Manchester “Original: Modern”300 years of the machinations of ‘Manchester men’ Cities and Society Nicola Headlam December 8th 2011
Lecture Structure• Introduction• Manchester : Original Modern• Industrial Philanthro-Capitalism• Post-Industrial Philanthro-Capitalism• What next?
Processes – Definitions?• Reification• Philanthro-capitalism• Gentrification• Industrial and Post Industrial• Civic• Urbis• Agora
civiccivic adj of or relating to a city, citizens, or citizenship civic duties (C16: from Latin civicus, from civis citizen) ♦ civically adv civic centre n (Brit) the public buildings of a town, including recreational facilities and offices of local administration civic university n (in Britain) a university originally instituted as a higher education college serving a particular city
urbis• The Latin Phrase Urbs Urbis has many meanings, mainly: city
agora agora1n pl -rae [-riː -raɪ](Historical Terms) (often capital)a. the marketplace in Athens, used for popular meetings, or any similar place of assembly in ancient Greece b. the meeting itself[from Greek, from agorein to gather]
Post-industrialDaniel Bell ‘The coming of the Post-Industrial Society’"knowledge and information are becoming the strategic resource and transforming agent of post-industrial society just as the combination of energy, resources and machine technology were the transforming agencies of industrial society" (Bell, 1974)
Knowledge EconomyExtension of the post-industrial argumentEconomy focussed on exchange of goods and services Think about… Planning for no commuters, home-working, vide- conferencing, death of distance because the nature and location of work is in flux.
Post-fordist• Another economic argument.• Rooted in a mode of production.• Ford Motor Cars• assembly lines Think about… Planning for consumption rather than production (ie shopping rather than assembly lines)
Books• Managing the city: the aims and impacts of urban policy Brian Turnbull Robson 1987• Managing the city eds Liddle, Diamond, Southern 2007• City of Revolution eds Ward and Peck• How Manchester is managed 1925-1939
Stories of “Mancunian ways”• Mancunian Ways : the politics of regeneration Robson (Chapter 3 City of Revolution)• Metropolitan Manoeuvres : making greater Manchester Deas and Ward (Chapter City of Revolution)• Greater Manchester – ‘up and going’, 2000 Hebbert and Deas• Greater Manchester : conurbation complexity and local government structure Barlow, 1995• Manchester: Making it Happen Hebbert, 2009
Think tanks: Manchester• Work Foundation : Ideopolis• Localis : Can Localism Deliver? Lessons from Manchester• Policy Exchange : Cities Limited• NESTA : Original Modern : Manchester’s journey to innovation and growthCity publications
Central-Local Policy NetworkCongested terrain!
What is Manchester?• Political• Economic• Statistical• Administrative• Cultural (music and sport)ConstructionA Brand?
Industrial Era Civic Philanthro capitalismKey Actors• Humphry Chetham• John Rylands• Richard Arkwright• Joseph Whitworth• John Owens• Duke of Bridgewater
Vanity projects?• Knowledge: University, Libraries• Culture : Halle Orchestra / Lit & Phil Society• Infra-structure : Town Hall / Canals (!)
(Post-industrial) regeneration era philanthro-capitalistsKey Actors• Tom Bloxham (Urban Splash)• Peter Saville• Anthony Wilson
Vanity Projects• Knowledge : Urbis• Culture : Manchester International Festival• Infra-structure?? Housing/Regen??
• Millenium Communities progress unclear• Communities minister Ian Austin has confirmed that no long-term evaluation of the Millennium Communities programme will be made before its completion in 2012.In a written answer to shadow communities minister Robert Neill, Mr Austin said the Homes & Communities Agency is responsible for delivering the bulk of the programme and DCLG scrutinizes its performance.“The Millennium Communities is an active programme that is demonstrating how mixed-use, environmentally positive communities can be created on difficult, brownfield sites,” he said.• “It will continue to deliver outputs up to at least 2012. An evaluation of the longer-term outcomes and cost-effectiveness of the Millennium Communities programme would be expected to be undertaken following its completion.”
City Centre• Iconic Architecture
What is regeneration?• “’Regeneration seems to offer an almost infinitely inclusive canopy under which all may be persuaded to shelter and find agreement, yet vital issues remain beyond the pale” (Furbey 1999) pg 440• “…so urban regeneration is in principle a floating signifier but in practice it does not float very far. It is ubiquitously used to a fairly standard set of policy goals and outcomes ”(Lovering 2007) pg 344
HO PSA DeliveryPSA PSA PSA 2 (Joint PSA PSA PSA PSA 5 3 OCJR) 1 4 7 6 IND NOMS OCJR CRCSG Communities N A T I O Policing Policing Crime N NASS Prisons Probation CJS ASB Drugs CCU, REU, F ACD Policy Standards Reduction A L Prisons Probation HMIC R Inspectorate Inspectorate E Individual Regional Offices GOEM G I (43Staff) 5 Police Forces; 9 DATs; O 40 CDRPs; 49 Local Auth’s N A L One City Police Partnership CJIP LCJB CDRP NDC DAT Authority (LSP) Compact L O Notts Police Probation C CPS Courts HMP A Service L Nottingham Voluntary & Community Sector Nott BCU YOT City Council 9 Area Committees
drivers and levers• Change mechanisms = interactions between relevant policy drivers and levers.• Policy drivers = the general aims of government in specific policy areas• Policy levers = are the instruments available to government to effect change in public policy and services.
