Data collection and analysis [compatibility mode]
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Data collection and analysis [compatibility mode] Data collection and analysis [compatibility mode] Presentation Transcript

  • AN OVERVIEW ON INFECTION CONTROL DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS 12/31/2013 ١
  • DATA COLLECTION  Healthcare Associated Infections (HAIs) VAP, CLABSI, CAUTI & SSI.  Hand Hygiene  Alert Organisms  Sharp Injuries 12/31/2013 ٢
  • DATA PROCESSING Data are collected , analyzed, and transformed into useful information 12/31/2013 ٣
  • Presentation Outline  CDC Criteria of HAIs  Type & Methodology of Surveillance work  Design an interpretive surveillance report  Data display  Benchmarking  Benchmarking requirements and problems 12/31/2013 ٤
  • What is Surveillance? The ongoing, system collection, analysis, and interpretation of health data essential to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health practice, closely integrated with timely dissemination of these data to those who need to know. 12/31/2013 ٥
  • SURVEILLANCE, Why? 12/31/2013 ٦
  • Purposes of Surveillance-1 1. Reducing the infection rate within a hospital. 2. Establishing endemic (baseline) rates. 3. Identifying outbreaks. 12/31/2013 ٧
  • Purposes of Surveillance-2 4. Convincing medical staff. 5. Defending malpractice claims. 6. Comparing infection rates among hospitals. 12/31/2013 ٨
  • Steps in Surveillance Definition of the event(s). Systematic collection of data. Preparation of Surveillance Report Analysis & interpretation. Benchmarking. Consuming the results for improvement. 12/31/2013 ٩
  • Making Surveillance Work Measurement Knowledge Action 12/31/2013 Case definitions Accurate data Systematic collection Planning Active feedback Engage leaders &clinicians Training Audit and evaluate practice Stimulate change What can be improved & how? ١٠
  • SURVEILLANCE FOR WHAT? 12/31/2013 ١١
  • Device-Associated Infection  There is no minimum period of time that the device must be in place for the infection to be considered device-associated.  The date of the device-associated HAI event is either the date on which the first clinical evidence appeared or the date on which the specimen used to meet the HAI criteria was collected, whichever came first.  If the device-associated HAI develops within 48 hours of discharge from a location, then the HAI is associated with the discharging location. 12/31/2013 ١٢
  • Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection (CLABSI) Event  A CLABSI is a primary bloodstream infection (BSI) in a patient who had a central line or umbilical catheter in place at the time of or within 48 hours before onset of the BSI.  Use 12/31/2013 CDC Criteria for Identification ١٣
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) Event:  A VAP is pneumonia (PNEU) that is identified using a combination of radiologic, clinical and laboratory criteria and occurs in a patient who was intubated and ventilated at the time of or within 48 hours before the onset of pneumonia.  Use 12/31/2013 CDC Criteria for Identification ١٤
  • Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI) Event:  CAUTI is defined as a symptomatic urinary tract infection (SUTI) or asymptomatic bacteremic UTI (ABUTI) in a patient who had an indwelling urinary catheter at the time of or within 48 hours before onset of the event.  Use 12/31/2013 CDC Criteria for Identification ١٥
