The Intersection and Alignment of Learner-Centered Instructional Strategies in Online Learning and their implementation using Course Management Systems Mostafa Ewees (PhD) Stanford University at California Assistant Professor at German University in Cairo (GUC) EDUCATIONAL CONSULTANT Copyright Dabbagh, N. (2003). This work is the intellectual property of the author. Permission is granted for this material to be shared for non-commercial, educational purposes, provided that this copyright statement appears on the reproduced materials and notice is given that the copying is by permission of the author. To disseminate otherwise or to republish requires written permission from the author.
How are teaching practices and learning activities conceptually related? What are some theory-based design implications for online learning based on the principles of deep learning? What features of course management systems support the implementation of learner-centered practices? Presentation Outline
Teaching practices = Instructional strategies Instructional strategies are what instructors or instructional systems do to facilitate student learning “the plans and techniques that the instructor/instructional designer uses to engage the learner” (Jonassen, Grabinger, and Harris (1991) “they connect learning theory to instructional practice” (Shuell, 1980) How are teaching practices and learning activities conceptually related?
Three Component Online Learning Model Online Learning Learning Technologies Instructional Strategies Pedagogical Models
Learning requires ownership Learning encourages engagement Learning is a social process Learning is contextual or situated Learning is an active process What are some theory-based design implications for online learning based on the principles of deep learning?
Three Component Online Learning Model Online Learning Learning Technologies
Hierarchical Intersection and Lateral Alignment of Instructional Strategies Promoting authentic learning activities Exploratory Dialogical Learner Guidance Promoting self-directed learning
Promoting authentic learning activities: Real world relevance Ill-defined and complex Competing solutions, equally viable Multiple knowledge domains & skills Multiple & diverse levels of expertise Use of a variety of resources Sustained period of time Diversity of learning outcomes Intersection & Alignment of Instructional Strategies
Promoting exploratory-type activities: Problem solving Hypotheses generation Exploration Role playing Promoting dialogical-type activities: Articulation Reflection Collaboration Multiple perspectives Intersection & Alignment of Instructional Strategies
Providing learner guidance: Scaffolding Modeling & explaining Coaching Promoting self-directed learning: the skill of “learning how to learn” or being metacognitively aware of one’s own learning Having an awareness of how learning is carried out and the ability and desire to plan and regulate one’s learning process Intersection & Alignment of Instructional Strategies
Pedagogical Classification of CMS Features: Collaborative and Communication Tools Content Creation and Delivery Tools Administrative Tools Learning Tools Assessment Tools What features of CMS support these learner-centered Instructional Strategies?
Collaborative & Communication Tools: Include asynchronous communication tools, synchronous communication tools, and group tools Content Creation & Delivery Tools: Include tools for instructors that enable them to deliver course content and resources, and tools for learners that enable them to contribute course content, submit assignments, and interact with course resources Features of CMS
Administrative Tools: includes tools to manage students and student information, manage teaching assistants, manage student groups, set course features Learning Tools: Includes tools that enable learners to manipulate content online and create personalized experiences during the learning process in contrast to tools that allow learners to post the end-products of their learning in a Presentation area or Dropbox. Features of CMS
Assessment Tools: Includes tools primarily for instructors to assess student learning, e.g., the ability to create programmed quizzes or tests that are generally true/false, multiple choice, matching, ordering, or fill-in-the-blank Most course management systems integrate assessment tools that are objectivist in nature Features of CMS
Link to the book: Online Learning: Concepts, Strategies, and Application http://www.it.gse.gmu.edu/ollbook This link is password protected and can be obtained with purchase of the book which will be published in January 2004 by Merrill Education Prentice Hall Publishing Upon publication, the URL will change to http://www.prenticehall.com/dabbagh What features of CMS support these learner-centered Instructional Strategies
Pedagogical limitations: emphasis on faculty dissemination tools over student processing tools (Oliver, 2001) not meant to be a pedagogical tool, but rather a productivity tool for handling the administrative tasks of teaching (Olsen, 2001) lack the flexibility to support certain instructional activities satisfactorily (e.g., group-based production of academic deliverables) and/or fail to include certain features instructors may want (e.g., seamless integration with other software) (Klemm, 2001) CMS: Next Generation
Pedagogical limitations: impede the design of more learner-centered, constructivist course designs (Harvey & Lee, 2001; Marra & Jonassen, 2001) the inability to support (1) multiple forms of knowledge representation, (2) authentic forms of assessment, and (3) the use of distributed tools that assist students in knowledge construction and meaning making (Marra & Jonassen, 2001) Most CMS users tend to choose the most obvious and easily accessible components and features of a CMS to expedite the development of online courses compromising sound pedagogy (Harvey & Lee, 2001) CMS: Next Generation
If faculty and course designers take the time to redesign their existing courses when using CMS, through a comprehensive examination of their features and the careful integration of the learning activities afforded by these features, much of the replication of traditional face-to-face classroom instruction can be avoided and instructional designs that are learner-centered will emerge. CMS: Next Generation
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Harvey, D.M. & Lee, J. (2001). The impact of inherent instructional design in online courseware. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, vol. 2(1), 35-48.
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Marra, R.M. & Jonassen, D.H. (2001). Limitations of online courses for supporting constructive learning. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, vol. 2(4), 303-317.
Shuell, T.J. (1980). Learning theory, instructional theory, and adaptation. In R. E. Snow, P. A. Federico, & W. E. Montague (Eds.), Aptitude, Learning and Instruction (vol. 1, pp. 277-301). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Jonassen, D.H., Grabinger, R.S., & Harris, N.D.C. (1991). Instructional strategies and tactics. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 3(2), pp. 29-47.