In May 2010, Library Services was given a remit from the Learning, Teaching & Assessment Committee (LTAC) to lead on the adoption of a consistent approach to Harvard referencing across the University. The remit only included looking at Harvard, as this is the referencing style in use across most faculties. It is also a style which has no definitive standard, and the Library was aware that students were getting conflicting advice from lecturers about how it should be applied. The aim of creating a UWE Harvard standard was to provide a set of guidelines that were clear and that were consistent across all modules, programmes and faculties that wish to use Harvard. This would allow teaching staff to direct students to a central resource to find out what the rules were. At the same time, the Library also developed guidance on how to reference a wider range of materials, again, in response to an increase in requests for this. Following consultation throughout the first half of 2011, the UWE Harvard style was agreed by Academic Board in July. This presentation aims to give you an introduction to the UWE Harvard scheme principles, and to showcase some of the new types of media that have been covered.
As the team worked through the project, in the interests of clarity, we felt it was helpful to agree some guiding principles to be applied across all referencing types. These may seem like pedantic detail, but are the kinds of things that, in our experience, students would get worried about. By being clear about these things, we hope that it will free up students to concentrate on the content of their assignments. [run through the principles as shown on the slides] These ones were a clear choice between one option or the other, with no particular concerns about which was chosen. We selected options that tied in most closely with good standards of English grammar or were already in common use, to reduce having to make any major changes.
Likewise, the choice between types of bracket revolved around common usage and consistency. This is currently how we advise students, so this is what they will be more used to. It is also what British Standards and Cite Them Right advise.
There was some debate about capitalisation, and a decision was taken to capitalise BOOK TITLES and JOURNAL TITLES
… but to only use a capital at the start of a CHAPTER TITLE or the title of an ARTICLE. Obviously, good grammar also means that you should capitalise any proper nouns. Again, this is common practice in referencing and – possibly a little bit specialist – in cataloguing and indexing rules.
Italics are used for Book and Journal Titles, which is a standard protocol, and we also decided that it made sense for them to be used for Volume titles where a multi-volume work was being referenced. The chapter or article title would not be in italics. If there are more than three named authors then they should all appear in full in the reference list. However within the text this is not necessary, just listing the first named author followed by et al. is sufficient. This is inline with advice given in the British Standard. Also, regarding how to present authors within the reference list. It is important that for clarity and consistency there should be a comma after the surname, then a full stop after the initial followed by a comma before the next surname. If there is no author then ‘anon’ can be used.
Where the initial year of publication (or posting, or broadcast) is the same as the year referred to in any further date, for example, when stating the date of posting a message on a discussion board, or the date of a television broadcast, there is no need to give the year twice. In the example, 12 December 2009 is the date the programme was first broadcast.
If a range of pages are referred to then use pp. followed by the numbers separated with a dash. This follows advice given by British Standards. Where pages are not known, for example in an e-book reader ‘no page’ can be used. It was decided that, when referencing an online resource, ‘available from’ should be used, followed by the URL. This is in line with advice given by British Standards.
When quoting directly from the text, the citation would follow in round brackets, and be in the format: author surname, year and would need to include the page number where the quotation can be found. If a quote goes over more than a single page, pp. would be used.
It was decided that no full stop would be used at the end of a URL as it may interfere with hyperlinks. It was also decided that no colon would be used after the word “accessed” within the brackets, this is in-line with British Standards, although it was decided that the word “accessed” would be used instead of “viewed” which was a term used by British Standards. This was to keep it in line with what we have previously advised and minimise changes.
It is important to be consistent with describing the repository.
Example gives a traditional print book If there were more than three authors, you would still need to list them all in the reference list, but not within the body of the text, where et. al. would be used. ‘ And’ would be used rather than & when listing the authors as explained in the principles. If there is an editor rather than an author, ed. Or eds. can be used, after the name/s, but this will not be in brackets The year of publication will follow the author and will be within round brackets The first letter of all words in a book title are capitalised, The book title will always be in italics The edition of the book will be noted if it is not the first edition. ‘Edition’ does not need to be written out in full and will be lower case ‘ed.’. The place of publishing will follow and then the publisher. If this information is not known, then it can be left out. If you used an eBook then the reference would be set out in a similar way, you would only need to add [online] after the Title, and an ‘Accessed’ followed by the date. If the date is a single numeral then it should be prefixed with a zero. For example 07 September. This would also be in square brackets. There is no need to give the URL of an eBook, as there is already sufficient information for the reader to trace the book, and they may not have access to the online version that the writer gives in any case.