  • Dialysis Event (DE) Hospitalization In-unit IV antimicrobial starts Positive blood culture 12/31/2013 All hospitalizations that involved an overnight stay in a hospital and is not limited to infections or situations All IV antimicrobial starts and is not limited to those with vancomycin or for a vascular access problem All patients with a positive blood culture even if they did not have an associated hospitalization or in-unit IV antimicrobial start ١٦
  • PROCEDURE-ASSOCIATED MODULE Surgical Site Infection (SSI) Event: The SSI is an infection that occurs within 30 days (or within one year for an implant in the case of organ/space SSI) after an operative procedure that involves the skin or subcutaneous tissue (superficial incisional SSI), deep soft tissue (deep incisional SSI), or any other part of the body that is opened or manipulated during the operative procedure (organ/space SSI). Use CDC Criteria for Identification 12/31/2013 ١٧
  • Post-Procedure Pneumonia (PPP) Event:  PPE is a pneumonia that is identified using a combination of radiological, clinical and laboratory criteria (such as VAP) and occurs after an inpatient operation but prior to discharge. 12/31/2013 ١٨
  • Location/Period of Surveillance Events       CLABSI: Surveillance for CLABSI in at least one location (ICU, NICU, SCA, others) in the healthcare institution for at least one calendar month. VAP: Surveillance for VAP in at least one location (ICU, NICU, SCA, others) in the healthcare institution for at least one calendar month CAUTI: Surveillance for CAUTI performed in at least one location (ICU, SCA, others) in the healthcare institution for at least one calendar month DE: Surveillance for DE for at least 6 months among chronic hemodialysis patients at an outpatient hemodialysis facility SSI: Surveillance for at least one NHSN operative procedure performed in surgical patients in any inpatient/outpatient setting for at least one month PPP: Surveillance for at least one NHSN operative procedure performed only in a surgical inpatient setting for at least one month 12/31/2013 ١٩
  • SURVEILLANCE METHODOLOGY The Patient Safety surveillance modules  Active  Patient-based  Prospective,  Priority-directed surveillance  Of device/medication/procedure-associated infection events  Their corresponding denominator data by a trained infection control professional (ICP). 12/31/2013 ٢٠
  • SURVEILLANCE METHODOLOGY Active surveillance a) Trained personnel, mainly ICPs, are vigorously look for HAIs b) Information is accumulated using a variety of data sources within and beyond the nursing ward  Passive surveillance a) Persons who do not have a primary surveillance role, such as ward nurses or respiratory therapists, identify and report HAIs  12/31/2013 ٢١
  • Patient-based and laboratory-based surveillance 1. Patient-based surveillance a) Count HAIs, assess risk factors, and monitor patient care procedures and practices for adherence to infection control principles b) Requires ward rounds and discussion with caregivers 2. Laboratory-based surveillance a) Detection is based solely on the findings of laboratory studies of clinical Specimens. 12/31/2013 ٢٢
  • Prospective and Retrospective Surveillance 1. Prospective surveillance a) Monitor patients during their hospitalization b) For SSIs, also monitor during the post-discharge period 2. Retrospective surveillance a) Identify infections via chart reviews after patient discharge 12/31/2013 ٢٣
