1
• THIAMINE•B1• By•DR MUSTANSAR
• Thiamine was the first of the water solubleB vitamins to be identified as an essentialnutrient. Chemically, it consists ...
• Naturally occurring B1 consists mostly ofthiamine phosphates. In pharmaceuticals,water-soluble thiamine derivatives like...
B1: structure & function
7THIAMINE (VIT B1)It is also called Anti Beri-Beri factor, AntiNeuritic factor.It is colorless basic organic compoundcom...
8Source• PLANTCEREALS,PEAS, BEANS, NUTSVEGETABLES• ANIMALLIVER,KIDNEY, EGGS, PORKMEAT, MILK
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)SOURCES Cereals Pulses Oil seeds Nuts Yeast Meat Fish Egg MilkRDA: Adults 1.2-1.5 mg/day
10Absorption and excretionIt is readily absorbed from both small & largeintestine.The capacity of human intestine to abs...
BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS: THIAMINE• TPP [cocaroxylase] being an essentialpart of the decarboxylatingdehydrogenases acts as a ...
ii. Conversion of α-Ketoglutarate to succinyl-SCoAiii. TPP acts as coenzyme in reactionscatalyzed by transketolaseiv. Tryp...
v. TPP is a coenzyme for mitochondrialbranched chain α-ketoaciddehydrogenases [decarboxylases] whichoxidatively decarboxyl...
v. In the nervous system: TPP is a cofactorfor the synthesis of acetylcholine.vi. TPP also acts as a coenzyme [co-carboxyl...
THIAMIN IMPORTANCE
18FunctionsEssential for normal growth and developmentEssential for maintaining nerves in normalconditionNervous tissue...
FUNCTIONSEssential for normal functioning of nervesCo-enzymatic activities- carbohydrate,nucleic acid and energy synthesis
20Daily requirementMen – 1.3 mgwomen – 1.0 mgPregnancy and lactation 2mgChildren – 1.1mg.
DEFICIENCY Beri beriEarliest symptoms:anorexiadyspepsiaheaviness and weakness of legs.calf tenderness
22DeficiencyNervous disorders – when cells cannotmetabolize glucose, it affects the nervoussystem first, since it depends...
Digestive symptoms- it occurs due todefective hydrochloric acid production in thestomach patient complains of loss of app...
24PROLONGED DEFICIENCYBERI BERIa) DRY BERI BERIb) WET BERI BERI..c) INFANTILE BERI BERIOther diseases which can be assoc...
25BERI-BERIEarly symptoms: Irritability, fatigue, restlessness,decreased appetite.Later symptoms: tingling numbness in ...
26DRY BERI BERIClinical features:- it is peripheral neuropathy. In long standing cases, there is degenerationand demyeli...
Wet beri beri Dry Beri beri Oedema of legs, face Progressive muscle weaknes andtrunk and serous cavities. disability Cal...
28Wet beri beriIt is marked by cardiac dilation with four chamberenlargement, pallor and flabbiness ofmyocardium.Etiolog...
Infantile Beri beri Infants born to mother with low thiamine intheir breast milk. Restlessness and sleeplessness Anorex...
30
Wernicke-korsakoff psychosisSeen mostly in chronic alcoholicsBody demand of thiamine increases inalcoholismCharacterized...
Clinical features Odema- leg, face.AnorexiaDyspepsiaRapid pulse
36Oral manifestationThere is hypersensitivity of oral mucosaPain in tongue, teeth, jaw, and face
37Pathogenesis-DeficiencyIncomplete metabolism of glucoseAccumulation of pyruvic acid & lactic acid intissue & body fluidD...
38ManagementComplete restThiamine 50mg IM for 3 days then 10mg 3times daily by oral route. Infantile beriberi is treate...
VITAMIN B1  THIAMINE    MUHAMMAD MUSTANSAR
VITAMIN B1  THIAMINE    MUHAMMAD MUSTANSAR
VITAMIN B1  THIAMINE    MUHAMMAD MUSTANSAR
VITAMIN B1  THIAMINE    MUHAMMAD MUSTANSAR
VITAMIN B1  THIAMINE    MUHAMMAD MUSTANSAR
VITAMIN B1  THIAMINE    MUHAMMAD MUSTANSAR
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Transcript of "VITAMIN B1 THIAMINE MUHAMMAD MUSTANSAR"

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. • THIAMINE•B1• By•DR MUSTANSAR
  3. 3. • Thiamine was the first of the water solubleB vitamins to be identified as an essentialnutrient. Chemically, it consists of asubstituted pyrimidine ring (A) and athiazole, connected by a methyl group.The term vitamin B1 encompassesseveral compounds with thiamine-likeeffects.
  4. 4. • Naturally occurring B1 consists mostly ofthiamine phosphates. In pharmaceuticals,water-soluble thiamine derivatives likethiamine hydrochloride or nitrate as wellas lipophilic thiamine analogues likebenfo-thiamine or fursulthiamine are used.
  5. 5. B1: structure & function
  6. 6. 7THIAMINE (VIT B1)It is also called Anti Beri-Beri factor, AntiNeuritic factor.It is colorless basic organic compoundcomposed of a sulfated pyramidine ring.
