Hazards of biomedical waste & its management

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  • Autoclaving, Microwaving, Incinerator & Hydroclaving
  • These processes are used to change the physical form or characteristics of the waste either to facilitate waste handling or to process the waste in conjunction with other treatment steps. The two primary mechanical processes areCompaction - used to reduce the volume of the wasteShredding - used to destroy plastic and paper waste to prevent their reuse. Only the disinfected waste can be used in a shredder.
  • With clinical waste, the colour of the container can help to identify the type of waste within. Here are some of the container types / colours that you will come across at the University. Black bags should only ever be used for uncontaminated or decontaminated, non-offensive waste. For example, in some areas they are used for autoclaved laboratory plastics. Otherwise, lab plastics will go in orange bags.Carcass / anatomical material will only ever be placed in a yellow container, etc.Other coloured containers or lids may be in use in your laboratory or area. If they are, be certain that you know what they are for.
  • Hazards of biomedical waste & its management

    1. 1. 8/23/2013 1 HEALTH HAZARDS OF BIOMEDICAL WASTE & ITS MANAGEMENT PRESENTED BY :- DR.NAVIN KUMAR
    2. 2. 8/23/2013 2 LET THE WASTE OF THE “SICK” NOT CONTAMINATE THE LIVES OF “THE HEALTHY”. K.park
    3. 3. 8/23/2013 3 DEFINITION CATEGORIES OF BIOMEDICAL WASTE PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH BIOMEDICAL WASTE NEED FOR BIOMEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT STEP TO MANAGE HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT TECHNIQUES BIOMEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION CONCLUSION CONTENTS
    4. 4. 8/23/2013 4 DEFINATION: ANY WASTE WHICH IS GENERATED DURING THE DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT OR IMMUNIZATION OF HUMAN BEINGS OR ANIMALS OR IN RESEARCH ACTIVITIES PERTAINING THERE TO OR IN THE PRODUCTION OR TESTING OF BIO MEDICALS.
    5. 5. BIOMEDICAL WASTE HOSPITAL WASTE INFECTIVE SOLID LIQUID NON- INFECTIVE SOLID 8/23/2013 5 LIQUID
    6. 6. HEALTHCARE WASTE CHARACTERIZATION WHO 8/23/2013 6 Healthcare Waste 85% Non- infectious 10% Infectious 5% Hazardous
    7. 7. CLASSIFICATION OF HOSPITAL WASTE Non-Hazardous Waste Bio- degradable Non bio- degradable Potentially Infectious Waste Dressings, swabs, laboratory wastes, instruments used in patient care.. Potentially Toxic Waste Radioactive Chemical Pharmaceutical 8/23/2013 7
    8. 8. TYPES OF BIOMEDICAL WASTES WASTE CATEGORY TYPE OF WASTE Category No. 1 Human Anatomical Waste Category No. 2 Animal Waste Category No. 3 Microbiology & Biotechnology Waste Category No. 4 Waste Sharps Category No. 5 Discarded Medicine and Cytotoxic drugs Category No. 6 Soiled Waste Category No. 7 Solid Waste Category No. 8 Liquid Waste Category No. 9 Incineration Ash Category No.10 Chemical Waste
    9. 9.  Chemical waste  Waste with high content of heavy metals  Pressurized containers  Radioactive waste • Lab reagents • Film developer • Expired disinfectants • Expired solvents • Batteries • Broken thermometers • Blood pressure guages etc • Gas cylinders • Gas catridges • Aerosol cans • Radiotherapy/lab research liquids • Contaminated glass wares, packages, absorbent papers 9
    10. 10.  Sharp waste  Pharmaceutical waste  Genotoxic waste • Needles • Infusion Sets • Scalpels • Knives Blades • Broken Glass • Expired Pharmaceuticals • Contaminated Pharmaceuticals • Banned Pharmaceuticals • Waste Containing Cytotoxic Drugs(often Used In Cancer Therapy) • Genotoxic Chemicals 10
    11. 11. HISTORY OF BIOMEDICAL WASTE August 13, 1987, prompted expansive closures of numerous New Jersey and New York beaches due to a “30-mile garbage slick” composed primarily of medical and household wastes because of illegal disposal of the waste private waste contractors to dump illegally to avoid high fees. Medical Waste Tracking Act of 1988 (MWTA). 8/23/2013 11
    12. 12. 8/23/2013 12
    13. 13. NEED FOR BMW MANAGMENT Nosocomial infections in patients from poor infection control practices and poor waste management. Drugs which have been disposed of, being repacked and sold off to unsuspecting buyers. Risk of air, water and soil pollution directly due to waste, or due to defective incineration emissions and ash. Risk of infection outside hospital for waste handlers and scavengers, other peoples.
    14. 14. CATEGORIES OF PERSONS EXPOSED TO RISK OF INFECTION Sanitation workers Medical & Paramedical staff Patients 8/23/2013 14
    15. 15. ROUTES OF TRANSMISSION By ingestion (contaminated unwashed hands, contaminated food stuffs, water etc) Intact or non intact skin, mucous membranes Inhalation of dust particles containing germs 8/23/2013 15
