HARVESTING OF SEAWEED RESOURCES IN PARTICULAR KELP FORESTS: MCM seaweed harvesting workshop 2004 D. V. Robertson-Andersson...
HARVESTING OF SEAWEED RESOURCES IN PARTICULAR KELP FORESTS:    MANAGEMENT    PROBLEMS    CONCLUSION                    ...
<ul><li>13 companies currently have seaweed  concessions </li></ul><ul><li>A  seaweed concession is a right to harvest a f...
Laminaria  predominates along the northern reaches of the West Coast.  Ecklonia beds found further south.
Harvesting  <ul><li>3 methods:  </li></ul><ul><li>Diving </li></ul><ul><li>Hand harvesting including picking </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Ecklonia  is harvested by divers who cut plants greater than 50 cm high at the holdfast/stipe junction. </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Ecklonia  is harvested from boats where either: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>just the fronds are removed 30 – 40 cm from ...
<ul><li>Ecklonia  and  Gracilaria  that has washed ashore is collected by harvesters and dried </li></ul><ul><li>For  Eckl...
<ul><li>Gelidium  is collected at low tide by mainly female harvesters and dried </li></ul><ul><li>It is then collected by...
Regulations <ul><li>For each SCA a total biomass is determined </li></ul><ul><li>8 – 15 % of which are exclusion areas (ri...
Potential Problems <ul><li>18 Abalone farms at present </li></ul><ul><li>With another 3 – 5 on the cards </li></ul><ul><li...
Potential Problems Seaweed Research Unit
Potential Problems <ul><li>Largest farm 120 T expanding to 240 T </li></ul><ul><li>Smallest farm 35 T </li></ul><ul><li>Av...
Managerial Problems <ul><li>No central data base of aerial surveys, biomass estimates or growth rates </li></ul><ul><li>Ev...
Ecological constraints SCA 6 & 7 <ul><li>High grazer densities compared to SCA 9 </li></ul><ul><li>More juvenile sporophyt...
<ul><li>To combat the problem of juvenile sporophytes being lost when the holdfasts rotted off, </li></ul><ul><li>harvest ...
P = 0.002 <ul><li>Christie et al (1987) found that epiphytes required 9 years to return to pre-harvest densities, What abo...
At what scale for management <ul><li>Essentially 3 problem areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beach cast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Bed size  +  12 km Californian kelp beds and management MBNMS, 1999
Regulations <ul><li>Kelp beds leased from Californian state government </li></ul><ul><li>Leased by individual or company w...
Managing RSA kelp beds <ul><li>There are gaps in our knowledge of the location and biomass of  Laminaria  and  Ecklonia  k...
(Rob Tarr 1993)
CONCLUSIONS Present management of harvesting strategies of all species is good  Splitting up of the seaweed resources shou...
CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Most companies have restricted access to the resource in their concession areas.  Access is restricted...
Industry Perceptions <ul><li>Little has been achieved by concessionaires towards stabilizing the kelp,  Gracilaria  and  G...
Industry Perceptions <ul><li>Seaweed harvesting for the alginate industry requires large volumes This particular market is...
Industry Expansion  Points raised by concessionaires and abalone farmers regarding ways in which the industry could be suc...
Industry Expansion  <ul><li>Managing the fresh kelp and beach cast resource separately from other seaweed resources </li><...
THE END Thank you
References  <ul><li>Abalone Farmers Association of Southern Africa. Kelp supply Review meeting. 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Chr...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

HARVESTING OF SOUTH AFRICAN SEAWEED RESOURCES IN PARTICULAR KELP FORESTS:

3,550

Published on

This was a presentation given at a seaweed harvesting workshop at Marine and Coastal Management in 2004. It looked at the harvesting of South African kelp resources and potential problems that were occuring in 2004.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,550
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
79
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

HARVESTING OF SOUTH AFRICAN SEAWEED RESOURCES IN PARTICULAR KELP FORESTS:

  1. 1. HARVESTING OF SEAWEED RESOURCES IN PARTICULAR KELP FORESTS: MCM seaweed harvesting workshop 2004 D. V. Robertson-Andersson                                         
  2. 2. HARVESTING OF SEAWEED RESOURCES IN PARTICULAR KELP FORESTS:  MANAGEMENT  PROBLEMS  CONCLUSION                                         
  3. 3. <ul><li>13 companies currently have seaweed concessions </li></ul><ul><li>A seaweed concession is a right to harvest a functional group (genus) </li></ul><ul><li>There are 23 Seaweed Concession Areas (SCA) </li></ul><ul><li>Applications for current concessions were awarded in 2002 and are valid for 4 years after which 10-year concessions will be awarded </li></ul>HARVESTING
  4. 4. Laminaria predominates along the northern reaches of the West Coast. Ecklonia beds found further south.
  5. 5. Harvesting <ul><li>3 methods: </li></ul><ul><li>Diving </li></ul><ul><li>Hand harvesting including picking </li></ul><ul><li>Beach cast </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Ecklonia is harvested by divers who cut plants greater than 50 cm high at the holdfast/stipe junction. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants then float to the surface where they are collected. </li></ul><ul><li>Holdfast rot off after 4 – 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>Done mainly at SCA 9 for Kelpak ® </li></ul>Diver Harvesting
  7. 7. <ul><li>Ecklonia is harvested from boats where either: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>just the fronds are removed 30 – 40 cm from the bladder or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the top of the bladder is cut off </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If the bladder is cut then the plant will die </li></ul>Boat Harvesting
  8. 8. <ul><li>Ecklonia and Gracilaria that has washed ashore is collected by harvesters and dried </li></ul><ul><li>For Ecklonia often fronds are removed and stipes are harvested once dried </li></ul>Beach cast Harvesting
  9. 9. <ul><li>Gelidium is collected at low tide by mainly female harvesters and dried </li></ul><ul><li>It is then collected by the concessionaire </li></ul>Picking
  10. 10. Regulations <ul><li>For each SCA a total biomass is determined </li></ul><ul><li>8 – 15 % of which are exclusion areas (rights holder can’t use) </li></ul><ul><li>10 % of what’s left can be harvested </li></ul><ul><li>If the harvest is fronds only then 5 % may be harvested </li></ul><ul><li>In SCA 6, which is a frond only harvest 10 % of frond biomass may be harvested </li></ul><ul><li>After 2004 SCA 7 maybe a frond only harvest </li></ul><ul><li>On west coast this method of harvesting wont work as granite cliffs with steep drop off </li></ul>
  11. 11. Potential Problems <ul><li>18 Abalone farms at present </li></ul><ul><li>With another 3 – 5 on the cards </li></ul><ul><li>2 Cultivate their own seaweeds in ponds (Ulva, Gracilaria) </li></ul><ul><li>5 Are experimenting with tank cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Abalone require 10 % of body weight in fronds, which are supplied to farms by seaweed concessionaires close by </li></ul><ul><li>Farms also feed their abalone kelp chips (plain kelp or kelp & Gracilaria mix) or ABFEED ® </li></ul>
  12. 12. Potential Problems Seaweed Research Unit
  13. 13. Potential Problems <ul><li>Largest farm 120 T expanding to 240 T </li></ul><ul><li>Smallest farm 35 T </li></ul><ul><li>Average 70 T </li></ul><ul><li>18 farms with 70 T of abalone </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding 10 % body mass </li></ul><ul><li>kelp demand has the potential to increase or exceed 35 280 T per year just for abalone feed </li></ul><ul><li>Farms are concentrated in certain areas </li></ul>
  14. 14. Managerial Problems <ul><li>No central data base of aerial surveys, biomass estimates or growth rates </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of kelp poaching in SCA 6 & 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate records of kelp frond harvest going to abalone farms not easily accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Long term management of SCA not possible with present permit system </li></ul><ul><li>Access for minority users not possible </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ecological constraints SCA 6 & 7 <ul><li>High grazer densities compared to SCA 9 </li></ul><ul><li>More juvenile sporophytes on holdfasts than on rocks when compa70 </li></ul><ul><li>red to Soetwater </li></ul>Levitt et al. 2000
  16. 16. <ul><li>To combat the problem of juvenile sporophytes being lost when the holdfasts rotted off, </li></ul><ul><li>harvest fronds only </li></ul><ul><li>Would obtain enough frond biomass from 40 ha by harvesting 30cm from the primary blade every 4 months instead of harvesting ⅓ of the kelp bed </li></ul>Levitt et al. 2000
  17. 17. P = 0.002 <ul><li>Christie et al (1987) found that epiphytes required 9 years to return to pre-harvest densities, What about South Africa? </li></ul>R. Anderson (pers. comm.) Ecological constraints <ul><li>Conclusion: Reserve areas essential </li></ul>
  18. 18. At what scale for management <ul><li>Essentially 3 problem areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beach cast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kelp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other seaweed resources </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Bed size + 12 km Californian kelp beds and management MBNMS, 1999
  20. 20. Regulations <ul><li>Kelp beds leased from Californian state government </li></ul><ul><li>Leased by individual or company with valid permit </li></ul><ul><li>Open beds harvested by anyone with a permit </li></ul><ul><li>Closed/reserve beds exist </li></ul><ul><li>Tenant can lease a bed on short to long term (5 – 25 years) </li></ul>Donnelllan & Foster, 1999 Edwards & Foster
  21. 21. Managing RSA kelp beds <ul><li>There are gaps in our knowledge of the location and biomass of Laminaria and Ecklonia kelp beds along the west coast of South Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>A Geographical Information System (GIS) digital archive of kelp information for sustainable management is being developed by the seaweed unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Which will provide a predictive/modeling system for biomass estimation of kelp. </li></ul>
  22. 22. (Rob Tarr 1993)
  23. 23. CONCLUSIONS Present management of harvesting strategies of all species is good Splitting up of the seaweed resources should not occur to the detriment of present harvesters. Seaweed and in particular kelp needs to be treated as a separate fisheries, which its own management structure, as at present it is considered low priority given its size in relation to fisheries. However given the secondary conversion from fodder to abalone feed and the increase in demand it has the possibility of becoming a larger fishery.
  24. 24. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Most companies have restricted access to the resource in their concession areas. Access is restricted by a number of factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privately owned land (farmland) bordering the coastline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permits for beach going vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public opposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricted access due to marine reserves and restricted access through nature reserves in many concession areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad weather creating rough seas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime </li></ul></ul>ESSSI, 2001
  25. 25. Industry Perceptions <ul><li>Little has been achieved by concessionaires towards stabilizing the kelp, Gracilaria and Gelidium industry via the development of value added end products. </li></ul><ul><li>R&D is lacking. </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa still competes as a raw material supplier with all the other main seaweed producing countries, limiting volume stability and price. </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences: Gracilaria , Gelidium and alginate markets are unstabile due to cheaper international suppliers. </li></ul>ESSSI, 2001
  26. 26. Industry Perceptions <ul><li>Seaweed harvesting for the alginate industry requires large volumes This particular market is extremely volatile. </li></ul><ul><li>Present problems with applications and access once SCA has been awarded </li></ul><ul><li>Any product arising out of new technology requires extensive research to enable product registration and sale . </li></ul><ul><li>Markets need to be developed for new products and product niching is difficult. </li></ul>ESSSI, 2001
  27. 27. Industry Expansion Points raised by concessionaires and abalone farmers regarding ways in which the industry could be successfully expanded <ul><li>Awarding long-term rights allocations with preference shown to companies that </li></ul><ul><li>Develop technologies which value add end products </li></ul><ul><li>High percentage resource allocation utilization </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable resource exploitation. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing domestic and international markets </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a central selling agent for concessionaires </li></ul>ESSSI, 2001 AFASA 2004
  28. 28. Industry Expansion <ul><li>Managing the fresh kelp and beach cast resource separately from other seaweed resources </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. 3 new categories </li></ul><ul><li>beachcast </li></ul><ul><li>intertidal </li></ul><ul><li>subtidal </li></ul><ul><li>Change the size of the SCA, which were originally chosen as the minimum size needed to make beach cast harvesting economically viable to + 1000 tones which will also allow smaller entrants into the resource </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate paper quotas </li></ul><ul><li>Involve abalone farmers in the decision making process </li></ul><ul><li>Allow open areas to promote product development and R&D </li></ul>AFASA 2004
  29. 29. THE END Thank you
  30. 30. References <ul><li>Abalone Farmers Association of Southern Africa. Kelp supply Review meeting. 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Christie, H.; Fredriksen, S.; Rinde, E. 1988. Regrowth of kelp and colonization of epiphyte and fauna community after kelp trawling at the coast of Norway. Hydrobiologia. Vol. 375/376. Pg 49 – 58. </li></ul><ul><li>Critchley, A. T. & Rotmann, K. W. G. 1992. Industrial processing of seaweeds in Africa: The South African experience. Proceedings of the first international workshop on sustainable seaweed resource development in sub-Saharan Africa, Windhoek, Namibia. K. E. Mshigeni (ed.) Pg. 85 – 95. </li></ul><ul><li>Donnellan, M. D. & Foster, M. S. 1999. The effects of small scale harvesting on the giant kelp surface canopy dynamics in the Ed Ricketts underwater park region. Final report to the MBNMS and the cities of Monterey and Pacific Grove. http://bonita.mbnms.nos.noaa.gov/research/techreports/kelp…/kelpcover.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Edwards, M.; Foster, M. Kelp forest and rocky subtidal habitats. http://bonita.mbnms.nos.noaa.gov/sitechar/kelp1.html4 . </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Sectoral Study of the Seaweed Industry, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Levitt, G. J.; Anderson, R. J.; Simons, R. H. & Jarman, N. G. 1992. Past, present and future utilization of South African Laminariales. Proceedings of the first international workshop on sustainable seaweed resource development in sub-Saharan Africa, Windhoek, Namibia. K. E. Mshigeni (ed.) Pg. 171 – 179. </li></ul><ul><li>Levitt, G. J.; Anderson, R. J.; Boothroyd, C. J. T. & Kemp, F. A. 2000. The effects of kelp harvesting on kelp regrowth and the understorey benthic community at Danger Point (Gansbaai) South Africa, and a method of harvesting kelp fronds. South African Journal of Marine Science. </li></ul><ul><li>Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Draft Kelp Management Report, Media Advisory, executive summary. http://www.mbnms.nos.noaa.gov/into/press_releases/0602kpexec.html </li></ul><ul><li>Van Wagenen, R. F. 1999. California coastal kelp resources. MBNMS. http://bonita.mbnms.nos.noaa.gov/research/techreports/cak…cakelpintro.htm </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×