New DealLegislationA.P. U.S. HISTORY
FDR & the Three R’sRELIEFREFORMRECOVERY
Agricultural Adjustment Act #1, 1933   Helped to counteract overproduction and bring up    falling prices that were hurti...
Later Farming Acts   Soil Conservation & Domestic Allotment Act,    1936       Farmers paid to plant soil-conserving cro...
Civilian Conservation Corps, 1933   One of most popular, least controversial    programs   Put young men to work in fore...
Federal Emergency Relief Act, 1933   Intended to keep people from starving till    recovery programs could work   Much o...
Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act,1933*   Created the Federal Deposit Insurance    Corporation (FDIC)   Insured individu...
National Industrial Recovery Act, 1933   Created the National Recovery    Administration   Encouraged 200+ industries to...
NIRA cont.   Labor won the right to bargain collectively    with representatives of own choosing*       ‘yellow dog” con...
National Youth Administration, 1935   Part of the Works Progress Admin (WPA)   For “emergency relief and employment to  ...
Works Progress Administration, 1935   Main federal relief agency from 1935-1943   Put relief workers on the federal payr...
Rural Electrification Admin., 1935   Created a national program to bring    electricity to rural areas   Private compani...
Federal Securities Act, 1933 & 1935*   Created the Securities and Exchange    Commission to regulate the stock market    ...
Tennessee Valley Authority, 1933*   One of most extensive and controversial    New Deal Programs (“too socialist”)   Bui...
Wagner Act, 1935   AKA the National Labor Relations Act   Set up National Labor Relations Board to    protect workers’ r...
Social Security Act, 1935*   Provided basic pensions to most retired    private-sector workers over 65       Paid out of...
Frazier-Lemke FarmBankruptcy Act, 1934   Suspended farm mortgage foreclosures for    5 years (1933)   Supreme Court foun...
Public Works Administration, 1935   Established to employ large numbers of    people on 34,000 useful projects   Spent b...
Federal Deposit Insurance Corp.*   See Glass-Steagal Banking Reform Act
Housing   Homeowners Loan Corporation, 1933       Refinancing for homes in danger of foreclosure        (modification of...
Critics   Father Charles Coughlin (Michigan)   Senator Huey Long (Louisiana)   Francis Townsend (Long Beach, CA)
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New Deal Legislation

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Dr. Robbins' PowerPoint lecture on major legislation of the New Deal.

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New Deal Legislation

  1. 1. New DealLegislationA.P. U.S. HISTORY
  2. 2. FDR & the Three R’sRELIEFREFORMRECOVERY
  3. 3. Agricultural Adjustment Act #1, 1933 Helped to counteract overproduction and bring up falling prices that were hurting farmers An allotment system with cash subsidies to farmers who cut production  “Rent” for uncultivated fields & cash for reducing livestock  Applied unevenly; helped larger farms, hurt tenant farmers Paid for by tax on food processors Ruled unconstitutional (violated states’ rights & tax benefited only a limited group)
  4. 4. Later Farming Acts Soil Conservation & Domestic Allotment Act, 1936  Farmers paid to plant soil-conserving crops or leave fields fallow  Court approved this act with its emphasis on soil conservation Second Agricultural Adjustment Act, 1938  Continued conservation payments; gave parity payments on restricted crops; more fair prices
  5. 5. Civilian Conservation Corps, 1933 One of most popular, least controversial programs Put young men to work in forests and parks  Fire-fighting  Reforestation  Flood control  Swamp drainage Most of money earned was sent to families Semi-military discipline
  6. 6. Federal Emergency Relief Act, 1933 Intended to keep people from starving till recovery programs could work Much of it went to direct dole payments to unemployed for:  Food, shelter, clothing Some went to wages for work projects (CWA: Civil Works Administration) Continued for 2 years
  7. 7. Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act,1933* Created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Insured individual deposits Practically eliminated bank failures Separated investment banking from commercial banking to stop use of depositors’ funds for speculation
  8. 8. National Industrial Recovery Act, 1933 Created the National Recovery Administration Encouraged 200+ industries to cooperate in creating codes for “fair competition” Intended to:  provide for minimum wages and maximum hours  Keep prices and wages high
  9. 9. NIRA cont. Labor won the right to bargain collectively with representatives of own choosing*  ‘yellow dog” contract forbidden Proved to be too complicated, unwieldy and prone to abuse Declared unconstitutional in Schechter case  Congress couldn’t give legislative power to Pres. or control interstate commerce (chickens!)
  10. 10. National Youth Administration, 1935 Part of the Works Progress Admin (WPA) For “emergency relief and employment to persons between the ages of 16 and 25”  For on-campus jobs to help high school and college students stay in school  Also for young people who had left school
  11. 11. Works Progress Administration, 1935 Main federal relief agency from 1935-1943 Put relief workers on the federal payroll  Constructed roads, buildings, parks, airports, and bridges  Also employed artists such as actors, writers, musicians, painters (post office murals) thru “Federal One“ (Federal Art Project) Paid only $55/month (subsistence=$100), but gave activity and self-respect
  12. 12. Rural Electrification Admin., 1935 Created a national program to bring electricity to rural areas Private companies had bypassed rural areas: “farmers too poor” REA set up 417 rural electric cooperatives which also spurred private companies to electrify countryside In concert with TVA
  13. 13. Federal Securities Act, 1933 & 1935* Created the Securities and Exchange Commission to regulate the stock market by overseeing  The buying of stock on “margin” (with credit)  Restrict insider speculation (Martha Stewart?) Full disclosure on stocks and bonds must be provided to buyers
  14. 14. Tennessee Valley Authority, 1933* One of most extensive and controversial New Deal Programs (“too socialist”) Built 5 dams on the Tennessee River  To generate low-cost electrical power  To establish “yardstick” for regulation of private power companies  To create jobs for some of poorest in US  To improve the environment of the Tenn Valley
  15. 15. Wagner Act, 1935 AKA the National Labor Relations Act Set up National Labor Relations Board to protect workers’ rights, including the right to collective bargaining Outlawed unfair labor practices (blacklisting, etc)
  16. 16. Social Security Act, 1935* Provided basic pensions to most retired private-sector workers over 65  Paid out of a federal-state pension fund to which employers & employees contributed Also aided dependent survivors, blind and other disabled Joint federal-state unemployment benefits program, administered by the states
  17. 17. Frazier-Lemke FarmBankruptcy Act, 1934 Suspended farm mortgage foreclosures for 5 years (1933) Supreme Court found it unconstitutional Revised version upheld (1935)  Allowed suspension for 3 years
  18. 18. Public Works Administration, 1935 Established to employ large numbers of people on 34,000 useful projects Spent billions on long-term projects such as  Public buildings, bridges, roads and dams  Grand Coulee Dam on Colombia River
  19. 19. Federal Deposit Insurance Corp.* See Glass-Steagal Banking Reform Act
  20. 20. Housing Homeowners Loan Corporation, 1933  Refinancing for homes in danger of foreclosure (modification of Hoover measure) Federal Housing Administration,1934*  Small loans to householders to build or improve  Insured home mortgages  Helped revive the construction industry US Housing Authority  Subsidized slum clearance & housing projects
  21. 21. Critics Father Charles Coughlin (Michigan) Senator Huey Long (Louisiana) Francis Townsend (Long Beach, CA)

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