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Dr. Robbins' Lecture PowerPoint for Ch 20 (American Pageant, 13th ed)

Dr. Robbins' Lecture PowerPoint for Ch 20 (American Pageant, 13th ed)

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Pageant 13th Ch 20 plus Pageant 13th Ch 20 plus Presentation Transcript

  • Girding for War: The North & the South 1861-1865 Guiding Questions & Lecture Notes Chapter 20 The American Pageant, 13th edition
  • Key Topics
    • War Begins at Fort Sumter
    • Border States
    • Southern & Northern Advantages & Disadvantages
      • agriculture, industry, trade, transportation, population, military strength, geography, politics
    • Europe’s reaction to America’s conflict
    • Lincoln’s leadership
      • limiting liberties & stepping around the Constitution
      • personal strengths
  • Other significant topics
    • Native Americans on both sides
    • The problem with states’ rights in the South
    • Conscription in the North and South
    • The Union’s National Banking System
    • Northern prosperity during the war
  • War Begins
    • Why did Lincoln declare that secession was “wholly impractical”?
      • “ Physically speaking we cannot separate.”
    • Why was Lincoln so determined to keep the Union united?
      • Above all, to prove the efficacy of popular government (“of the people…”)
      • To prove that a minority group cannot break up a govt “whenever they choose”
  • Fort Sumter
    • How did the war begin at Fort Sumter?
      • One of two remaining federal forts in South
      • Lincoln decided to provision not reinforce fort
      • South saw this as a reinforcement; attacked first
      • Located in Charleston, SC, the heart of rebellion
    • How did this particular beginning affect the outcome of the war?
      • Seen as a southern attack by most; kept critical border states on Union side
  • Border States Stay with the Union
    • Why were the border states so important?
      • White population there numbered more than half of the entire Confederacy
      • Reduced manufacturing capacity of South
      • Navigable Ohio River and two of its tributaries
      • Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri
  • South’s Major Advantages
    • Could fight defensively
    • Did not have to win, just stop northern invaders
    • Fighting for their own soil, boosted morale
    • Most talented military officers
    • Southerners bred to fight
  • North’s major advantages
    • Economic strength & diversity
      • Agriculture & manufacturing
    • Controlled the seas, had superior navy
      • Established effective blockade
    • Larger population, greater manpower
  • Respective weaknesses?
    • South
      • Relatively little manufacturing
      • Less diverse agriculture
      • Minimal transportation system
      • Smaller population
    • North
      • Men ill-prepared for military life
      • Weaker military commanders
  • Europe’s Reaction
    • Why did Britain ultimately favor the North during the Civil War?
      • Common people’s support for abolition
      • Cotton surpluses at beginning of war supplemented by Union cotton seizures, some Southern cotton getting thru, Indian and Egyptian sources
      • War industries an economic boon to England England more dependent on northern corn and wheat, than cotton (good US weather + new reaper vs. poor British crops)
  • A Different View
    • How did the European aristocracy differ from the common people in their views toward the Civil War?
      • Hated the dangerous example of US democracy
      • Related to South’s semi-feudal, aristocratic society
  • British Commerce-Traders
    • What was the affect of British commerce-traders (and what were they anyway)?
      • Commerce-traders were British-built ships, armed for war after leaving Britain for Confederate use
      • Caused much damage to Yankee ships & trade (most damaging, the Alabama )
      • Britain finally opened its eyes & closed its loopholes
  • Mexico Affected
    • How & why did the US intervene in Mexico?
      • Emperor Napoleon III had set up a puppet ruler, Austrian Archduke Maximilian, as emperor of Mexico
      • Napoleon III hoped that Union would be too distracted and if it lost the war, too weak to enforce Monroe Doctrine
      • After the war and Union victory, the threat of US action led to French departure
  • President Jefferson Davis
    • What were Davis’s greatest challenges as president of the Confederacy?
      • States’ rights supporters undermined his plans for a tightly-knit central govt
      • Davis never very popular; an imperious micromanager
  • President Abraham Lincoln
    • What were Lincoln’s strengths as a leader?
      • Had advantage of well-established government
      • Proved to be a better leader
      • Personal qualities: tactful, patient, firm, quiet
      • Great orator, inspirational politician
  • Constitutional Questions
    • How and why did Lincoln step around the Constitution during the war?
      • Proclaimed blockade
      • Increased size of army (only Congress could)
      • Advanced $2 million to 2 private citizens
      • Suspended Habeus Corpus
      • “ Supervised” voting in border states
      • Suspended certain newspapers
      • Congress not in session when war started
  • Fighting It Out
    • How did each side supply itself with soldiers?
      • North: first by volunteers, then first nationwide, federal conscription; rich could hire substitutes for $300; some riots in reaction; “bounty boys” from Europe
      • South also first by volunteers, but much sooner had to require conscription; wider age range (17 to 50); substitute system as in the North; also large slaveowners were exempt
    • What role did Native Americans play?
      • Most of 5 Civilized Tribes side with Confederacy
      • Confederacy took over federal payments and invited them to Congress; many Indians joined confederate army
      • One group of the Cherokee and most of the Plains Indians sided with the Union (forced onto reservations after war)
  • A Poor Man’s Fight
    • What did this mean: “A rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight”?
      • On both sides, the rich were given advantages and loopholes
      • In the South, especially, the poor man was often fighting for the rich man’s right to own slaves
  • Economics in the North & South
    • How did the North benefit economically?
      • New factories built for war effort and bolstered by stronger tariff protections (Morrill Tariff Act)
      • First income tax
      • New inventions: reaper, sewing machines
    • Who benefited the most?
      • Inflation-bred price increases benefited business (while hurting workers)
      • First millionaire class, especially in the North
      • Scam artists of all sorts
      • New petroleum industry
  • More Economics
    • Why did the Union re-establish a national banking system?
      • To stimulate the sale of govt bonds to raise money for war
      • Also to set up standard bank-note currency (fluctuating “rag money” was destabilizing)
  • Southern Economy Flounders
    • What happened to the Southern economy during the war?
      • Blockade cut off duties; bonds sold, taxes raised
      • Runaway inflation from excess paper money
      • Reduced trade and war destruction, broken down transportation system
      • The South faced great economic decline at war’s end (from 30% to 12% of national wealth)