 2000: > 36 % for skilled and > 50 % for unskilled and semi-skilled workers .
      • Unskilled = do not need to use reasoning in the performance of their work.
      • Semiskilled = read, write and communicate.
      • Skilled = some form of tertiary education and or a matric
      Skill distribution within the industries
    • Socio-economic effects from Abalone farming in SA in 2004 2 000 000 1:0.23 0 2464 150 67 CANNING Investment (ZAR) Male :female UnSkilled (%) Pay (ZAR) Tonnage (tons) Laborers 750 000 260 000 000 3 760 000 346 500 000 1:0 1:2 1:0 1:0.23 50 88 85 61 2464 1484 1813 1813 360 11019 1056 850 16 388 (600 – 1000) 12 814 ABFEED SEAWEED HARVEST SEAWEED CULTIVATION in 2006 ABALONE
    • Haga Haga – by ward area (Data from Census ‘05) Farm Stats… Black male 57 White Male 7 Black female 1 White female 1 Black African Coloured White Total Male 33 - 15 48 Female 39 3 24 66 Total 72 3 39 114
    • Haga Haga – by ward area (Data from Census ‘05) Farm Stats… Black male 57 White Male 7 Black female 1 White female 1 Black African Coloured White Total Male 33 - 15 48 Female 39 3 24 66 Total 72 3 39 114
    • South Africa vs. the world 8 L 100 25 1.15 Mexico 9 L/SC 400 239 0.6 USA # of farms Farm type Tonnage (tons) 2010 Tonnage (tons) 2005 Laborers per ton 23 20 26 13 L/SC L/SC L/SC L 150 1000 1000 1200 3 350 205 840 0.4 0.25 1.1 New Zealand Australia Chile South Africa
    • Socio-economic effects from Abalone farming in SA There are direct socio-economic benefits from the abalone industry through: employees ( > 1200 people employed ) salaries, incomes, gender, social groups ( 50 % unskilled labour ), etc. including spill over effects (e.g. the kelp industry) and also other indirect effects on entrepreneurs with 20 % growth in the industry forecasted for the next 5 years
    •   THANK YOU ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to extend special thanks to the following organizations without whose help this project would have been impossible: Swedish and South African Collaborative Program I & J Mariculture farm JSP Mariculture farm Abagold N R F J SP