If you used an eBook then the reference would be set out in a similar way to a print book. You would only need to add [online] after the Title, and an ‘Accessed’ followed by the date. If the date is a single numeral then it should be prefixed with a zero. For example 07 September. This would also be in square brackets. There is no need to give the URL of an eBook, as there is already sufficient information for the reader to trace the book, and they may not have access to the online version that the writer gives in any case.
Journal article will be referenced as follows: The author surname, followed by initials, the year of publication in round brackets When referencing a journal, the first letter of all words in the journal title are capitalised, apart from linking words such as ‘and’ ‘of’ and ‘the’. However, only the first word of a journal article title is capitalised. Any proper nouns, should be capitalised, as mentioned earlier. The journal title will be in italics. The volume will follow and, then the part or issue number in round brackets, if there is one. Finally, reference to the page numbers will be made, p. to be used for a single page, and pp. to be used for a range of pages.
As for a book, there is no need to include the URL of a journal article, as there is sufficient information for the item to be traced. However, you should include [online] after the JOURNAL TITLE, and the date it was accessed, as this indicates when and how it was viewed, in case there is any change to the online version as compared to the print, for instance.
A Newspaper article is very similar to a journal article, but with a date where the Volume and Issue would be noted, and the name of the newspaper where the name of the journal would be.
Official publications are documents released by government and its departments and may include results of investigations and inquiries, parliamentary debates, Select Committee reports, White Papers, Green Papers and almost everything published by The Stationery Office (unless it is covered elsewhere, such as Acts of Parliament or Statutory Instruments). You should note the country of the appropriate government (in our case, Great Britain and Northern Ireland is shortened to Great Britain), followed by the name of the committee, department or commission. Otherwise, with the exception of adding in the number of the paper, it can be treated as very similar to a book reference.
When referencing a website it is important to provide all the data that would be needed for the reader to locate the information that is referred to if they wished. If the web page has an author then it should appear author surname, and then initials. If an author is not evident then an organisation could be used instead. If there is no author or organisation evident then just use the title of the web site. The year of publication, or date it was last updated will follow, and this will be in round brackets. (no date) if this is not known. The title will be in italics and capitalised, apart from linking words. Then, available from: followed by the URL. There will be no full stop after the URL, as stated previously, this may interfere with the URL and prevent you from linking to the page. As information on the web can be moved or changed so quickly and easily it is important to state the date that the website was accessed. This will be appear at the end in square brackets. It should state ‘accessed’ without a colon before the date, which will be written out in full DD Month YYYY. If the date accessed is a single numeral then a zero should prefix it e.g. 07 September 2010. This is partly for aesthetics, and partly for clarity.
In our full guidance, we give examples of TV programmes that were viewed on the internet, for instance, via BBC’s iPlayer, or on Box of Broadcasts, and also examples where a TV programme was viewed on a DVD. These would be used where you have used a DVD’s that you have purchased, rather than the off-air recordings that we have in the library: for these, a student can reference it as per the example on this slide, as it was recorded directly from the television. There is usually enough information on the DVD case to tell the difference, and if anything is missing, a quick search on the internet can usually provide the rest of the details. Title in italics, followed by the year of first broadcast in round brackets, series number, episode number and episode title, if applicable. The format, e.g. “TV” would follow in square brackets, then the television channel, and lastly the date of transmission. It is not necessary to repeat the year of broadcast.
You are most likely to quote the interviewee, therefore they are given as the primary name on the reference. The year of interview only needs to be given once. This will be in round brackets. The title will follow, although there may not be an official title. Interview with, followed by interviewee’s name, OR interview by, and then interviewer’s name. Title of publication or broadcast, in italics. Followed by the date of broadcast, don’t need to mention year again.
