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  • 3. • Folic acid (also known as folate, vitaminM, vitamin B9(or folacin), pteroyl-L-glutamic acid, pteroyl-L-glutamate,• and pteroylmonoglutamic acid are formsof the water-soluble vitamin B9.
  • 4. • Folic acid is itself not biologically active,but its• biological importance is due totetrahydrofolate and other derivatives afterits conversion to dihydrofolic acid in theliver
  • 5. • Folate and folic acid derive their namesfrom the Latin word folium (which means"leaf"). Leafy vegetables are principalsources of folic acid,
  • 6. 6it is also known as folacin or folate.it is water soluble vitamin .it is yellow crystalline substance.
  • 7. • Chemically it consists of pteridine, para-aminobenzoic acid, and glutamate (Pte-GLU). Additional glutamate groups maybe added via the γ-carboxylate group,resulting in polyglutamates (PteGLUn).Folic acid can occur in the reduced or theoxidized form,
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  • 11. Folic acid structure
  • 12. Sources• Certain foods are very high in folate:• Leafy vegetables such as spinach,asparagus, turnip greens, lettuce andsome Asian vegetables[• Legumes such as dried or fresh beans,peas and lentils• Egg yolk
  • 13. • Bakers yeast• Fortified grain products (pasta, cereal, bread);some breakfast cereals (ready-to-eat andothers) are fortified with folate• Sunflower seeds• Liver and liver products contain high amounts offolate• Kidney
  • 14. VITAMIN B9 (Folic Acid)SOURCES Liver Yeast Kidney Green leafyvegetables Meat FishRDA: 100 microgm/day
  • 15. 17Absorption & excretionIt is readily absorbed in the jejunum & ileumof small intestine .storage – liver.Excretion –through feces and urine
  • 16. COENZYME FORMS OF FOLIC ACID:1. Tetrahydrofolic acid, FH4:2. Folinic acid:3. Rhizopterin:
  • 17. METABOLIC ROLE(ONE CARBON METABOLISM):FH4 is the coenzyme form of folic acid and itacts as coenzyme in transfer and utilizationof one carbon moiety [C1]One Carbon Donor and Acceptor Compounds:
  • 18. One carbon donor group One carbon acceptor groupFormimino group offormimino glu [from his].N-formyl methionine oftransfer-RNA.Methyl group of methionine. Glycine to form serine.Methyl group of methionine. Glycine to form serine.Methyl group of thymine. Uracil to form thymine.β-carbon of serine. Ethanolamine to form choline.Gly, trp, ALA and acetone, Positions 2 and 8 of purinering.Histidine synthesis.
  • 20. • Antifolates• Folate is important for cells and tissuesthat rapidly divide Cancer cells dividerapidly, and drugs that interfere with folatemetabolism are used to treat cancer.
  • 21. It is especially important in aiding rapidcell division and growth, such as in infancyand pregnancy. Children and adults bothrequire folic acid to produce healthy redblood cells and prevent anemia
  • 22. • Folate is a coenzyme for single carbontransfers (addition or subtraction of asingle carbon molecule). This is critical forDNA metabolism. A folate coenzyme isnecessary to synthesize nucleotides fromtheir components, in order to make DNAas well as RNA.
  • 23. • A folate coenzyme is also necessary forthe synthesis of the amino acidmethionine. Methionine is part of the chainof reactions leading to the production of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe;( SAMe is amethyl donor).
  • 24. • Folate is therefore necessary for reactionsthat involve methylation,many of which arecritical to cell function and survival.
  • 25. • Deficiency can result in many healthproblems, the most notable one beingneural tube defects in developingembryos.
  • 26. • Common symptoms of folate deficiencyinclude diarrhea, macrocytic anemia withweakness or shortness of breath, nervedamage with weakness and limb numbness(peripheral neuropathypregnancycomplications, mental confusion,
  • 27. forgetfulness or other cognitive declines,mental depression, sore or swollentongue, peptic or mouth ulcers,headaches, heart palpitations, irritability,and behavioral disorders. Low levels offolate can also lead to homocysteineaccumulation
  • 28. • DNA synthesis and repair are impairedand this could lead to cancer development
  • 29. 31Daily requirementMen – women – 100 mcgChildren – 80 mcg.Infant – 25 mcgpregnant women – 400mcg
  • 30. 32DEFICIENCYAnemia – often occurs in pregnant women andalso childrenskin – loss of hair, grayish brown skinpigmentation can also occur.Nervous – mental depression & fatigue.ORAL- severe ulcerative stomatitis may be seen.swelling & redness of lips.
  • 31. Folic acid function
  • 32. Hair & Skin – it is essential for the health ofskin & hairPregnancy – it is an important nutrient for thepregnant women & her developing fetus.&folic acid improves the lactation.
  • 33. Folic Acid DeficiencyDeficiency causes:• Sensations ofweakness• Numbness andtingling of fingers andtoes• Ulcers in the mouth• Sore tonguesFeelings of weakness:
  • 34. 37FUNCTIONSFormation of RBC – folic acid incombination with vitamin B12 is essential forformation, and maturation of RBCs
  • 35. DEFICIENCY:It is the most common vitamin deficiency observed primarily inpregnant women, lactating mother , women on OCPs and alcoholics.In pregnancy decreased absorption and increased clearance is thecause. Anaemia: macrocytic typeFIGLU test - to detect folate deficiency.
  • 36. – Folacin = Folate = Folicacid– Deficiency causesneural tube defects –in utero39
  • 37. • The antifolate methotrexate is a drug oftenused to treat cancer because it Inhibits theproduction of the active form of THF fromthe inactive dihydrofolate (DHF
  • 38. •SUMMARY43
  • 39. FUNCTIONS:The active form of folic acid isTetrahydrofolate.It acts as coenzymes invarious bio-chemical reactions.
  • 40. 45BIOCHEMISTRY PEARLS• Folate (folic acid) is an essentialvitamin that, in its active form oftetrahydrofolate, transfers 1-carbongroups to intermediates in metabolismand plays an important role in DNAsynthesis.
  • 41. • THF is necessary for the de novosynthesis of purines and the conversion ofdeoxyuridine 5’-monophosphate (dUMP)to deoxythymidine 5’-monophosphate(dTMP).• The major metabolic perturbation in folatedeficiency occurs in megaloblasticanemia.