Pageant 13th Ch 22 lecture


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Dr. Robbins’ Lecture PowerPoint for Ch 22 (American Pageant, 13th ed)

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Pageant 13th Ch 22 lecture

  1. 1. The Ordeal of Reconstruction 1865-1877 Lecture Notes Chapter 22 The American Pageant, 13th edition
  2. 2. Quickwrite <ul><li>What factors limited the success of Reconstruction efforts in the South? How could Reconstruction have been more effective? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Key Topics <ul><li>Impact of the war on North & South </li></ul><ul><li>Emancipated slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Freedmen’s Bureau </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts over Reconstruction policies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln’s “10 percent” Reconstruction plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wade-Davis Bill </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Black Codes </li></ul>
  4. 4. More Key Topics <ul><li>Reconstruction Act: 5 military districts </li></ul><ul><li>Amendments: 13 th , 14 th & 15 th </li></ul><ul><li>Ku Klux Klan </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson’s Impeachment </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase of Alaska (Seward’s Folly) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Key People <ul><li>President Andrew Jackson </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Sumner </li></ul><ul><li>Thaddeus Stevens </li></ul><ul><li>Hiram Revels </li></ul>
  6. 6. Fate of the South <ul><li>Fate of Rebel Leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jefferson Davis imprisoned for 2 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“conspirators” later released; pardoned in 1868 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil disabilities remained for 30 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economy virtually destroyed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Banks, factories, transportation system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural base: labor system gone, seed scarce, livestock stolen (10 years to revive) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Freedom? <ul><li>Emancipation was slow and uneven </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many owners refused, even killing escapees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adjustment to freedom varied </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some ex-slaves remained loyal to masters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others sought revenge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took new names; used Mr. and Mrs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sought their families; formalized marriages </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Migrations <ul><li>Many ex-slaves moved to cities, some tried moving west </li></ul><ul><li>Church became major focus of black communities, basis for mutual aid </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forbidden under slavery, education became symbolic of independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern white women moved south to help </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Freedmen’s Bureau <ul><li>Created to help the freed slave to emancipation (March, 1865) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Headed by Union General Oliver Howard (later founder of Howard University) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To help freed blacks and white refugees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex-slaves generally unskilled, illiterate, without property or money, no knowledge of life beyond the plantation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200,000 blacks learned to read (for equal opportunity and to read the Bible) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Bureau Undermined <ul><li>Plan to provide each ex-slave with 40 acres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land parcels confiscated from the Confederates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local white administrators manipulated system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>worked with local planters to expel blacks or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fooled them into signing labor contracts with their former masters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Southerners resented govt interference </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson did not support it; expires in 1872 </li></ul>
  11. 11. President Andrew Johnson <ul><li>Very poor background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apprenticed as tailor when young </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked up to congressman from Tennessee, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked for poor whites; owned some slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nominated VP as southern War Democrat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to help win the vote for Lincoln </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent and able, but hot-headed and stubborn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrong place, wrong time </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Reconstruction Plans <ul><li>Lincoln’s 10% reconstruction plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A southern state could be reintegrated into the Union once 10% of the voters in 1860 election pledged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allegiance to US </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To abide by emancipation proclamation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State govt would then be restored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress thought it too generous to the South </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Wade-Davis Bill <ul><li>Proposed in opposition to Lincoln’s plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of states’ voters must take oath of allegiance to US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stricter requirements to ensure emancipation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republicans feared return of planter aristocracy; wanted to punish South </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln successfully vetoed bill </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans refused to seat new delegates </li></ul>
  14. 14. Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan <ul><li>Revised Lincoln’s 10% Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Called for state conventions to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeal secession ordinances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repudiate all confederate debts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratify 13 th amendment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Johnson disenfranchised wealthy planters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But his pardons put them back into power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undermined Republicans in Congress </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Black Codes <ul><li>Revived southern state governments enacted codes to re-establish labor force </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To regulate affairs of freed blacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harsh penalties for blacks who “jumped” labor contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One-year commitments with low wages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Captured escapees had to work to pay off fines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not much different from slavery </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. More Black Codes <ul><li>Emancipation and marriage recognized </li></ul><ul><li>But blacks effectively could not </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vote or serve on jury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rent or lease land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Idleness” punished by work on chain gang </li></ul><ul><li>Even after repeal of codes, most ended up as poor sharecroppers, in virtual slavery </li></ul>