  • Priority-directed and comprehensive surveillance 1. Priority-directed surveillance (Targeted or focused surveillance) a) Objectives for surveillance are defined b) The focus is on specific events, processes, organisms, and/or patient populations 2. Comprehensive surveillance Universal Surveillance a) Continuous monitoring of all patients for all events and/or processes 12/31/2013 ٢٤
  • Risk-based Unit-based Pathogen-based Procedure-based 12/31/2013 25
  • Surveillance Collection Forms MC 2 7 0 5 (R e v . 0 6 /0 4 ) V a n d e r b i l t U n i v e rs ity M e d ic a l C en te r M o n ro e C a re ll J r. OR at V an d e r b il t N u r s i n g C h e c k l i s t: C e n tr a l V e n o u s C a t h e te r I n s e r ti o n N O T E : P le a s e u s e e i th e r b l a c k o r b l u e i n k to c o m p l e te th i s f o rm . CCU B I CU M R #: T im e s t ar t ( 1 s t n e e d le s ti c k ) : In s e r t io n S it e : In t e r n a l J u g u l a r S ub c lav ia n F em or a l O th e r ( s p e c i fy ) : S id e : Rig ht L e ft L is t a ll s it e s w h e r e in s e r t io n w a s a t te m p t e d . R IJ L IJ RS C L SC M IC U PCCU / : D a te : T y p e o f c a th e t e r : D ou ble lum e n Tr i p le lu m e n In t ro d u c e r S w a n- G a n z V a s c a th TI C U NI C U RF N SI C U O th e r S I CU P le a s e u s e m il i ta ry ti m e (i .e . 1 :0 0 p m i s 1 3 :0 0 ) / T im e en d ( c a th e te r s e c u r e d ) : In d ic a t io n s fo r u s e : P r es s or s H e m o d y n a m i c m o n i t. F l u i d s /b l o o d p r o d u c ts F r e q u e n t la b d r a w s LF : C h e c k if : C o n s e n t o b ta i n e d P t /F a m i l y t e a c h i n g d o n e G uid ew ir e e x c h an ge O th e r ( s p e c i fy ) : T h e p r o v id e r in s e r t in g t h is lin e : a . H a n d e d - o f f h is /h e r pa g e r b e fo r e th e p r o c e d u r e ? Yes No D id n’t as k b . W a s h e d h a n d s im m e d ia te ly p r io r to p r o c e d u r e ? Yes No D id n’t as k c . H a s p r e v io u s ly p la c e d a t le a s t f iv e ( 5 ) c e n t r a l lin e s ? Yes No * D id n’t as k * If “ N o ” , w a s th is p r o c e d u r e s u p e rv is e d b y s om e on e w ith le a s t f iv e ( 5 ) c e n t r a l lin e s e x p e r ie n c e ? Ye s No Did n’t a s k B a r r ie r p r e c a u t io n s ( c h e c k a n y u s e d ) : S t er ile glov es S te r il e g o w n Ma sk S te r i le to w e l s F ull bo dy dr a pe D e s c r ib e th e le v e l o f t r a in in g o f t he p e r s o n w h o a c t u a ll y in s e r t e d t h e lin e ? M e d i c a l S tu d e n t In te r n ( P G Y -1 ) R e s i d e n t (P G Y - 2 + ) F ellow A tte n d i n g N u r s e P ra c ti ti o n e r H o w m a n y d if f e r e n t ne e d le s t ic k s d id t h e p a tie n t r e c e iv e ( n u m b e r o f s k in b r e a k s ) ? 1 2 3 4 5 6+ U n k no w n W a s t h e s t e r ile f ie ld m a in t a in e d t h r o u g h ou t th e e n t ir e p r o c e d u r e ? Yes P r e - in s e r tio n s k in p r e p (c h e c k a n y u s e d ) : A lc o ho l B e ta d i n e (p o v i d o n e -i o d i n e ) O th e r ( s p e c i fy ) : C h lo r h e x i d i n e D e s c r ib e th e c ir c u m s t a n c e s u n de r w h ic h t h is lin e w a s p la c e d : No n- e m e r ge nt E m e r g e n t ( l i fe - th r e a te n i n g o r c o d e s i t u a ti o n ) F o llo w - u p C X R : O r d e re d C X R f in d in g s (c h e c k a ll t h a t a p p ly ) : N o p n e u m o th o r a x C a t h e te r i n g o o d p o s i t io n P n e u m o t h o r a x (d e s c r i b e a c ti o n t a k e n ): C a th e te r p o s i ti o n a d ju s te d ( d e s c r i b e ) : T y p e o f d re s s in g : B io - oc c lus iv e D r