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Dr. Robbins’ Lecture PowerPoint for Ch 26 (American Pageant, 13th ed)

Dr. Robbins’ Lecture PowerPoint for Ch 26 (American Pageant, 13th ed)

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Pageant 13th Ch 26 lecture text only Pageant 13th Ch 26 lecture text only Presentation Transcript

  • The Great West & the Agricultural Revolution 1865-1890 Lecture Chapter 26 The American Pageant, 13 th edition
  • Quickwrite
    • How did Whites gradually undermine Indians in the Great West?
    • or
    • What were some of the factors that led to financial trouble for farmers?
  • Indians Lose the West
    • 1. How did Whites gradually undermine Indians in the Great West?
    • 2. What convinced Indians to settle on federally assigned reservations?
    • Whites began arriving before Civil War
      • brought smallpox, cholera, etc.
      • shrank bison pop by grazing their own livestock on prairie
      • dwindling bison led to greater conflict between tribes
    • Treaties designed to pacify Indians, led to reservation system
    • By 1860, two main reservations:
      • “ Great Sioux reservation” in Dakota Terr.
      • Indian Territory of OK
    • Indians agreed to reservations if left alone and provided with food, clothing and supplies
    • Whites went against promises in innumerable ways
    • Constant battles between whites and Indians
    • Nez Perce lost 90% of their reservation land when gold was discovered there; tried to join Sitting Bull, but sent to Kansas where 40% died
    • Apache fought hard under Geronimo in New Mex and Arizona, but they finally gave up after their women shipped off to Florida
    • Major factors in Indian “extinction”:
      • railroad (and subsequent settlers, soldiers, etc.)
      • disease and alcohol
      • near extermination of buffalo (Plains Indians)
  • 3. Which two massacres showed the most vicious tactics of both sides, and what was the larger result of each?
    • Sand Creek (CO) massacre, 1864
      • Col Chivington’s militia cruelly massacre about 400 Indians, including women and children, who believed they had been promised immunity
      • Led to attack on Fetterman
    • Fetterman Massacre, 1866
      • Sioux trying to block Bozeman trail massacred Fetterman and his 81 soldiers and civilians
      • Led to govt granting Indians the huge “Great Sioux reservation”
  • 4. How did Helen Hunt Jackson influence American thinking about Indians?
    • During the 1880’s some begin to question treatment of Indians
    • Helen Hunt Jackson wrote two influential books
      • A Century of Dishonor about govt cruelty and dishonesty with Indians
      • Ramona, novel with an inter-racial romance
  • 5. What long term federal Indian policy was established by the Dawes Severalty Act?
    • Forced-assimilation doctrine
    • Dissolved many tribes as legal entities, got rid of tribal ownership of land; gave Indian family heads 160 free acres, and promised them citizenship if they behaved well for 25 yrs
    • Ignored tribal basis of most Indians
    • Forced Indian children into “civilizing” schools separate from their tribes
    • Reservation land not given to Indians went to RRs & settlers
    • Indian population did begin to increase (from 243,000 in 1887 to 1.5 million in 1990)
    • Became basis of federal policy till New Deal, 50 years later
  • What was the Ghost Dance?
    • “ Ghost Dance” cult began with Paiute tribe, then spread to Dakota Sioux
    • Represented belief that the Indians’ god would destroy the White Man, and restore land to Indians
    • Wild dancing frightened white settlers
    • Wiped out in Battle of Wounded Knee (150-200 Indian men, women & children killed)
  • 6. What was the importance of the Mining Frontier to late 19 th century America?
    • 1858: gold in Colorado led to “Pike’s peak or Bust”
      • Many stayed to mine silver or grow grain
    • 1859: “Fifty-niners” in Nevada after discovery of Comstock Lode ($340 million)
      • After surface gold was picked up by miners, wealthier corporations came in with expensive machinery to scrape out more gold
    • Though short-lived, the “gold rushes” of the west sped up western migration
  • More Mining Frontier
    • Women had many opportunities in West
      • not all opportunities were “legal”!
      • got vote earliest in western states
    • Settling the mining frontier brought
      • Financing for Civil War
      • Building of railroads
      • New sources of silver & gold: helped Treasury resume specie (coin) payments in 1879
      • “ Silver senators”
      • American folklore (Mark Twain, Bret Harte)
  • 7. What was the reality behind the cowboy myth?
