Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1909• Progressive Republican• Square Deal • Muckraking: Steffens,• Control the Trusts Tarbell, Sinclair, Riis• Consumer Protection (Pure Food & Drug Act, etc) • State and city• Conservation government reforms• Anthracite Coal Miners Strike• Talk Softly & Carry a Big Stick • Lochner v. New York• Great White Fleet• Panama Canal • Muller v. Oregon• Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe • Panic of 1907 Doctrine• Gentlemen’s Agreement w/Japan• Russian/Japanese Peace Deal• Nobel Peace Prize• Increased executive power
William Howard Taft, 1909-1913• TR’s protégé • Triangle Shirtwaist• Progressive Republican Factory• Dollar Diplomacy • Roosevelt loses• nomination to Taft, starts More Trustbusting: suits 3rd party against Standard Oil, US Steel, etc.• More Conservation: Bureau of Mines• Payne-Aldrich Tariff
Woodrow Wilson, 1913-1921• Progressive Democrat • 16th Amendment: income tax• New Freedom program: favored small • 17th Amendment: direction election enterprise, entrepreneurship and free of senators markets• Underwood Tariff (reduces to 27%) • WW1 begins in Europe 1914• Federal Reserve Act • Lusitania attacked• Clayton Anti-Trust Act (Trustbusting) • Zimmerman Note• Farm support (Federal Farm Loan Act, • George Creel: Committee on & Warehouse Act) Public Information (Propaganda)• Appoints Brandeis to Supreme Court • Homefront• Federal Trade Commission • Voluntary rationing & victory• Involvements Abroad (Mexico, Haiti…) gardens• Reelected on no-war platform • Labor supports war (except IWW)• Entered WW1: “safe for democracy” • Armistice• Espionage & Sedition Acts• Fourteen Points (League of Nations) • Paris Peace Conference• Treaty of Versailles rejected by • 18th Amendment (Prohibition) Congress • 19th Amendment (Woman• Volstead Act (prohibition law) Suffrage)
The TwentiesWarren G. Harding, 1921-1925 • Red Scare• Republican • Sacco & Vanzetti Trial• Pro-business, laissez-faire • KKK revived• Fordney–McCumber Tariff (increases to • Isolationism 38.5%) • Cultural pluralism• 5-power Naval Treaty • Prohibition: speakeasies, gangsters• Immigration Quota Acts, 1921 & 1924 • Adkins v. Children’s Hospital• Teapot Dome Scandal • Scopes Trial, 1925• Dies in office before scandal known • Mass consumptionCalvin Coolidge, 1925-1929 • Model T Ford & Airplanes• Republican, “Silent Cal” • Radios & Movies• Secretary of Treasury Mellon reduced taxes • Flappers & Vamps & debt • Margaret Sanger champions birth control• Pro-business • Alice Paul launches Equal Rights• Vetoed pro-farmer bills Amendment, 1923• Mixed record with Latin America • Harlem Renaissance• Dawes Plan re: German debt etc • Jazz• Kellogg-Briand Pact • Bull Market • Buying stock on margin • 1929: Stock Market Crash
Herbert Hoover, 1929-1933• Republican • Stock Market Crashes on• Engineer & self-made Black Tuesday, 10/29/29 millionaire • Great Depression Arrives• Pro-business • Hoovervilles• Hawley Smoot Tariff: • Bonus Army increases to 60% • Japan Invades Manchuria• Federal Farm Board • Mass employment (up to• Reconstruction Finance Corp. 25%) helped business & banks • Homeless, hoboes, etc after Crash• Norris-LaGuardia Anti- Injunction Act hurt labor• Improved relations with Latin America
Franklin Roosevelt, 1933-1945 The Depression & the New Deal• Democrat (elected four times!) • Populist Critics:• The New Deal – Huey Long• Fireside Chats – Father Charles Coughlin• Government helps the people – Dr. Francis Townsend• Hundred Days • Dust Bowl• Closed banks briefly • Grapes of Wrath by Steinbeck• Relief programs created immediate • Dorothea Lange photos jobs (CCC, etc) • John L. Lewis founds C.I.O.• Recovery set up longer term • Conservative Supreme Court stalls projects/employment (TVA, etc.) or halts some of FDR’s programs• Reform made fundamental changes • 20th Amendment: 1933, changes – Social Security, SEC, FDIC inauguration to January 20• Keynesian economics (deficit • 21st Amendment, 1933, repeals spending in crisis) Prohibition• Court Packing Scheme backfires • Schechter case (chickens)• NIRA ended after Schechter case
FDR, Foreign Policy & War Years• Good Neighbor policy • Mussolini invades Ethiopia• Tydings MacDuffie Act: • Spanish Civil War Philippines Promised • Japan Invades China Independence in 1946 (1934) • Hitler Seizes Austria• FDR does not attend London • Munich Conference Economic Conference • Hitler seizes Czechoslovakia• Reciprocal Trade Agreement • Nazi-Soviet Pact• US Neutrality Acts • Hitler Invades Poland• Bases for destroyers, 1940 • Fall of France• Lend-Lease Act, 1941 • Battle of Britain• Atlantic Charter, 1941 • Hitler Attacks Soviet Union• Mandatory draft before US enters war • Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor• US enters war after Pearl Harbor
FDR: More War Years• Unprecedented production for • War Production Board war ends the Depression (full • War Labor Board employment) • Women: WAACs, WAVES,• Fair Employment Practices SPARs & factory workers Commission • Congress of Racial Equality• Japanese Internment, 1942 (CORE) (Executive Order 9066) • Bracero program• Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act, • wartime migration (especially 1943, limited strikes African Americans)• Casablanca Conference • Navajo Code Talkers• Teheran Conference • Mandatory rationing• D-Day • More Victory Gardens• Roosevelt dies in 1945 just • Zoot Suit Riots, 1943 before war ends, but he could see it coming! • Detroit race riots • Korematsu v. U.S.
