INTEGRATED SEAWEED/ABALONE MULTITROPHICINTEGRATED SEAWEED/ABALONE MULTITROPHIC
RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE (IMTA) IN SOUTH A...
How to convince an abalone farmer to also farmHow to convince an abalone farmer to also farm
seaweedsseaweeds
Deborah V. R...
How do you tell an economist the value of
science?
How do you tell an economist the value of
science?
most scientists - seem to take it for granted that scientific
knowledge...
OverviewOverview
How does a phycologist draw up a credit
and debit account?
OverviewOverview
How does a phycologist draw up a credit
and debit account?
Ecological-economic assessment by Differential...
Differential DPSIRDifferential DPSIR
(i) Drivers - the anthropogenic activities at a given moment in time that
may have an...
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
A
ug-02
Sep-02
O
ct-02
N
ov-02
Dec-02
Jan-03
Feb-03
M
ar-03
A
pr-03
M
ay-03
Meanwetwe...
Effect of harvesting on
regrowth of obligate
epiphytes on kelp
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
Control harvest
gepiphytes/kgofkelp...
Red tide moving towards
abalone intake
Drivers
Lack of and decrease in kelp resource to feed increasing
industry.
High sea...
Commercial integrated seaweed abalone system:Commercial integrated seaweed abalone system: 50 % recirculation50 % recircul...
Feed savings – 120 tons of seaweed produced
Faster abalone growth rates – 6 months less spent on farm
Energy reduction – 3...
Cost to build to 1 pond in IMTA system
R 51 000
Total cost for 4 ponds
R 0.3 million (once off cost)
Labor for seaweed pon...
Feed savings – R 235 000 yr-1
Faster abalone growth rates – R 720 000 yr-1
Energy reduction - R 56 000 yr-1
Discharged nut...
ImpactsImpacts
ENVIRONMENTAL SAVINGS (82 % of the net profit)
The seaweeds take up 12 tons of CO2 y-1
An additional 333 to...
SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM:SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM:
Costs and savingsCosts and savings
ENVIRONMENTAL SAVINGS:
49 800 Eu...
Conclusion:Conclusion:
Nick Loubser I & J General manager
“The actual financial benefits are difficult to
determine but in...
THANK YOUTHANK YOU
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to extend special thanks to the following
organizations without whose hel...
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INTEGRATED SEAWEED/ABALONE MULTITROPHIC RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE (IMTA) IN SOUTH AFRICA: BALANCING THE BALANCE SHEETS, ENVIROMENT AND COMMERCE

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This is a presentation given at the 2009 Phycological Society of Southern Africa conference. The presentation looks at creating a debit credit account for an existing IMTA system in South Africa.

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INTEGRATED SEAWEED/ABALONE MULTITROPHIC RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE (IMTA) IN SOUTH AFRICA: BALANCING THE BALANCE SHEETS, ENVIROMENT AND COMMERCE