The person posting the video is given as a ‘creator’ and the year of posting is given instead of the year a clip may have been created, as YouTube and other video sharing websites have the flexibility to allow a person to edit a video clip, as well as to post their own original material. Therefore, where a student references YouTube, they should ideally be referring to an official version and not an illegal, potentially edited copy, unless there is an academic reason to have done so. A web link is included here as everyone should be able to access the clip. The date of viewing is important, as it is possible that it may be edited or removed after being viewed.
Weblogs, or blogs are used by individuals or organisations to record issues of interest or concern. They are usually quite informal. An author may only use their first name or an alias. Always use the name they have used in the reference. The year of posting needs to be added, but only once. The title of the blog entry, only the first letter needs to be capitalised. Title of blog: the first letters of all words in the blog name need to be capitalised. Date and month that the message was posted, followed by Available from, colon and the URL of the web page. Finally the date it was accessed is important as Blogs will be edited frequently, this will come at the end in square brackets.
Include the author surname, followed by the initials. Year of posting, this only needs to be included once. Title of the group, only first word to be capitalised. Title of social networking site, in italics and all words to be in capitals, apart from linking words. On many of these sites you have to be friends with a person to see what has been written, or ‘like’ the page (e.g. for organisations like UWE), or Follow someone (e.g. Twitter), but as it is likely to be a posting on an organisation’s site that is referenced, it is worth adding in the URL so that the reader can choose to ‘Follow’ or ‘Like’ the page.
The internet has meant that visual sources such as images and artistic works are more often than not viewed online. This example is for sources viewed electronically, but the full guidance gives advice on images taken from a book or viewed at a gallery or exhibition. Artist surname, initials. The date, however, if there is not an exact date known you can put c. to denote ‘circa’. The title of the work will follow in italics, and then the medium of the work in square brackets, e.g. [oil on canvas]. It was decided that the location where the art work is housed should be included, followed by the name of the gallery. For example At: London: Tate modern. Then include that this was viewed online, also in square brackets. As with other electronic resources referenced the URL should follow and then the date it was accessed in square brackets.
Composer/artists surname and initials Year of publication in round brackets. This will be followed by the title in italics, and again all main words in the title are capitalised. It was decided that the subsidiary originator (conductor/performer) should be noted and this would be followed by the place of distribution and the distribution company. If the composer, or artist is not known then use the title first. Music downloaded from iTunes etc should be referenced using the Audio Download format.
1. Studying Place Year One : Week 3 Close Reading and Harvard Referencing Dr Nicola Headlam [email_address]
4. <ul><li>Follow the Faculty link to introductory guide to Harvard on UWE website. </li></ul>
5. Harvard Introducing Harvard Referencing
6. Principles <ul><li>and or & </li></ul><ul><li>• ‘ and’ to be used between authors. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ &’ can be used where it appears as such in the published title. </li></ul><ul><li>ed. and eds. </li></ul><ul><li>Always in lower case and without brackets. </li></ul>
7. Principles <ul><li>Brackets </li></ul><ul><li>Round brackets for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Date of publication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Square brackets for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessed dates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying specific format such as [online] </li></ul></ul>
8. Principles <ul><li>Capitalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalisation of the first letter of each major word in books and journals titles. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example of a book title: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E vidence- B ased C linical P ractice in N ursing and H ealth C are: A ssimilating R esearch, E xperience and E xpertise. </li></ul></ul>