    16. 16. PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH BMW ORGANISM DISEASES CAUSED RELATED WASTE ITEM VIRUSES HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis A,C, Arboviruses, Enteroviruses AIDS, Infectious Hepatitis, Infectious Hepatitis, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne fevers, etc. Infected needles, body Fluids, Human excreta, soiled linen, Blood, body fluids. BACTERIA Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, Clostridium Tetani, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus Typhoid, Cholera, Tetanus Wound infections, septicemia, rheumatic fever, endocarditis, skin and soft tissue infections Human excreta and body fluid in landfills and hospital wards, Sharps such as needles, surgical blades in hospital waste. PARASITES Wucheraria Bancrofti, Plasmodium Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Kala Azar, Malaria Human excreta, blood and body fluids in poorly managed sewage system of hospitals.
    17. 17. 8/23/2013 17 WASTE IMPROPER DISPOSAL COLLECTED BY ULB SMALL SCRAP DEALERS (KAWARIWALLAH) RAG PICKERS LANDFILLS OR DUMPING GROUNDS WHOLESALE DEALER OR LARGE SCRAP DEALER RECYCLE FACTORY UNITS CONSUMER
    18. 18. 8/23/2013 18
    19. 19. BIOMEDICAL WASTE PLANNING ORGANZING IMPLEMENTING 8/23/2013 19
    20. 20. WASTE HIERARCHY PYRAMID 8/23/2013 20
    21. 21. BMW Begin a system Make it effective Work for its success 8/23/2013 21
    22. 22. OBJECTIVE OF BMW MANAGEMENT • TO MINIMIZE THE PRODUCTION/GENERATION OF INFECTIVE WASTE. • RECYCLE THE WASTE AFTER TREATING TO THE EXTENT POSSIBLE. • TREAT THE WASTE BY SAFE AND ENVIORNMENT FRIENDLY/ACCEPTABLE METHODS. • ADEQUATE CARE IN HANDLING TO PREVENT HEALTHCARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS. • SEFTY PRECAUTIONS DURING HANDLING THE BMW. 8/23/2013 22
    23. 23. COLOUR CODING OF BAGS CATEGORIES- 5,9 AND 10 (SOLID) CATEGORIES- 3,6 AND 7 CATEGORIES- 1,2,3 AND 6 CATEGORIES- 4 AND 7 SEGREGATION 8/23/2013 23
    24. 24. COLOR CODE TYPE OF CONTAINER WASTE CATEGORY TREATMENT OPTIONS Yellow Plastic bags 1, 2, 3 and 6 Incineration/deep burial Red Disinfected container/plastic bag 3, 6 & 7 Autoclaving/Micro Waving/Chemical treatment Blue/white transparent Plastic bags/puncture proof container 4 & 7 Autoclaving/Micro waving/chemical treatment, Destruction & shredding Black Plastic bag 5, & 9, AND 10 (SOLID) Disposal in secured land fills 8/23/2013 24
    25. 25. 8/23/2013 25
    26. 26. 8/23/2013 26
    27. 27. 8/23/2013 27
    28. 28. 8/23/2013 28
    29. 29. 8/23/2013 29
    30. 30. INSPECTION & RE-SEGREGATION 8/23/2013 30
    31. 31. LABEL FOR BIO-MEDICAL WASTE CONTAINERS/BAGS Note : Label shall be non-washable and prominently visible. HANDLE WITH CARE BIOHAZARD CYTOTOXIC BIOHAZARD SYMBOL CYTOTOXIC HAZARD SYMBOL
    32. 32. THERMAL PROCESSES 8/23/2013 32
    33. 33. MECHANICAL PROCESSES 8/23/2013 33
    34. 34. INCINERATION 8/23/2013 34
    35. 35. BIO MEDICAL WASTES DESTRUCTION BY DOUBLE CHAMBERED INCINERATOR 8/23/2013 35
    36. 36. INCINERATOR ASH DISPOSAL 8/23/2013 36
    37. 37. AUTOCLAVE 8/23/2013 37
    38. 38. BIO MEDICAL PLASTIC WASTES DISINFECTION BY SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE 8/23/2013 38
    39. 39. SHARP STORAGE & DISPOSAL
    40. 40. LAND DISPOSAL FACILITY FOR CITIES & TOWNS WITH POPULATION LESS THAN 5 LACS
    41. 41. BIO MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA THIS RULE APPLIES TO THOSE WHO GENERATE, COLLECT, RECEIVE, STORE, DISPOSE, TREAT OR HANDLE BIO MEDICAL WASTE IN ANY MANNER. BIOMEDICAL WASTE (MANAGEMENT AND HANDLING) RULE 1998, PRESCRIBED BY THE MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND FORESTS, GOVT OF INDIA, CAME INTO FORCE ON 20TH JULY 1998. 41
    42. 42. • THUS BIO MEDICAL WASTE SHOULD BE SEGREGATED INTO CONTAINERS/BAGS AT THE POINT OF GENERATION OF WASTE. 8/23/2013 42
    43. 43. UNDER ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION ACT,1998 BIO-MEDICAL WASTE (Management & handling) RULES 1998 1st Amendment Rules vide S.O.201(E) Dated 06/03/2000 2ndAmendment Rules vide S.O.1069(E) Dated 17/09/2003 • THE AUTHORIZATION IS REQUIRED FOR  Generation/Collection/Reception/Storage  Transportation  Treatment/Disposal  or any other form of handling.8/23/2013 43
    44. 44. 44 ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION  The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986  The Biomedical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998  The Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000  The Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989  The National Environmental Tribunal Act, 1995  The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
    45. 45. CONCLUSION • Thus refuse disposal cannot be solved without public education. • Individual participation is required. • Municipality and government should pay importance to disposal of waste economically. • Thus educating and motivating oneself first is important and then preach others about it. • Start disposing waste first from within your home, then outside home, then neighborhood ,then your street, your area ,city and then the nation and the world. • Lets make this world a better place to live in. 45

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