e s s in g a p p lie d b y : Nu r s e G a uz e O th e r ( s p e c i fy ) : P r o c e d u r a li s t P a t ie n t to le r a t e d t he p r oc e d u r e w e ll? C o m p lic a tio n s ? No ne No P r e -e x i s ti n g i n fe c ti o n N o t o r d e r e d ( s p e c i fy r e a s o n ): O th e r ( s p e c i fy ) : Ye s No C o m m e n ts : P l a c e m e n t u n s u c c e s s fu l O th e r ( d e s c ri b e ) : P l e a s e f ile p a g e 2 in p a t ie n t s c h a r t a n d r e t u r n t o p f o r m t o t h e de s ig n a te d lo c a t io n i n th e IC U . S ig n a t u r e : _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ D a t e : _ _ __ __ _ __ __ _ __ __ _ MC 2 7 0 5 (R e v . 0 6 /0 4 ) Va n d e r b i l t U n i v e rs ity M e d ic a l C en te r M o n ro e C a rell J r. OR at V an d e r b il t N u r s i n g C h e c k l i s t: C e n tr a l V e n o u s C a t he te r I n s e r ti o n NO T E : P le a s e u s e eith er blac k o r blue in k to c om ple te th is f o rm . CCU B I CU M R #: T im e s t ar t ( 1 s t ne ed le s tic k ) : In se rt io n S it e : S id e : Int er na l J ugu lar Rig ht S ub c lav ia n Le ft F em or a l O th er ( s pe c ify ) : L ist all sit e s w h e re in s e rt io n w a s a t te m p t e d . R IJ L IJ RS C L SC M IC U PCCU / : D a te : T yp e o f c a th e t er : D ou ble lum e n Tr ip le lu m e n Int ro d uc e r S w a n- G a n z V as c a th TI C U NI C U N SI C U O the r S I CU P le a s e u s e m il i ta ry ti m e (i .e . 1 :0 0 p m i s 1 3 :0 0 ) / T im e en d ( c a th ete r s ec ur e d) : In d ic at io n s fo r u se : C h e ck if : P r es s or s C on s e nt o bta ine d H e m o dy na m ic m o nit. P t /F a m ily t e ac h ing do ne F luid s /b lo od pr o du c ts G uid ew ir e e x c h an ge F r e qu en t la b dr aw s RF : LF O th er ( s pe c ify ) : T h e p ro v id e r in s e rt in g t h is lin e : a. H a n d ed - o f f h is /h e r pa g e r b e fo r e th e p ro c e d u re ? Yes No D id n’t as k b . W a s h ed h an d s im m e d ia te ly p rio r to p ro c ed u re ? Yes No D id n’t as k c. H a s p rev io u s ly p la c ed a t le a st f iv e ( 5) c en t ra l lin e s ? Yes No * D id n’t as k * If “ No ” , w as th is p ro c ed u re s u p e rv is e d b y s om e on e w ith le as t f iv e ( 5) c en t ra l lin e s e x p erie n c e? Ye s No Did n’t a s k Ba rr ier p re c au t io n s ( ch e c k a n y u se d ) : S t er ile glov es S te r ile g ow n Ma sk S te r ile tow e ls F ull bo dy dr a pe De s c rib e th e lev e l o f t ra in in g o f t he p ers o n w h o a ct u a ll y in se rt e d t h e lin e ? M e dic al S tu de nt In te r n ( P G Y -1 ) Re s ide nt (P G Y - 2+ ) F ellow A tte nd in g N u r s e P ra c titio ne r Ho w m a n y d if f er en t ne e d le st ic k s d id t h e p a tie n t r ec eiv e ( n u m b e r o f s kin b re ak s ) ? 1 2 3 4 5 6+ U n k no w n W a s t h e st e rile f ie ld m ain t a in e d t h ro u g h ou t th e e n t ire p ro c ed u re? Yes P re - in s er tio n s kin p re p (c h e ck a n y u se d ) : A lc o ho l B e ta dine (p ov id on e -io din e) O th er ( s pe c ify ) : Ch lo r he x id ine De s c rib e th e c irc u m st an ce s u n de r w h ic h t h is lin e w as p lac e d : No n- e m e r ge nt E m e r ge n t ( life - thr e a te ning o r c o de s it ua tion ) F o llo w - u p C X R : O r de re d CX R f in d in g s (c h e ck a ll t h a t a p p ly) : No p ne u m o th or a x C at he te r in g oo d po s it io n T yp e o f d re s sin g : P n eu m ot ho r ax (d es c r ibe a c tio n t a k en ): C a the te r p os itio n ad ju s te d ( de s