    • Early Texas longhorns raised for hides not meat
    • Tech. improvements created new meat industry
      • Railroad, industrialized meatpacking, refrigerator cars
    • Long cattle drives to railroad terminus points (cow towns) began to disappear
      • Replaced by settlers who put up barbed wire fences
      • Overgrazing & harsh winters also hurt cattle industry
    • Cattlemen adapted by focusing on enclosed ranches and fewer, meatier cattle
  • 8. How did the Homestead Act differ from previous federal land policy?
    • Homestead Act of 1862
      • Settlers could acquire up to 160 acres of land by living on it for 5 years, improving it, and paying a small fee, $30
      • OR they could buy the land for only $1.25 an acre after only 6 months’ residence
    • Previously, public land was sold for revenue, now it was being sold to fill up the empty plains and encourage the family farm
    • “ The backbone of democracy”--very Jeffersonian
  • 9. Why did many settlers fail with their homesteads?
    • Failure: 160 acres not enough in barren western lands
      • often forced out by drought
  • 9. cont: How was the Homestead Act abused?
    • Fraud: promoters got 10 times more land than true homesteaders by setting up “dummy” homesteaders
      • Five times as many settlers bought land from railroads, land companies or states than from federal govt.
    • It took years to undo abuses
  • 10. What solutions finally provided some success for farmers in dry western lands?
    • Central plains looked barren, but the sod was fertile
    • West of 100th meridian rainfall dropped dramatically
    • ” Dry farming” technique developed—frequent, shallow cultivation that created a pulverized (powder-like) surface soil
      • Long-term disaster: helped create the Dust Bowl of the 30s
    • More drought resistant grains were more successful
      • wheat from Russia, sorghum instead of corn
  • 11. Why did barbed wire become important in the West?
    • Barbed wire replaced wooden fences on prairies where wood was scarce
    • But it was the dams of the 20th century that truly transformed the arid desert lands thanks to hydraulic engineers
  • 12. Why did Congress usher in a slew of new states in 1889-1890?
    • New states formed to increase Republican votes:
      • 1876: Colorado
      • 1889-1890: N. Dakota, S. Dakota, Montana, Washington, Idaho, Wyoming
    • Former Indian land made available in OK for land rush (“sooner state”)
  • 13. Who was Frederick Turner Jackson?
    • Frontier line no longer existed as of 1890
    • Closing of frontier inspired Frederick Turner Jackson’s essay, “The Significance of the Frontier”
      • helped to immortalize and mythologize the frontier
    • Realization of disappearing frontier led to first national parks: Yellowstone (1872), and Yosemite & Sequoia (both in 1890)
  • 14. What was the true “safety valve”?
    • Few city-dwellers moved to western frontier, more often it was those from the older frontier
      • closer and more prepared for frontier life
    • Though all that open land did create a psychological safety valve for the nation…
    • the true safety valve was cities like Chicago and SF where failed farmers and miners could make a go of it
  • 15. How did farming begin to change after the Civil War, especially in newly settled lands?
    • High food prices led farmers to focus on single cash crops
      • no longer grew their own food or made their own products
    • Mechanization of agriculture required expensive equipment & good business skills, which farmers didn’t always have
      • tended to blame their problems on others (banks, RRs)
    • Larger, successful farms remained, becoming “factories” of immense food production (some 15,000+ acres)
  • 16. How were California farms unique?
    • On average early Calif farms were 3 times larger than most US farms
      • Central Valley, from Spanish-Mexican land grants & railroad holdings
    • Refrigerator cars arrive in 1880s to take Calif fruits and vegies to East Coast.
      • Already using underpaid Mexican & Chinese farm workers
  • 17. What were some of the factors that led to financial trouble for farmers?
    • Cash crop farmers vulnerable to changes in world food prices (like South)
    • Main concerns of farmers: low prices and a deflated currency
    • Not enough dollars in circulation brought prices down (deflation)
  • 18. Who did farmers blame for their problems?
    • Blamed increasing debt on banks
      • really a condition brought on by the world grain market
    • Deflation led to unending cycle of hard work and more debt for farmers
      • worst in 1880s & 1890s
    • Some eastern loan companies did charge outrageous rates, from 8-40%!
    • Tenant farming also was spreading rapidly
      • by 1880, 25% of US farms were tenant farmed
  • 19. How did government hurt farmers in this era?
    • Natural droughts ruined many, BUT…
    • Federal, state and local govts often took advantage of farmers
      • overassessment of land led to high taxes (no way to hide their holdings)
    • Protective tariffs protected manufacturers while farmers suffered in the world markets
  • 20. What businesses took advantage of farmers’ needs to gouge them?