  17. 17. Post-War Congress <ul><li>Pardoned and elected, many Confederate leaders returned to Congress in Dec 1865 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locked out by Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legislation passed under Republican-dominated Congress had included </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morrill Tariff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pacific Railroad Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homestead Act </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Who had won? <ul><li>Republicans feared </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased power of Democrats—now had more representatives with blacks fully counted in population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible undermining of Republican legislation and extension of Black Codes if northern and southern Democrats united </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Johnson announced that the rebel states had rejoined the Union—who had won? </li></ul>
  19. 19. 14th Amendment <ul><li>Congress undermined Johnson by passing the Civil Rights Bill over his veto </li></ul><ul><li>Turned Bill into possible 14 th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had to be ratified by the states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Johnson advised South to reject (all but Tenn. did) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Johnson’s “swing ‘round the circle” backfired for 1866 Congressional elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republican-dominated Congress outvotes veto </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Provisions of the 14 th Amendment <ul><li>Conferred civil rights and citizenship on freedmen, but not right to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced proportion of representation in Congress and Electoral College if blacks not allowed to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Disqualified former Confederates who had once sworn allegiance to Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Guaranteed federal debt, while repudiating Confederate debts </li></ul>
  21. 21. Moderates vs. Radicals <ul><li>Republican radicals wanted to keep south out of govt as long as possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led by Charles Sumner (Senate) and Thaddeus Stevens (House) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republican moderates wanted more rapid assimilation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To allow some states’ rights and less federal involvement in peoples’ lives </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Another Compromise <ul><li>Reconstruction Act, March 2, 1867 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South divided into 5 military districts commanded by Union generals (with 20,000 soldiers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10,000s of Confederates temporarily lost right to vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be readmitted southern states had to ratify 14 th Amendment, including the black male vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No federal money promised to freedmen, wanted to remove federal govt from that responsibility </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. 15 th Amendment <ul><li>Specifically calls for enfranchisement of all black men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radical Republicans afraid it would not be achieved with 14 th Amendment alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratified in 1870 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern black men also finally received the right to vote (had been like white women, citizens without voting rights). </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Military Reconstruction <ul><li>Congress took over some functions of executive office with military regime in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court did not question Congressional actions, despite military tribunals of civilians, military rule during peacetime, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>As constitutionally questionable as many of Lincoln’s actions during the Civil War </li></ul>
  25. 25. Unchanged in the End <ul><li>After all federal troops were removed in 1877, southern states quickly returned to Democratic status quo </li></ul><ul><li>Women did not receive full rights of citizenship or the vote under either the 14 th or 15 th Amendments </li></ul>
  26. 26. After Reconstruction <ul><li>African-Americans now organized politically for the first time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Union League, network of political clubs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black men at state constitutional conventions, in state govt, and in US Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hiram Revels, Blanche Bruce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>New legislation: public schools, tax systems improved, public works, etc. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>“Carpetbaggers” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northerners thought to be taking advantage of Southern vulnerability for quick profit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many came down to help in modernizing South </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Much real corruption in both North & South </li></ul><ul><li>Ku Klux Klan (founded in 1866) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To intimidate blacks and carpetbaggers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Force Acts of 1870 & 1871 to counteract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14 th & 15 th Amendments effectively ignored </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Johnson’s Impeachment <ul><li>Radicals determined to get rid of obstructionist Johnson </li></ul><ul><li>Passed Tenure of Office Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required president to get Senate’s consent to remove an office-holder once the Senate had approved him (“spy” in Cabinet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Johnson dismissed “spy” Stanton anyway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>House then charged Johnson with high crimes… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Senate barely rejected Johnson’s removal </li></ul>
  29. 29. “Seward’s Folly” <ul><li>Alaska no longer of economic benefit to Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to sell to US, not their enemy Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of State Seward purchased Alaska in a treaty for $7.2 million </li></ul><ul><li>Why did we buy it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia friendly to north during Civil War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>possibilities of fur and gold (later, yes!) </li></ul></ul>