drivers and levers : theory of changeSelection of policy drivers and levers is informed by the interaction of actors exercising political judgement about priorities. As governance systems rely on human interactions attempts at steering are likely to be met with unexpected and unintended though not necessarily unwelcome reactions and outcomes. (CLG, Sullivan 2008)
Manchester’sLocal Area Agreement2008/09 – 2010/11Powerpoint presentation
Manchester’s LAA• It’s a three-year plan to deliver our Community Strategy• It drives partners to achieve targets related to our priorities• It stimulates innovation• It builds accountability and stronger relationships• It forms a constructive relationship with the Government
Partnership structure ‘Team Manchester’
Measuring Success: State of the City
Think tanks re: recession• LGA from recession to recovery: the local dimension• CLES toward a new wave of local economic activism• Work Foundation: Recession and Recovery: How UK cities can respond and drive the recovery
Ideopolis - Work Foundation
Barcelona Principles – The Work Foundationi. Don’t waste the crisis, but respond with leadership and purpose.ii. Make the case for continued public investment and public services and thetaxes and other sources of investment required.iii. In the long-term: build local economic strategies which align with long-termdrivers and identify future sources of jobs, enterprise, and innovation.iv. In the short-term: focus on retaining productive people, business, incomes,jobs, and investment projects.v. Build the tools and approaches to attract and retain external investment overthe long-term.vi. Build genuine long-term relationships with the private sector, trade unions,and other key partners.vii. Take steps to ensure the sustainability and productivity of public works,infrastructure, and major developments/events.viii Local leaders should act purposefully to support their citizens in the face ofincreased hardship.ix. Local economies have benefitted and should continue to benefit from beingopen and attractive to international populations and capital.x. Communicate and align with national and other higher tier governments.
Role of localities in the recession : political considerations
The manchester case• What are the features of the local governance partnership architecture in the Greater Manchester city region?• How are existing institutions connected?• What are the connections back to National policy agendas?• What other international models are in play?• Is it unique in the UK? If so in what way?• Are the movers and shakers “the good guys”?Contention; there is something about manchester ; confidence, autonomy, stability, leadership, assertive bargaining stance with the centre (bombast?) (Robson - Mancunian Ways)“we use the bits of the SNR which fit our agenda and throw out the bits that don’t”
Features of political landscape in manchester city region• Helpful in explaining why confident city-regional governance may flourish in Greater Manchester• Straightforward, horse-trading politics of this…• Traditional Labour authorities (leader of Wigan/AGMA since 1984)• Entrepreneurial authorities (Manchester/Salford)• Lib-Dem oppositional authorities• Role of non-Executive Cllrs• Role of communities/3rd Sector• MPs many with LG background“we always had better discussions around policy within Labour Group than we do in the PLP…you have to work out how to be effective as an MP whereas in the council your authority is far more direct and tangible”
what have they created? • Using an MAA bidding process (first in the queue) • Building on AGMA, radically reformed • Incorporating TIF • Linking through to LAA structures • Stretching democratic mandate (!) • Working with business leaders (6/7) A “Commission” model (QMV, delegated authority comparable to EU commission) • 7 City Regional Thematic Commissions • Economic one central and fully formed others immanent (?!) Compare and contrast with readiness in other MAA areas ?
Organigramme I ; the MAA Public Housing Transport Improvement Health Economy Environment Protection & Planning
• Interactions between separate tiers• MAA self organising autonomous governance network• LAA statutory output based performance framework
How Manchester is managed, 1935Regional Planning : The most effective planning scheme is one which is comprehensive in character and not limited by the artificial boundary of a local authority’s area. It’s success depends upon (1) securing an area capable of economic development (2) effective joint action with neighbouring authorities
City regional bodies
City Relationships:Economic linkages in Northern city regions
Different types of networks
SNA Greater Manchester MAA-LAA (accountabilty)
SNA with local government decentred
Summary : Urban PolicyUrban Policy “Laboratory” fast moving and complexpolicy areas dynamic and in tensionRegeneration and economic developmentLocal Government ModernisationPerformance Management and Measurement
Summary : Policy mechanisms• Underlying logics re: fragmentation and strategic oversight in tension with democratic accountability, political oversight show up in various mechanisms• PSA regime (National)• MAA/EPB/SCR (City Regional)• LAA (Locality plus)
Summary : Recession• Recession offers new challenges for city and locality leaders• Barcelona Principles could underpin responses• As could increased sub-national working
Summary : Manchester• Manchester Governance is an atypical case• Current city regional interest builds on longstanding partnership activity• Greater Manchester City Region and the roles of Manchester Enterprises, the Commission and AGMA have changed rapidly
MONDAY, 24 OCTOBER 2011KIO Launch new creative company!!!KIO-CREATIVE have just completed a branding, signage and lighting scheme in the newAvenue/North development in Spinningfields Manchester. The project is now completedandthe new mall that links Bridge Street to The Avenue shopping destination is due to openThursday 27th October. This mixed use development offers food, leisure and office space.The food and retail units run along the lower level mall and the offices occupy the spaceabove in the tower. This iconic Spinninfields building formally known as Manchester Househas now been named TOWER 12 , and we think that the name change is as iconic as thebuilding!The Avenue/North TOWER12 new signage and lighting installation works really well with thenew Oast House in Spinningfields, designed and development by Paul Danson Imagineeringand Allied london Properties. The rusty steel, illuminated branding, new glass facade andwooden slatted interior all complement each other and bring a different feel toSpinningfields.Architects Sheppard Robson and KIO-CREATIVE have delivered a solution that brings thebuilding into its new developed surrounding environment of Spinningfields.
The Great Neighbourhood Award 2011Sponsored by Ptarmigan LandCathedral Quarter, BelfastNorthern Quarter, Manchester (WINNER)Pollokshields, Glasgow