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SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEMS

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Following on from a successful presentation to the Reciculation council members earlier in 2004, I was asked to make this presentation which should be titled why abalone farmers should grow seaweeds.

Following on from a successful presentation to the Reciculation council members earlier in 2004, I was asked to make this presentation which should be titled why abalone farmers should grow seaweeds.

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  • 1. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEMS
  • 2.
    • Mixed diet gives better growth rates
    • MSY of kelp bed reached in 2002
      • Potential over-harvesting
      • Decrease in epiphyte densities
    • Limited suitable coastal areas
    • ‘ HAB’s’
    • Recirculation
    • I ntegration will improve water quality
    Why cultivate seaweeds on your farm?
  • 3. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM EFFLUENT CHANNEL INLET
  • 4. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM INLET
  • 5. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM SLUICE GATE
  • 6. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM INLET
  • 7. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM PADDLE AND DRIVE
  • 8. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM POND PROFILE VIEW
  • 9. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM PADDLE WHEEL
  • 10. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM MIDDLE DIVIDER WALL
  • 11. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM OUTLET BARRIER
  • 12. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM OUTLET
  • 13. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM EFFLUENT AND HARVESTING CHANNEL
  • 14. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM HARVESTING AREA
  • 15. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM PARENT STOCK
  • 16. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM PADDLE POND DESIGN
  • 17. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM COST OF A SINGLE POND 3500 Elec cable for supply and D. B. 94165 TOTAL 6840 Civils to level out & compact platform @ R25/m2 350 Sluice gate for incoming water 11700 Channel @ R650/m X 18 450 Cover for elec motor (fibreglass) 9000 Paddle and bearings 10400 Elec motor and gearbox 3 KW & chain & sprockets 225 S/S screws 40 mm X 4.2 mm X 500/pond 1500 Coverstrips 8 mm X 40 mm X 120 m HDPE 8800 HDPE white liner 750 micron 2 X 6 X 38 m 1400 Sand floor (compacted) 40000 Concrete casted
  • 18. Why is a controlled feed source important?
    • Abalone are herbivores
    • They obtain all of their protein requirement from their diet
    • Their FCR is affected by phenols (an anti-grazer deterrent produced by most seaweeds)
    • Kelps can contain very high proportions of phenols
    • Abalone obtain all their calcium requirement through their gills, but no phosphate
    • The phosphate requirement has to be met by the diet
    • Abalone are sold by weight and there can be up to a 30% water loss during transport
  • 19. RESULTS
    • Important because:
    • Increases protein from wild harvest (3.7- 24 % wild to 49.8 % cultured)
    • Abalone receive more protein
    • Faster growth rates
    • How do you increase tissue nutrients?
    • Faster flow rates (12 – 20 volume exchanges)
    • Grown in turbot/fish or abalone effluent
    • Add Fertilizer and Kelpak®
    Tissue Nitrogen
  • 20. RESULTS Tissue Nitrogen vs. Thallus Colour Tissue nitrogen vs. thallus colour
  • 21. RESULTS Tissue Nitrogen vs. Tissue Phosphorus Tissue N vs. Tissue P A S O N D J F M A M J J A
  • 22. West Coast
  • 23. Benefits of a closed system
    • Increase in temperature above ambient seawater equates to an increase in growth rates
    • Decrease in pumping costs
    • Additional safety in times of red tide and oil spills
  • 24. RESULTS
    • Ulva can take up 90 % of ammonium in abalone effluent at 12 volume exchanges per day
    • DO values don’t go below 9 mg.l -1 at night
    • Using stocking density of 3 kg. wwt.m -2 gives best uptake rates but is system specific
    • Toxic ammonia never reaches levels harmful to abalone at above stocking density
    RECIRCULATION
  • 25. RESULTS Temperature in a recirculation system Temperature 15 16 20 00 04 08 12 16 20 00 04 08 12 16
  • 26. RESULTS Temperature in a recirculation system Temperature 15 16 20 00 04 08 12 16 20 00 04 08 12 16
  • 27. RESULTS ammonium levels in recirculated tanks range between 0.003 - 0.005 u g N.L -1 ammonium levels in abalone flow through tanks = 0.01 u g N.L -1 Ammonium levels
  • 28. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM SEAWEED MANEGMENT PARENT STOCK
    • Separate management strategy to ponds
    • Hand removal of epiphytes
    • Shading with 20 % shade cloth
    • Fertilize once weekly
    • KELPAK ® and fresh water treatment prior to out stocking
    • Initial stocking density 1 kg.m 2 = 400 kg per pond
  • 29. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM PADDLE POND PRODUCTION FEED STOCK
    • Each pond initially stocked with epiphyte free material
    • Initial stocking density 1 kg.m 2
    • Harvest stocking density 5 – 7 kg.m 2
    • Fertilize once weekly: pulse fertilization
  • 30. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM BENEFITS
    • 1.3 tons of nutrient rich seaweed every second working day
    • Easy to harvest
    • Potential for recirculation
    • Production of controlled food source
    • Better quality diet for abalone
  • 31. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM PRODUCTION FIGURES PRODUCTION = 1.3 tons of nutrient rich seaweed every second working day from paddle ponds AT PRESENT = 12 platforms Each requiring an average of 1.8 tons of kelp per week A four week 50 % rotation diet would require 900 kg cultivated seaweed in a month per platform. Therefore total platform cultivated seaweed demand = 10.8 Tons 16 ponds are capable of producing 13.2 tons of seaweed in a month
  • 32. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM PRODUCTION FIGURES This means that we have an excess of 2.4 tons which could feed another 2 platforms. 10.8 tons of kelp costs R115 000 now Thus the ponds have a direct saving of R115 000. There is also the benefit of faster growth rates and increased production with the same running costs due to the abalone being fed a protein rich diet
  • 33. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM ECONOMICS
  • 34. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM ECONOMICS Abalone growth curves
  • 35. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM 31.2 % increase in weight using rotation diet vs. kelp only diet over 9 months Cost: $30 per kg X R 8 = R 240 10 (100g) abalone in 1 kg cost per abalone = R 24 less profit and freight = R 15 per abalone ECONOMICS
  • 36. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM Increase in SGR: Normal Growth to 100g = 5 years accelerated growth = 3.3 – 3.6 years @ R 15 per abalone New cost : R 12.40 – R 13.50 per abalone Savings: 17 – 28 % R 1.50 - R 2.60 per abalone ECONOMICS
  • 37. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM I & J farm (120 tons @ 100 g per abalone) = 1 2000 000 100g abalone X R 1.50 or R 2.60 EQUALS Savings: R 1.8 – R 3.12 million ECONOMICS
  • 38.
    • Thank you for listening
    SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM