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Pageant 13th Ch 33 lecture
 

Pageant 13th Ch 33 lecture

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Dr. Robbins’ Lecture PowerPoint for Ch 33 (American Pageant, 13th ed)

Dr. Robbins’ Lecture PowerPoint for Ch 33 (American Pageant, 13th ed)

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    Pageant 13th Ch 33 lecture Pageant 13th Ch 33 lecture Presentation Transcript

    • The Great Depression & the New Deal 1933-1938 Essential Questions Chapter 33 The American Pageant, 13th edition
    • Election of FDR Easily won the election over Hoover who was unfairly blamed by many for the “Hoover depression” (Anyone but Hoover!) Both parties talked of repealing Prohibition FDR promised to end national debt Upbeat, cheerful personality vs. grimfaced Hoover 5th cousin to Teddy Roosevelt African-Americans voted heavily Democrats for first time; they were among those hardest & earliest hit by Depression
    • Eleanor Roosevelt Eleanor was a distant cousin of FDR, & niece of TR Great influence on her husband towards more liberal views Also influenced the population with her speeches & newspaper column, even long after FDR’s death Later involved in establishing the United Nations
    • FDR Quotes “I pledge you, I pledge myself to a new deal for the American people.” “Let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself.”
    • First “Hundred Days” (March 9-June 16) During the first “Hundred Days”, Democrat-dominated Congress pushed thru unprecedented number of new laws to deal with emergency Some of the ideas came from earlier Progressive Movement President was given unusual powers to legislate by Congress
    • 20th Amendment Moved start of new president’s term to January 20, from March Also started new Congress on January 3rd Clarified presidential and vice-presidential succession
    • Key principles Unemployment insurance Old-age insurance (Social Security) Minimum-wage regulations Conservation & development of natural resources Restrictions on child labor RELIEF, RECOVERY, REFORM
    • Banking Reforms Emergency Banking Relief Act  gave president power to regulate banking transactions & foreign exchange; also to reopen solvent banks  “fireside chats” reassured Americans that banks were safe again Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act  created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to insure deposits (starting with $5000 and later increased)  Separated commercial and investment bank functions  ended widespread bank failures that had occurred ever since Andrew Jackson’s days
    •  Gold standard  to stop hoarding of gold, FDR ordered that all private gold holdings be turned into the govt in exchange for paper currency  then took the country off the gold standard
    •  Managed currency  FDR believed that buying up the gold would increase inflation which would reduce private debt & stimulate new production  Treasury bought up gold at increasing prices (from $21 to $35 an ounce)—did increase the dollars in circulation  ended the gold buying scheme in Feb. 1934  FDR then brought back the gold standard but for intl trade only  criticized by “sound money” critics
    • Making Jobs, Providing Relief Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)  for conservation and development of natural resources  put 3 million young men to work (had to send most of pay home to their parents) Federal Emergency Relief Act created the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)  ultimately gave out $3 billion to states for direct dole or—even better—wages on work projects
    •  Agricultural Assessment Act (AAA)  gave millions for farmers’ mortgages Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC)  to help refinance nonfarm homes  helped about a million families & strengthened middle class loyalty to Democrats
    •  Civil Works Administration (CWA)  under the FERA, provided temporary, emergency “make-work” jobs such as leaf- raking!  especially helpful to desperate Americans during the winter of 1933-34
    •  Works Progress Administration (WPA)  spent $11 billion & employed nearly 9 million people  from public buildings, bridges & roads, to monkey cages & tap dancing; also art murals on post office walls  white collar workers and artists like John Steinbeck were given work to do & money to earn
    • In the State Museum ofPennsylvania, in Harrisburg
    • The Daily Mail, 1937, by Olive Nuhfer Post Office in Westerville, Ohio
    • Scenes from History of San Francisco,mural series by Anton Refregier, 1943, at the Rincon Annex Post Office
    • Reactions Early acts heartened Americans, did not fundamentally improve economy Critics included  Father Charles Coughlin (“Social Justice”)  Louisiana Sen. Huey Long (“Share Our Wealth”)  Dr. Francis E. Townsend (help the aged)
    • National Industrial Recovery Act(NIRA) Established National Recovery Administration (NRA) Short-lived, very complicated attempt to help industry, labor, unemployed thru relief and long term recovery 200 industries would be held to codes of “fair competition” to reduce hours & provide employment to more people; set a maximum number of hours and a minimum wage Labor got right to organize & bargain collectively with representatives of their own choosing Anti-union contracts were forbidden & child labor was restricted
    • More NIRA NIRA ultimately failed  too much self-sacrifice expected of labor & industry  dishonest “chiselers” took advantage Schechter decision (1935) ended NRA  Court case of local chicken business in NY  Supreme Court ended NRA for 2 reasons  federal govt could not control local businesses thru interstate commerce controls  denied Congress’ right to give legislative powers to president