  7. 7. 8Source• PLANTCEREALS,PEAS, BEANS, NUTSVEGETABLES• ANIMALLIVER,KIDNEY, EGGS, PORKMEAT, MILK
  8. 8. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)SOURCES Cereals Pulses Oil seeds Nuts Yeast Meat Fish Egg MilkRDA: Adults 1.2-1.5 mg/day
  9. 9. 10Absorption and excretionIt is readily absorbed from both small & largeintestine.The capacity of human intestine to absorb thisvitamin is limited to about 5mg per day.Any excess supply of thiamine is excreted inthe urine.
  10. 10. BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS: THIAMINE• TPP [cocaroxylase] being an essentialpart of the decarboxylatingdehydrogenases acts as a cofactor inmany important reactions in carbohydratemetabolism i.e., dehydrogenase [PDH]complex and α-ketoglutaratedehydrogenase [αKGDH] complexi. Oxidative Decarboxylation of α-ketoacids
  11. 11. ii. Conversion of α-Ketoglutarate to succinyl-SCoAiii. TPP acts as coenzyme in reactionscatalyzed by transketolaseiv. Tryptophan metabolism:Tryptophan pyrrolaseTryptophan N-formylkynurenineO2
  12. 12. v. TPP is a coenzyme for mitochondrialbranched chain α-ketoaciddehydrogenases [decarboxylases] whichoxidatively decarboxylate α-ketoacidsformed in the catabolsim of valine, leucineand isoleucline.
  13. 13. v. In the nervous system: TPP is a cofactorfor the synthesis of acetylcholine.vi. TPP also acts as a coenzyme [co-carboxylase] for pyruvate carboxylase inyeast for non-oxidative decaroxylation ofpyruvate to acetaldehyde.
  14. 14. THIAMIN IMPORTANCE
  15. 15. 18FunctionsEssential for normal growth and developmentEssential for maintaining nerves in normalconditionNervous tissue – it plays important role in thenormal functioning of the entire nervoussystem.Digestion – it aids in the digestion especiallythat of carbohydrates.
  16. 16. FUNCTIONSEssential for normal functioning of nervesCo-enzymatic activities- carbohydrate,nucleic acid and energy synthesis
  17. 17. 20Daily requirementMen – 1.3 mgwomen – 1.0 mgPregnancy and lactation 2mgChildren – 1.1mg.
  18. 18. DEFICIENCY Beri beriEarliest symptoms:anorexiadyspepsiaheaviness and weakness of legs.calf tenderness
  19. 19. 22DeficiencyNervous disorders – when cells cannotmetabolize glucose, it affects the nervoussystem first, since it depends entirely onglucose for its energy requirement. & There ismental depression.
  20. 20. Digestive symptoms- it occurs due todefective hydrochloric acid production in thestomach patient complains of loss of appetite,poor digestion, loss of weight.
  21. 21. 24PROLONGED DEFICIENCYBERI BERIa) DRY BERI BERIb) WET BERI BERI..c) INFANTILE BERI BERIOther diseases which can be associated with itarewernickes encephalopathyperipheral neuritiskorsakoff’s psychosis.
  22. 22. 25BERI-BERIEarly symptoms: Irritability, fatigue, restlessness,decreased appetite.Later symptoms: tingling numbness in the extremities dyspnoea cyanosis unusual behaviour seizures loss of conscious
  23. 23. 26DRY BERI BERIClinical features:- it is peripheral neuropathy. In long standing cases, there is degenerationand demyelination of both sensory & motornerveINFANTILE BERI BERI Vomiting Weight loss Convulsions
  24. 24. Wet beri beri Dry Beri beri Oedema of legs, face Progressive muscle weaknes andtrunk and serous cavities. disability Calf muscles are swollen and tender Neurological manifestations Palpitation and breathlessness Low diastolic BP, high systolic. Fast pulse Heart becomes weakerand patient dies of heart failure
  25. 25. 28Wet beri beriIt is marked by cardiac dilation with four chamberenlargement, pallor and flabbiness ofmyocardium.Etiology :-Diet Alcoholics- interferes with intestinal absorptionof thiamine
  26. 26. Infantile Beri beri Infants born to mother with low thiamine intheir breast milk. Restlessness and sleeplessness Anorexia, vomiting and breathlessness cardiac dilatation and failure. Sudden death if not treated urgently withthiamine.
  27. 27. 30
  28. 28. Wernicke-korsakoff psychosisSeen mostly in chronic alcoholicsBody demand of thiamine increases inalcoholismCharacterized by:• Dementia• Apathy• Nystagmus
  29. 29. Clinical features Odema- leg, face.AnorexiaDyspepsiaRapid pulse
  30. 30. 36Oral manifestationThere is hypersensitivity of oral mucosaPain in tongue, teeth, jaw, and face
  31. 31. 37Pathogenesis-DeficiencyIncomplete metabolism of glucoseAccumulation of pyruvic acid & lactic acid intissue & body fluidDilation of peripheral blood vesselsFluid may leak out through capillaries,producing edemaHigh cardiac output, heart dilation.
  32. 32. 38ManagementComplete restThiamine 50mg IM for 3 days then 10mg 3times daily by oral route. Infantile beriberi is treated via mothers milk.The mother should receive 10,000mcg twicedaily, in addition infant should be giventhiamine in doses of 10,000 to 20,000 mcg IMonce in a day for 3 days

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