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Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
Pageant 13th  Ch 22 lecture
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Pageant 13th Ch 22 lecture


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Dr. Robbins’ Lecture PowerPoint for Ch 22 (American Pageant, 13th ed)

Dr. Robbins’ Lecture PowerPoint for Ch 22 (American Pageant, 13th ed)

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  • 1. The Ordeal of Reconstruction 1865-1877 Lecture Notes Chapter 22 The American Pageant, 13th edition
  • 2. Quickwrite
    • What factors limited the success of Reconstruction efforts in the South? How could Reconstruction have been more effective?
  • 3. Key Topics
    • Impact of the war on North & South
    • Emancipated slaves
    • Freedmen’s Bureau
    • Conflicts over Reconstruction policies:
      • Lincoln’s “10 percent” Reconstruction plan
      • Wade-Davis Bill
    • Black Codes
  • 4. More Key Topics
    • Reconstruction Act: 5 military districts
    • Amendments: 13 th , 14 th & 15 th
    • Ku Klux Klan
    • Johnson’s Impeachment
    • Purchase of Alaska (Seward’s Folly)
  • 5. Key People
    • President Andrew Jackson
    • Charles Sumner
    • Thaddeus Stevens
    • Hiram Revels
  • 6. Fate of the South
    • Fate of Rebel Leaders
      • Jefferson Davis imprisoned for 2 years
      • “conspirators” later released; pardoned in 1868
      • Civil disabilities remained for 30 years
    • Economy virtually destroyed
      • Banks, factories, transportation system
      • Agricultural base: labor system gone, seed scarce, livestock stolen (10 years to revive)
  • 7. Freedom?
    • Emancipation was slow and uneven
      • Many owners refused, even killing escapees
    • Adjustment to freedom varied
      • Some ex-slaves remained loyal to masters
      • Others sought revenge
      • Took new names; used Mr. and Mrs.
      • Sought their families; formalized marriages
  • 8. Migrations
    • Many ex-slaves moved to cities, some tried moving west
    • Church became major focus of black communities, basis for mutual aid
    • Education
      • Forbidden under slavery, education became symbolic of independence
      • Northern white women moved south to help
  • 9. The Freedmen’s Bureau
    • Created to help the freed slave to emancipation (March, 1865)
      • Headed by Union General Oliver Howard (later founder of Howard University)
      • To help freed blacks and white refugees
      • Ex-slaves generally unskilled, illiterate, without property or money, no knowledge of life beyond the plantation
      • 200,000 blacks learned to read (for equal opportunity and to read the Bible)
  • 10. The Bureau Undermined
    • Plan to provide each ex-slave with 40 acres
      • Land parcels confiscated from the Confederates
      • Local white administrators manipulated system
        • worked with local planters to expel blacks or
        • fooled them into signing labor contracts with their former masters
    • Southerners resented govt interference
    • Johnson did not support it; expires in 1872
  • 11. President Andrew Johnson
    • Very poor background
      • Apprenticed as tailor when young
      • Worked up to congressman from Tennessee, etc
      • Worked for poor whites; owned some slaves
    • Nominated VP as southern War Democrat
      • to help win the vote for Lincoln
      • Intelligent and able, but hot-headed and stubborn
      • Wrong place, wrong time
  • 12. Reconstruction Plans
    • Lincoln’s 10% reconstruction plan
      • A southern state could be reintegrated into the Union once 10% of the voters in 1860 election pledged
        • Allegiance to US
        • To abide by emancipation proclamation
      • State govt would then be restored
      • Congress thought it too generous to the South
  • 13. Wade-Davis Bill
    • Proposed in opposition to Lincoln’s plan
      • 50% of states’ voters must take oath of allegiance to US
      • Stricter requirements to ensure emancipation
    • Republicans feared return of planter aristocracy; wanted to punish South
    • Lincoln successfully vetoed bill
    • Republicans refused to seat new delegates
  • 14. Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan
    • Revised Lincoln’s 10% Plan
    • Called for state conventions to
      • Repeal secession ordinances
      • Repudiate all confederate debts
      • Ratify 13 th amendment
    • Johnson disenfranchised wealthy planters
      • But his pardons put them back into power
      • Undermined Republicans in Congress
  • 15. Black Codes
    • Revived southern state governments enacted codes to re-establish labor force
      • To regulate affairs of freed blacks
      • Harsh penalties for blacks who “jumped” labor contracts
        • One-year commitments with low wages
        • Captured escapees had to work to pay off fines
        • Not much different from slavery