    • Public Works Administration (PWA) For industrial recovery and employment $4 billion spent on 34,000 projects, including public buildings, highways, parkways  Grand Coulee Dam on Columbia River produced electrical power and irrigation Did not reach full potential of job making out of fear of waste
    • Grand Coulee Dam, Columbia River, Washington State (photo from Library of Congress)
    • End of Prohibition Begins with early Congressional approval of FDR’s suggested 3.2% alcohol allowance (light wine and beer) Completely ended with 21st Amendment in 1933
    • Agricultural AdjustmentAdministration (AAA) First AAA declared unconstitutional  set “parity prices” (based on 1909-1914 value)  price-depressing surpluses to be stopped by reducing crop acreage  started off badly by destroying crops and livestock when too many people were hungry  Supreme Court killed it in 1936: regulatory taxations were unconstitutional
    •  2nd AAA more successful  emphasized more conservationist methods of limiting production, thus gaining Court approval  if farmers followed restrictions for specific crops they would be compensated with parity payments  insured farmers of fairer prices & share of national income.
    • Dust Bowl Tragically worsened impact of Great Depression on midwestern farmers Dry-farming techniques & drought caused immense dust storms & destruction of 1000s of farms 350,000 from Arkansas and Oklahoma moved to California (Grapes of Wrath) Frazer-Lemke Act (1934) suspended foreclosures 1935 Resettlement Administration set up to help CCC planted windbreaks
    • Indian Reorganization Act (1934) Attempt to reverse Dawes Severalty Act Helped tribes to establish local self- government & preserve native culture Intended to stop loss of Indian lands Not all tribes accepted it (“back to the blanket”)
    • Federal Securities Act Required banks & businesses to provide accurate info to investors Led to creation watchdog committee: SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission)
    • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Series of dams built on Tennessee River Provided jobs & electricity to one of poorest regions of country (Appalachia) Used to determine real costs of producing energy & thus to check fairness of utility rates Critics questioned government’s conclusions or feared socialism More results: low-cost housing, restored eroded lands, nitrates for fertilizers, reforestation, flood control, irrigation
    • Federal Housing Authority (FHA) Established in 1934 to provide small loans for building & improving housing  To stimulate building industry  Very popular (cont. after New Deal) Congress expanded FHA with USHA  U.S. Housing Authority  To lend money to states for low-cost construction  Reduced slums  Resisted by real estate promoters, builders, landlords
    • Social Security Act, 1935 Created federal-state unemployment insurance Created Social Security payments  Regular payments to aged, handicapped, etc.  Started at $10-$85 per month  Paid for with payroll tax on employers & employees  Inspired by similar programs in Europe  To compensate for social changes from urbanization (fewer family safety nets)
    • Labor Issues Wagner Act aka National Labor Relations Act, 1935  Created National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)  Replaced function of NRA  Affirmed labor’s right to organize & bargain collectively with own representatives Committee for Industrial Organization  Created for unskilled workers; started w/in AF of L  Founded by John Lewis & supported by NLRB  Successfully used sit-down strike at GM  Later renamed Congress of Industrial Organizations
    • More Labor More support from Congress with Fair Labor Standards Act, 1938  Minimum wages & maximum hours were to be set by industries involved in interstate commerce  Goal was 40 cents/hour & 40 hours/week (!)  Only applied to industrial workers  farm & domestic workers excluded, mostly women & minorities Ongoing conflicts with AF of L Overall, tremendous expansion of labor movement, & greater public & govt. support
    • The Supreme Court FDR’s frustration with a conservative Supreme Court’s decisions against his programs led to his “Court-packing” scheme  Proposed that for every judge over 70, an additional judge could be added up to total of 15  Claimed judges behind on cases—backfired ‘cause not true  FDR’s proposal soundly rejected Results  Existing Court actually became less conservative  With judges’ retirements over time FDR appointed 9 judges  FDR got less support from Congress after furor over scheme
    • Roosevelt Recession, 1937 Unemployment improved but still at 15% in 1936 Sharp economic decline in 1937 caused by  Impact of Social Security taxes  Reduced govt spending to limit deficit FDR’s reaction was to embrace Keynesian economics of “planned deficit spending” to stimulate economy  John Maynard Keynes, British economist  Up till now deficits had been small
    • Did It Work? Much disagreement… Did not end Depression, though economy did improve despite 1937 dip Dramatically increased power & scope of federal govt, while reducing relative influence of states Conservatives saw New Deal as socialism, but socialists thought it too conservative!
    • Did it work… Perhaps saved American people from complete destitution & widespread starvation Perhaps kept US democracy & free enterprise alive while other countries were falling to fascism & communism Economy finally recovered with massive deficit spending during WW2 (from $40 billion in 1939 to $258 billion in 1945)