c r ibe ) : B io - oc c lus iv e G a uz e O th er ( s pe c ify ) : Nu r s e P r o c e dur a lis t Dr es s in g a p p lie d b y : P a t ien t to le ra t ed t he p roc e d u re w e ll? Ye s Co m p lic a tio n s? No ne No P r e -e x is tin g in fe c tio n No t or de r e d ( s pe c ify r e as o n ): O th er ( s pe c ify ) : No C o m m e n ts : P la c e m e nt un s uc c e s s ful O th er ( d es c rib e) : P l e as e f ile p ag e 2 in p at ie n t s ch a rt a n d re t u rn t o p f o rm t o t h e de s ig n a te d lo ca t io n i n th e IC U . S ig n at u re : _ __ __ _ __ __ __ _ __ __ __ _ __ __ __ _ __ __ _ __ __ __ _ __ __ __ _ D a t e : _ _ __ __ _ __ __ _ __ __ _ MC 2 7 0 5 (R e v . 0 6 /0 4 ) V a n d e r b i l t U n i v e rs ity M e d ic a l C en te r M o n ro e C a re ll J r. OR at V an d e r b il t N u r s i n g C h e c k l i s t: C e n tr a l V e n o u s C a t h e te r I n s e r ti o n N O T E : P le a s e u s e e i th e r b l a c k o r b l u e i n k to c o m p l e te th i s f o rm . CCU B I CU M R #: D a te : T y p e o f c a th e t e r : D ou ble lum e n Tr i p le lu m e n In t ro d u c e r S w a n- G a n z V a s c a th T im e s t ar t ( 1 s t n e e d le s ti c k ) : In s e r t io n S it e : In t e r n a l J u g u l a r S ub c lav ia n F em or a l O th e r ( s p e c i fy ) : L is t a ll s it e s w h e r e in s e r t io n w a s a t te m p t e d . R IJ L IJ RS C L SC S id e : Rig ht L e ft M IC U PCCU / : TI C U NI C U RF N SI C U O th e r S I CU P le a s e u s e m il i ta ry ti m e (i .e . 1 :0 0 p m i s 1 3 :0 0 ) / T im e en d ( c a th e te r s e c u r e d ) : In d ic a t io n s fo r u s e : P r es s or s H e m o d y n a m i c m o n i t. F l u i d s /b l o o d p r o d u c ts F r e q u e n t la b d r a w s LF : C h e c k if : C o n s e n t o b ta i n e d P t /F a m i l y t e a c h i n g d o n e G uid ew ir e e x c h an ge O th e r ( s p e c i fy ) : T h e p r o v id e r in s e r t in g t h is lin e : a . H a n d e d - o f f h is /h e r pa g e r b e fo r e th e p r o c e d u r e ? Yes No D id n’t as k b . W a s h e d h a n d s im m e d ia te ly p r io r to p r o c e d u r e ? Yes No D id n’t as k c . H a s p r e v io u s ly p la c e d a t le a s t f iv e ( 5 ) c e n t r a l lin e s ? Yes No * D id n’t as k * If “ N o ” , w a s th is p r o c e d u r e s u p e rv is e d b y s om e on e w ith le a s t f iv e ( 5 ) c e n t r a l lin e s e x p e r ie n c e ? Ye s No Did n’t a s k B a r r ie r p r e c a u t io n s ( c h e c k a n y u s e d ) : S t er ile glov es S te r il e g o w n Ma sk S te r i le to w e l s D e s c r ib e th e le v e l o f t r a in in g o f t he p e r s o n w h o a c t u a ll y in s e r t e d t h e lin e ? M e d i c a l S tu d e n t In te r n ( P G Y -1 ) R e s i d e n t (P G Y - 2 + ) F ellow H o w m a n y d if f e r e n t ne e d le s t ic k s d id t h e p a tie n t r e c e iv e ( n u m b e r o f s k in b r e a k s ) ? 1 2 3 4 5 6+ U n k no w n W a s t h e s t e r ile f ie ld m a in t a in e d t h r o u g h ou t th e e n t ir e p r o c e d u r e ? Yes P r e - in s e r tio n s k in p r e p (c h e c k a n y u s e d ) : A lc o ho l B e ta d i n e (p o v i d o n e -i o d i n e ) F ull bo dy dr a pe A tte n d i n g N u r s e P ra c ti ti o n e r O th e r ( s p e c i fy ) : C h lo r h e x i d i n e D e s c r ib e th e c ir c u m s t a n c e s u n de r w h ic h t h is lin e w a s p la c e d : No n- e m e r ge nt E m e r g e n t ( l i fe - th r e a te n i n g o r c o d e s i t u a ti o n ) F o llo w - u p C X R : O r d e re d C X R f in d in g s (c h e c k a ll t h a t a p p ly ) : N o p n e u m o th o r a x C a t h e te r i n g o o d p o s i t io n T y p e o f d re s s in g : B io - oc c lus iv e D r e s s in g a p p lie d b y : Nu r s e P a t ie n t to le r a t e d t he p r oc e d u r e w e ll? C o m p lic a tio n s ? No ne No P r e -e x i s ti n g i n fe c ti o n N o t o r d e r e d ( s p e c i fy r e a s o n ): P n e u m o t h o r a x (d e s c r i b e a c ti o n t a k e n ): C a th e te r p o s i ti o n a d ju s te d ( d e s c r i b e ) : G a uz e O th e r ( s p e c i fy ) : P r o c e d u r a li s t Ye s P l a c e m e n t u n s u c c e s s fu l O th e r ( s p e c i fy ) : No C o m m e n ts : O th e r ( d e s c ri b e ) : P l e a s e f ile p a g e 2 in p a t ie n t s c h a r t a n d r e t u r n t o p f o r m t o t h e de s ig n a te d lo c a t io n i n th e IC U . S ig n a t u r e : _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 12/31/2013 D a t e : _ _ __ __ _ __ __ _ __ __ _ ٢٦
  • SURVEILLANCE DATA ANALYSIS 1. Incidence rate: This rate is a measure of the frequency with which an event occurs in a population over a defined time period. The numerator is the number of new cases that occur during the defned time period, and the denominator is the population at risk. 2. Prevalence rate: This rate is the proportion of persons in a population who have a particular disease or condition (new and previously existing) at a specified point in time or over a specified period of time. Note: Attack rate is a type of incidence rate used to measure the frequency of new cases of a disease or condition in a specifc population during a given (short) period of time and is expressed as a percentage. 12/31/2013 ٢٧
  •  Incidence = new cases x constant (1000) population at risk  Prevalence = existing cases x constant(1000) population at risk 12/31/2013 28
  • SURVEILLANCE DATA ANALYSIS  Measures of Frequency: 1. Rate: an expression of the frequency with which an event occurs in a defined population; for example, the CLABSI incidence rate is 5.3 per 1,000 CL-days 2. Ratio: the value obtained by dividing one quantity by another; for example, the ratio of females to males is 2:1 3. Proportion: a type of ratio in which the values in the numerator are included in(i.e., are a subset of) the denominator; for example, 33% of the population is in risk category 1 12/31/2013 ٢٩
  • ½ X 1,000 12/31/2013 30
  • Population at risk  Patient days / residents days  Device days   central line days  ventilator days  Foley catheter days  Procedures performed 12/31/2013 31
  •  HAIs cases-SSI, VAP, CLABSI, CAUTI.  Positive blood cultures  Positive VRE  Positive MRSA  Patients on vancomycin 12/31/2013 32
  • Calculating Rates CLABSI Infection Rate = No. of HAIs associated with Central Line x 1000 No. of Central Line days Utilization Ratio of Central Line = No. of days of the Central Line used Total no. of patient days 12/31/2013 ٣٣
  • Calculating Rates CAUTI Infection Rate = No. of HAIs associated with Urinary Catheter 1000 No. of urinary catheter days Utilization Ratio of Urinary Catheter = No. of days of the Urinary Catheter Total no. of patient days 12/31/2013 ٣٤
  • Calculating Rates VAP Infection Rate = No. of HAIs associated with ventilator x 1000 No. of ventilator days Utilization Ratio of Ventilator = No. of days of the catheter used Total no. of patient days 12/31/2013 ٣٥
  • Calculating Rates SSI Rate by Type of Operation = No. of SSI in a specific type of operation x 100 Total no. of that operation 12/31/2013 ٣٦
  • Surveillance Report 1.Define the event, population, setting and time period ( e.g. surgical site infections in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft in hospital A from January through December 2013 12/31/2013 ٣٧
  • Surveillance Report 2. State the criteria used for defining a case (CDC criteria) 3. Specify the number of cases or events identified and the number in population studied (e.g. 2 surgical site infections in 179 total hip replacement procedures performed) 12/31/2013 ٣٨
  • Surveillance Report 4. Explain the methodology used to identify cases (e.g., case reports from personnel and review of medical records and laboratory results. 12/31/2013 ٣٩
  • Surveillance Report 5. Identify the statistical methods and calculations used, when appropriate (e.g., SSI Rate in April = # patients with SSI after selected operations in April/ Total # of selected operations performed in April x 1000) 12/31/2013 ٤٠
  • Surveillance Report 6. State the purpose for conducting surveillance ( e.g., to reduce the rate of occurrence of an event). 7. Interpret the findings in a manner that is understandable to those who read the report. 12/31/2013 ٤١
  • Surveillance Report 8. Describe any actions taken and recommendations made for prevention and control measures. 9. Identify the author and date of the report. 10. Identify the recipients of the report 12/31/2013 ٤٢
  • Design an Interpretive Surveillance Report The report should be disseminated to those managers and healthcare providers in the organization who can use the findings to influence performance improvement activities. Monthly Surveillance Report 12/31/2013 ٤٣
  • Data Display Tools Tables Bar Charts Histograms Pie Charts Run charts Statistical Process Control Charts 12/31/2013 ٤٤
  • Graphic Analytical Analysis  Bar graph  Line graph  Pie graph 12/31/2013 ٤٥
  • 12/31/2013 ٤٦
  • 12/31/2013 ٤٧
  • Tables, Graphs, and Charts  Complete Title describing the contents  Limited information  Labels describe the content Make it concise and easily readable  If you use codes, abbreviations, or symbols, use footnotes to explain Monthly Surveillance Statistics 12/31/2013 ٤٨
  • Why Analyze, Display and Report Data?          Tracking and Trending Trends/changes overtime Seasonal occurrences Outbreaks Sentinel events Benchmarking/ Comparison Compare to others Detects areas for improvement Use to improve performance 12/31/2013 ٤٩
  • BENCHMARKING  Benchmarking is the process of comparing oneself to others who are performing similar activities, so as to continuously improve.  The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN)in the US is the oldest and most widely used network for benchmarking. 12/31/2013 ٥٠
  • Requirement for Successful Benchmarking  Criteria for defining a case are standardized and up to date.  The population and time period for the study are well defined.  The surveillance methodology is standardized and consistently used by all of the participants over time.  Rates and ratios are calculated using the same numerators (number of cases) and denominators (population at risk).  All data collectors receive training on how to collect data and use a standardized form.  The facility and population that is compared is similar to the types of facilities and populations in an aggregate database used for external comparison NHSN Report 2010 12/31/2013 ٥١
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  • Teamwork and Effective Communication For Successive Surveillance Work 12/31/2013 ٥٣