Harry Truman, 1945-1953• FDR’s VP takes over as president at • Germany surrenders/Holocaust revealed FDR’s death, later reelected • Hiroshima & Nagasaki• Democrat • Japan surrenders• Potsdam Conference • War Crimes trials (Nuremberg, Tokyo)• Drops Atomic Bombs on Japan • US recognizes Israel (1948)• GI Bill • “Voice of America” radio to communists• Kennan’s Containment Policy to “contain” communism • NATO established, 1949• Cold War Begins (Iron Curtain) • Communist revolution in China, 1949• Yalta Conference • McCarthy anti-communist hunt begins,• Marshall Plan: rebuild Europe 1950 (HUAC)• Taft Hartley Act, 1947, passed over • Sweatt v. Painter Turman’s veto: limited union’s rights • Korean War (1950-1953)• Truman Doctrine—aid countries to • Baby Boom begins withstand communist influence, • Population grows, moves to Sun Belt starting with Greece & Turkey• National Security Act creates Dept • Suburban sprawl, family-focused of Defense & NSC (Natl Security • Education levels & production rise Council), 1947 • Middle class grows• Berlin Airlift, 1948 • Increasing prosperity after initial post-war• NSC-68, quadruples military budget, recession 1950 • Farming turns corporate
Dwight “Ike” Eisenhower, 1953-1961• Had been top US general in WW2 • New technologies (transistors, computers)• Republican • Betty Friedan, The Feminist Mystique• America’s grandfather, “I Like Ike” • Pink color ghetto: women’s occupations• Hesitantly supports civil rights • Television• Cold War continues • Rock n’ Roll• Interstate Highway Act, 1956 • Critics of conformity: David Riesman, etc.• Secretary of State Dulles & “massive • McCarthy’s Army hearings bring him down retaliation” • Brown v. Board of Education, 1954• CIA-sponsored coup in Guatemala • Civil Rights Movement begins• American aid to Vietnam begins • SEATO formed• Sends troops in to support Little Rock • Warsaw Pact Nine, 1957 • Operation Wetback repatriates Mexicans• Civil Rights Act of 1957 • Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955• Mediates Suez Crisis • AF of L joins with CIO• Eisenhower Doctrine—support Middle • Little Rock Nine desegregate Arkansas Eastern countries against communism high school, 1957• Landrum Griffin Act, 1959 • SCLC formed (So Christian Leadership)• U-2 Incident—spy plane over USSR • Communist Revolution in Cuba, 1959• Space race after Sputnik • Alaska & Hawaii join US, 1959• Emphasized Math/Science education • OPEC formed, 1960 (oil–producing• Establishes NASA countries)• Warns of growing power of industrial- • Sit-ins begin in Greensboro, NC (SNCC) military complex
John F. Kennedy, 1961-1963• Democrat • Berlin Wall built, 1961• Youngest president • Laos Civil War• First Catholic • Vietnam conflict escalates• “New Frontier” program • Freedom Riders, 1961• Cold War Continues • James Meredith integrates University of• Secretary of Defense McNamara & Mississippi “flexible response” military policy • Police violence against Birmingham• Starts Peace Corps Protests shown on nationwide TV• Postpones Civil Rights—needs • MLK & March on Washington DC, 1963 southern Dems for other issues • Birmingham church bombed, killing 4• Supports tax cut & pressures steel little girls, soon after March on DC industry on prices • Beatniks: poetry in dark coffeehouses• Plans moon landing • Beginning of disaffected youth• Sends “military advisors” to Vietnam movement (Jack Kerouac’s On the• Road, etc) Modernization theory—to help underdeveloped countries • Birth control pill introduced, 1960• Trade Expansion Act cut tariffs, 1962• Bay of Pigs, botched invasion of Cuba• Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962• Assassinated on November 22, 1963
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