9. Principles <ul><li>Capitalisation cont. </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalisation of the first letter of the title of a chapter/article (as well as any proper nouns). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example of a chapter/article title: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T elevision food advertising to children: a global perspective. </li></ul></ul>
10. Principles <ul><li>Multi-volumes </li></ul><ul><li>The volume title will appear in italics. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple authors </li></ul><ul><li>If more than three authors, use the surname and initials of the first author and add ‘ et al.’ in the in-text citation, but list all authors in the bibliography . </li></ul>
11. Principles <ul><li>Date formats </li></ul><ul><li>No need to give the same year twice, where the day and month is given separately. </li></ul><ul><li>Example of a TV Programme: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Thick of It (2009) , Series 3, Episode 8 [TV]. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BBC Two, 12 December . </li></ul></ul>
12. Principles <ul><li>Page numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Where a single page is being quoted or referred to, a single ‘p.’ is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Where multiple pages are being quoted or referred to, ‘pp.’ should be used. </li></ul><ul><li>URL ‘available from’ or ‘available at’ </li></ul><ul><li>Use ‘ Available from’ </li></ul>
13. Principles <ul><li>Direct quotation </li></ul><ul><li>There is no need to provide a page reference in the in-text citation unless you are including a direct quotation. </li></ul>
14. Principles <ul><li>Punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>There will be a full stop at the end of each reference. </li></ul><ul><li>No full stop at the end of a URL. </li></ul><ul><li>No full stop after the year of publication. </li></ul><ul><li>No colon for the accessed date, i.e. [Accessed 11 December 2010]. </li></ul>
15. Principles <ul><li>UWE Research Repository </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When referencing the repository at UWE it should be described as the ‘ UWE Research Repository’ , as on the website, rather than, ‘UWE Repository’. </li></ul></ul>
16. Book <ul><li>Author surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Title . Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. </li></ul><ul><li>Pearson, A., Field, J., Ford, D. and Jordon, Z. (2007) Evidence-Based Clinical Practice in Nursing and Health Care: Assimilating Research, Experience and Expertise. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. </li></ul>More than 3 authors. Use of ‘ and ’ Capitalisation of the book title Edition noted
17. Electronic Book <ul><li>Author surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Title [online].Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. [Accessed: DD Month YYYY]. </li></ul><ul><li>Pearson, A., Field, J., Ford, D. and Jordon, Z. (2007) Evidence-Based Clinical Practice in Nursing and Health Care: Assimilating Research, Experience and Expertise [online] 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing [Accessed 07 September 2011]. </li></ul>Add [online] after the title. Add [Accessed] and the date at the end Use 2 digits and full month and year for the date format No need to give a URL.
18. Journal article <ul><li>Author surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Title of the article. Journal Title. Volume no. (Part no.), page numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Edge, I. and Murphy, V. (1976) New uses of technology in dentistry. British Dental Journal. 8 (3), pp. 450-600. </li></ul>Use of ‘ and ’ Capitalisation of the Journal title NO c apitalisation of the article title Use of ‘pp.’ for a range of pages
19. Electronic Journal article <ul><li>Author surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Title of the article. Journal Title [online] . Volume no. (Part no.), page numbers. [Accessed DD Month YYYY]. </li></ul><ul><li>Edge, I. and Murphy, V. (1976) New uses of technology in dentistry. British Dental Journal [online] . 8 (3), pp. 450-600. [Accessed 21 July 2011]. </li></ul>Add [online] after the journal title Add the Accessed date No need to give a URL
20. Newspaper article <ul><li>Author surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Title of the article. Title of Newspaper. DD Month of publication, page number of the article (if given). </li></ul><ul><li>Weaver, M. (2010) The Chilean miners: who’s who at the surface. The Guardian. 14 October, p. 5. </li></ul>Capitalisation of the Newspaper title NO c apitalisation of the article title, except proper nouns Use of ‘p.’ for a single page
21. Official Publications <ul><li>Country. Name of Committee, Department or Royal Commission (Year of publication) Title. Place of publication: Publisher. (Paper number). </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain. Department of Health (2011) Healthy lives, healthy people: update and way forward. London: The Stationery Office (Cm 8134). </li></ul>Country Committee, Department or Commission Number of the Paper