  • 16. More Black Codes
    • Emancipation and marriage recognized
    • But blacks effectively could not
      • Vote or serve on jury
      • Rent or lease land
    • Idleness” punished by work on chain gang
    • Even after repeal of codes, most ended up as poor sharecroppers, in virtual slavery
  • 17. Post-War Congress
    • Pardoned and elected, many Confederate leaders returned to Congress in Dec 1865
      • Locked out by Republicans
    • Legislation passed under Republican-dominated Congress had included
      • Morrill Tariff
      • Pacific Railroad Act
      • Homestead Act
  • 18. Who had won?
    • Republicans feared
      • Increased power of Democrats—now had more representatives with blacks fully counted in population
      • Possible undermining of Republican legislation and extension of Black Codes if northern and southern Democrats united
    • Johnson announced that the rebel states had rejoined the Union—who had won?
  • 19. 14th Amendment
    • Congress undermined Johnson by passing the Civil Rights Bill over his veto
    • Turned Bill into possible 14 th Amendment
      • Had to be ratified by the states
      • Johnson advised South to reject (all but Tenn. did)
      • Johnson’s “swing ‘round the circle” backfired for 1866 Congressional elections
      • Republican-dominated Congress outvotes veto
  • 20. Provisions of the 14 th Amendment
    • Conferred civil rights and citizenship on freedmen, but not right to vote
    • Reduced proportion of representation in Congress and Electoral College if blacks not allowed to vote
    • Disqualified former Confederates who had once sworn allegiance to Constitution
    • Guaranteed federal debt, while repudiating Confederate debts
  • 21. Moderates vs. Radicals
    • Republican radicals wanted to keep south out of govt as long as possible
      • Led by Charles Sumner (Senate) and Thaddeus Stevens (House)
    • Republican moderates wanted more rapid assimilation
      • To allow some states’ rights and less federal involvement in peoples’ lives
  • 22. Another Compromise
    • Reconstruction Act, March 2, 1867
      • South divided into 5 military districts commanded by Union generals (with 20,000 soldiers)
      • 10,000s of Confederates temporarily lost right to vote
      • To be readmitted southern states had to ratify 14 th Amendment, including the black male vote
      • No federal money promised to freedmen, wanted to remove federal govt from that responsibility
  • 23. 15 th Amendment
    • Specifically calls for enfranchisement of all black men
      • Radical Republicans afraid it would not be achieved with 14 th Amendment alone
      • Ratified in 1870
      • Northern black men also finally received the right to vote (had been like white women, citizens without voting rights).
  • 24. Military Reconstruction
    • Congress took over some functions of executive office with military regime in the South
    • Supreme Court did not question Congressional actions, despite military tribunals of civilians, military rule during peacetime, etc.
    • As constitutionally questionable as many of Lincoln’s actions during the Civil War
  • 25. Unchanged in the End
    • After all federal troops were removed in 1877, southern states quickly returned to Democratic status quo
    • Women did not receive full rights of citizenship or the vote under either the 14 th or 15 th Amendments
  • 26. After Reconstruction
    • African-Americans now organized politically for the first time
      • Union League, network of political clubs
      • Black men at state constitutional conventions, in state govt, and in US Congress
        • Hiram Revels, Blanche Bruce
    • New legislation: public schools, tax systems improved, public works, etc.
  • 27.
    • “Carpetbaggers”
      • Northerners thought to be taking advantage of Southern vulnerability for quick profit
      • Many came down to help in modernizing South
    • Much real corruption in both North & South
    • Ku Klux Klan (founded in 1866)
      • To intimidate blacks and carpetbaggers
      • Force Acts of 1870 & 1871 to counteract
      • 14 th & 15 th Amendments effectively ignored
  • 28. Johnson’s Impeachment
    • Radicals determined to get rid of obstructionist Johnson
    • Passed Tenure of Office Act
      • Required president to get Senate’s consent to remove an office-holder once the Senate had approved him (“spy” in Cabinet)
      • Johnson dismissed “spy” Stanton anyway
      • House then charged Johnson with high crimes…
    • Senate barely rejected Johnson’s removal
  • 29. “Seward’s Folly”
    • Alaska no longer of economic benefit to Russia
    • Wanted to sell to US, not their enemy Britain
    • Secretary of State Seward purchased Alaska in a treaty for $7.2 million
    • Why did we buy it?
      • Russia friendly to north during Civil War
      • possibilities of fur and gold (later, yes!)