  1. 1. INTEGRATED SEAWEED/ABALONE MULTITROPHICINTEGRATED SEAWEED/ABALONE MULTITROPHIC RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE (IMTA) IN SOUTH AFRICA:RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE (IMTA) IN SOUTH AFRICA: BALANCING THE BALANCE SHEETS, ENVIROMENT ANDBALANCING THE BALANCE SHEETS, ENVIROMENT AND COMMERCECOMMERCE Deborah V. Robertson-Andersson1 , Ana M. Nobre2 , Amir Neori3 , Kishan Sanker6 , Gavin Maneveldt1 , Max Troell4,5 , Christina Halling5 and John J. Bolton6 1 The Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biology Department, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa. 2 IMAR, Faculty of Sciences and Technology/UNL. Caparica, Portugal. 3 Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, National Centre for Mariculture, Israel. 4 Beijer Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. 5 Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. 6 Botany Department, University of Cape Town, South Africa.
  2. 2. How to convince an abalone farmer to also farmHow to convince an abalone farmer to also farm seaweedsseaweeds Deborah V. Robertson-Andersson1 , Ana M. Nobre2 , Amir Neori3 , Kishan Sanker6 , Gavin Maneveldt1 , Max Troell4,5 , Christina Halling5 and John J. Bolton6 1 The Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biology Department, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa. 2 IMAR, Faculty of Sciences and Technology/UNL. Caparica, Portugal. 3 Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, National Centre for Mariculture, Israel. 4 Beijer Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. 5 Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. 6 Botany Department, University of Cape Town, South Africa.
  3. 3. How do you tell an economist the value of science?
  4. 4. How do you tell an economist the value of science? most scientists - seem to take it for granted that scientific knowledge is valuable for its own sake value of science must depend exclusively upon the value of its effects or consequences which somehow affect the welfare or happiness of sentient beings draw up a debit and credit account" for science Lars Bergström Notes on the Value of Science
  5. 5. OverviewOverview How does a phycologist draw up a credit and debit account?
  6. 6. OverviewOverview How does a phycologist draw up a credit and debit account? Ecological-economic assessment by Differential Drivers- Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) approach Places an economic value on IMTA by looking at the costs/benefits of implementation of the system compared to a system without IMTA The current drivers for integrated seaweed aquaculture in South Africa. Socio-economic, environmental and multiplier effects.
  7. 7. Differential DPSIRDifferential DPSIR (i) Drivers - the anthropogenic activities at a given moment in time that may have an environmental effect and is a socio- economic component of the DPSIR. (ii) Pressure - positive or negative direct effects of the Drivers (iii) State - the condition of the ecosystem at a given moment in time resulting from both anthropogenic Pressures and natural factors. (iv) Impact - the environmental effect of the Pressures, i.e. the changes on the State of the ecosystem during a given time period or between two scenarios. An environmental Impact can be either positive or negative. (v) Response - management actions and policies that change the Drivers.
  8. 8. 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 A ug-02 Sep-02 O ct-02 N ov-02 Dec-02 Jan-03 Feb-03 M ar-03 A pr-03 M ay-03 Meanwetweight(g) Mixed diet Rotation Fresh Kelp Fresh Kelp + formulated feed Formulated feed Drivers Lack of and decrease in kelp resource to feed increasing industry. High seawater temperatures cause artificial feed to ferment and bloat abalone. Mixed diets are known to give better growth rates. Potential over-harvesting and decrease in epiphyte densities on kelp after harvesting. Limited suitable coastal areas for open ocean cultivation. Recirculation – protection from ‘HAB’s’ = 33 % loss in profits for 1 year. Rational for IMTARational for IMTA Effect of diets on abalone growth rates Naidoo et al. 2006
  9. 9. Effect of harvesting on regrowth of obligate epiphytes on kelp 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Control harvest gepiphytes/kgofkelp Anderson et al. 2006 Drivers Lack of and decrease in kelp resource to feed increasing industry. High seawater temperatures cause artificial feed to ferment and bloat abalone. Mixed diets are known to give better growth rates. Potential over-harvesting and decrease in epiphyte densities on kelp after harvesting. Limited suitable coastal areas for open ocean cultivation. Recirculation – protection from ‘HAB’s’ = 33 % loss in profits for 1 year. Rational for IMTARational for IMTA
  10. 10. Red tide moving towards abalone intake Drivers Lack of and decrease in kelp resource to feed increasing industry. High seawater temperatures cause artificial feed to ferment and bloat abalone. Mixed diets are known to give better growth rates. Potential over-harvesting and decrease in epiphyte densities on kelp after harvesting. Limited suitable coastal areas for open ocean cultivation. Recirculation – protection from ‘HAB’s’ = 33 % loss in profits for 1 year. Rational for IMTARational for IMTA
  11. 11. Commercial integrated seaweed abalone system:Commercial integrated seaweed abalone system: 50 % recirculation50 % recirculation Intake Seaweed paddle ponds Sump Drum filter Abalone tanks Header tank Pump Seaweed harvest point
  12. 12. Feed savings – 120 tons of seaweed produced Faster abalone growth rates – 6 months less spent on farm Energy reduction – 350 MWh yr-1 Reduction in concentration and total mass of discharged nutrients R104 per kg N removed R48 per kg P removed Kelp beds not being harvested R146 per m3 Change in GHG emission R 200 per ton CO2 Benefits of an IMTA SYSTEM:Benefits of an IMTA SYSTEM:
  13. 13. Cost to build to 1 pond in IMTA system R 51 000 Total cost for 4 ponds R 0.3 million (once off cost) Labor for seaweed ponds R140 000.yr-1 Costs of an IMTA SYSTEM:Costs of an IMTA SYSTEM:
  14. 14. Feed savings – R 235 000 yr-1 Faster abalone growth rates – R 720 000 yr-1 Energy reduction - R 56 000 yr-1 Discharged nutrients 44 % decrease in N production 23 % decrease P production Kelp beds 2.2 ha.yr-1 not being harvested Change in GHG emission 345 tons.yr-1 ton CO2 Impacts of an IMTA SYSTEM:Impacts of an IMTA SYSTEM:
  15. 15. ImpactsImpacts ENVIRONMENTAL SAVINGS (82 % of the net profit) The seaweeds take up 12 tons of CO2 y-1 An additional 333 tons of CO2 y-1 are saved by reducing the electricity usage 92.6 % of N is removed A 3 % reduction in the harvesting of natural kelp beds 6 % decrease in green house gas emissions by the farm 17.8 % increase in P emissions NET PROFIT = R 62. 791 million.yr-1
  16. 16. SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM:SEAWEED PADDLE POND SYSTEM: Costs and savingsCosts and savings ENVIRONMENTAL SAVINGS: 49 800 Euro yr-1 of avoided costs for N removal; 1 400 Euro yr-1 estimated as the environmental costs for the increase in the P loads; 300 Euro yr-1 of avoided costs concerning kelp bed restoration; 4 500 Euro yr-1 of avoided costs of GHG emission offset. The economic value = 494 200 Euro yr-1 direct benefits to the aquaculture business (estimated as the change in the aquaculture net profit, 53 200 Euro yr-1 (ZAR 871 000 )) and indirect environmental benefits (estimated as the value of the externalities, 541 000 Euro yr-1 (ZAR 3839 000)) ZAR 9.495 = € 1* * FMI 2007 and includes purchasing power parity
  17. 17. Conclusion:Conclusion: Nick Loubser I & J General manager “The actual financial benefits are difficult to determine but in ball park terms we calculate that the seaweed contributes at least R500 000 a year to the farm in feed cost savings alone.” Our calculations show a savings of R871 000 per year. McVeigh, S. J.. 2007. First Green Filters for aqauculture. Fishing industry news. June 2007. pg 16 - 17.
  18. 18. THANK YOUTHANK YOU ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to extend special thanks to the following organizations without whose help this project would have been impossible: Swedish and South African Collaborative Program I & J Mariculture farm N R F SANCOR Prestige Student travel grant

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