    • Farmers were vulnerable to those who manufactured and sold harvesters, fertilizers, barbed wire, etc.
    • Railroad rates were often high but farmers were dependent on them
  • 21. How did farmers attempt to protect themselves, and how successful were they?
    • The National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry
      • aka “The Grange”, organized in 1867
      • Started by providing social & educational activities for lonely, isolated farming families
        • picnics, lectures, concerts, etc—became hugely popular
      • Turned to collective efforts to protect themselves
        • Collective stores, grain elevators, warehouses
  • More on the Grange
    • Became more political
      • influenced state legislation to regulate railroad freight and storage rates, as well as warehouse and elevator operators
    • Protecting the public interest by controlling private business was a key political goal
      • Not all their legislation efforts were effective
  • Farmers’ Alliance
    • Goals of Farmers’ Alliance, founded in Texas, 1870s
      • Nationalize railroads
      • Abolish national banks
      • Institute a graduated income tax
      • Create a new federal subtreasury
      • Farmers could take out govt loans against stored crops
    • Some success, but lots of internal divisions
      • Excluded blacks and ignored tenant farmers’ needs
      • Colored Farmers’ Natl Alliance formed
    • Leaders: Ignatius Donnelly, Mary Elizabeth Lease
    • Success led to 4 governors, 40 Congressman plus legislators in 4 states…precursor to Populist Party, people’s party to attack the northeastern establishment
  • 22. What did “Coxey’s Army” want to achieve?
    • Gold reserve sank to $41 million & Cleveland gets JP Morgan’s help & Depression conditions worsened
    • “ General” Coxey organized and led a small group of unemployed to Washington DC
      • Demanding government help including a public works program (would provide employment and increase inflation)
      • arrested for walking on grass; other protesting groups caused real damage
  • 23. What caused the Pullman Strike, & how did the govt react?
    • Pullman Palace Car Co. reduced wages by 1/3 but kept rents up on company housing
      • Under leader Eugene V. Debs, the American Railway Union went on strike, paralyzing railways from Chicago to Pacific coast
      • Pres. Cleveland sent military in to stop strike
      • Debs and others jailed for 6 mos for defying a federal injunction against striking
      • Debs’ reading in jail led him to become a leading leader of socialist movement
    • Federal actions led to more outrage among workers and others, such as Populists, who saw “unholy alliance” between business and govt
  • 25. How did William Jennings Bryan win the Democratic nomination in 1896?
    • Populists & others saw silver as a cure-all, feared an anti-silver conspiracy
    • Powerful, anti-gold speaker William Jennings Bryan gave inspiring “Cross of Gold” speech and won nomination for Democrats
      • Platform: unlimited coinage of silver at 16:1 ratio (silver:gold)—market ratio was 32:1
      • This would mean silver in dollar would be worth 50 cents
      • Most Populists joined with Democrats
    • BUT…Hanna and eastern conservatives (“gold bugs”) “bought” the election for Republican McKinley through vast education/propaganda campaign
  • 27/28. How did McKinley win the election, and what precedent was set?
    • Thanks to fears of Bryan’s inflationary silver policies eastern laborers joined unmortgaged farmers and eastern business to give Republican McKinley the White House
      • unusually large election turn-out
      • South & underpopulated West went to Bryan
      • but East and northern Mississippi river valley (plus Calif and Oregon) went to McKinley
    • Election proved power of urban over agrarian voters
    • Beginning of long Republican control of White House (16 years; then 28 of next 38)
    • Followed by decline in voting, weak parties, etc.
  • 29. How did the Depression end?
    • McKinley was a much better politician than Cleveland had been
      • worked well with Congress
      • was cautious & conservative
    • Dingley Tariff Bill, 1897
      • Raised tariff again to average 46.5%
      • Lots of influence from lobbyists
    • Depression ended coincidentally beginning in 1897 and Republicans took full credit
  • 30. What finally led to inflation and an increase in the US money supply?
    • Gold Standard Act was passed in 1900
      • most pro-silver Congressmen gone
    • Expansion of US currency was an appropriate goal
      • to encourage business and help farmers
      • but the silver proposal created too much fear of instability
    • Inflation and increased money supply finally came with…
      • discovery of vast new gold deposits (Alaska, Canada, South Africa and Australia)
      • and new, cheap process for extracting gold from low-grade ore