22. Web page <ul><li>Author surname, Initials. / Organisation (Year of publication) Title of Internet Site. Available from: URL of the web page [Accessed DD Month YYYY]. </li></ul><ul><li>Royal College of Nursing (2009) Learning and Education . Available from: http://www.rcn.org.uk /development/learning [Accessed 22 December 2010]. </li></ul>Organisation where an individual author is not evident ‘ Accessed’ with no colon Available from: used No full stop at end of URL
23. Television Programme <ul><li>Title of Series (Year of first broadcast) Series number, Episode number, Episode title if applicable [TV]. Channel, DD Month of first broadcast. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, Prime Minister (1986) Series 1, Episode 1, The Ministerial Broadcast [TV]. BBC Two, 16 January. </li></ul>Year of first broadcast is more relevant than a repeat date No need to repeat the year Information on the dates and series/episode numbers can be usually found on the internet
24. Interview on TV/Radio <ul><li>Surname of person being interviewed, Initials. (Year of interview) Title of interview (if any). Interview with Interviewee’s name OR Interview by Interviewer’s name. Title of publication or broadcast , Channel, Date of broadcast DD Month. </li></ul><ul><li>Blair, T. (2007) The Tony Blair interview with Andrew Marr. Interview with Tony Blair. The Andrew Marr Show , BBC One, 05 September. </li></ul>Year of broadcast given once Use a zero to make the ‘day’ a two-digit number There may not be an official title for the interview, but it should be included where there is one
25. Video Sharing (e.g. YouTube, Dailymotion, Vimeo etc) <ul><li>Name of person/organisation posting the video. (Year of posting) Title of the video. Title of the internet web site [video]. DD Month of posting. Available from: URL of the web page [Accessed DD Month YYYY]. </li></ul><ul><li>International News 24/7 (2010) France faces strikes and protests over pension reform. YouTube [video]. 07 September. Available from: http://www.youtube. com/watch?v=O_S6mldSB9k [Accessed 13 September 2010]. </li></ul>Year of posting given once Use a zero to make the ‘day’ a two-digit number A link to the video and date of viewing are important
26. Blogs <ul><li>Author surname, Initials. (Year of posting) Title of the blog entry. Title of blog. DD Month of posted message . Available from: URL of the web page [Accessed DD Month YYYY]. </li></ul><ul><li>Rogers, S. (2010) Local council spending over £500: full list of who has published what so far. Data Blog . 10 September. Available from: http://www.guardian .co.uk/news/datablog/2010/sep/10/local-council-spending-over-500-list [Accessed 13 September 2010]. </li></ul>Year of posting given once Most blogs can be accessed by anyone, so include the URL They might be edited, so include the accessed date. Capitalisation: first letter of the entry, first letter of all words in the blog name
27. Social Networking web site (e.g. Facebook, Twitter etc) <ul><li>Author surname, Initials. (Year of posting) Title of the group/page. Title of Social Network Site [online]. DD Month of posting. Available from: URL of the web page [Accessed DD Month YYYY]. </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, J. (2010) UWE Bristol. Facebook [online]. 13 June. Available from: http://www. facebook.com/#!/uwebristol [Accessed 22 December 2010]. </li></ul>Year of posting given once Include the URL, even if the reader is not ‘friends’ with the person/ organisation Include the accessed date.
28. Image or illustration (accessed electronically) <ul><li>Artist surname, Initials. (Date of creation) Title of the work [medium] . At: place where the work is housed: institution or collection that houses the work [online]. Available from: URL of the web page [Accessed DD Month YYYY]. </li></ul><ul><li>Turner, J.M.W. (c.1925-30) Sunrise [Watercolour on paper]. At: London: Tate Britain [online]. Available from: http://www.tate.org.uk [Accessed 19 December 2010]. </li></ul>Note the location and Gallery where an artwork is housed On this example the medium [e.g. watercolour] is noted as well as where it was seen [online] The date the artwork was created may not be exact. Include c. to denote ‘circa’
29. Music or spoken word recordings <ul><li>Composer surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Title. Subsidiary Originator (e.g. performer, conductor). Place of distribution: Distribution Company . </li></ul><ul><li>Bach, J.S. (1850) The Goldberg Variations . Hans Bischoff, conductor. Los Angeles: Alfred Publishing. </li></ul>Note the role that the subsidiary originator played. Capitals for each of the main words in the title.