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Teaching Methods

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  • 1. Educational Methods The bag of tricks Mostafa Ewees (PhD) Stanford University at California Assistant Professor at German University in Cairo (GUC) EDUCATIONAL CONSULTANT
  • 2. Direct Instruction/Lecture
    • Advantages
      • Teacher controlled
      • Many objectives can be mastered in a short amount of time
      • Lends to valid evaluations
  • 3. Direct Instruction/Lecture
    • Disadvantages
      • Teacher controlled
      • Student involvement is limited to the teacher
      • Depends in part to rote learning (repetition from memory, often without meaning)
  • 4. Direct Instruction/Lecture
    • When to use?
      • When the objectives indicate effectiveness
      • When the teacher determines that it is the best use of time & effort
  • 5. Six steps in Direct Instruction
    • Review previously learned material
    • State objectives for the lesson
    • Present new material
    • Guide practice with corrective feedback
    • Assign independent practice with corrective feedback
    • Review periodically with corrective feedback if necessary
  • 6. 1. Review previously learned material
    • A short review before/with the new lesson’s interest approach
    • Check & grade previous homework
    • Put problems on the board (can be part of bell-work)
    • Re-teach if necessary
  • 7. 2. State objectives for the lesson
    • Students should know what is to be taught
    • Stated Clearly
    • Written on the board
    • Handed out
    • Follow the objectives
    • Use them to develop evaluations
  • 8. 3. Present new material
    • Your teaching depends on your analysis and preparation
    • Organizing Content
      • From general to specific
      • From lower level objectives to higher
      • From previous information to new material
  • 9. 3. Present new material
    • Lectures
      • Be aware of attention spans … _____ minutes (20)
      • Be aware of the number of major points made … _____ (5)
      • Be repetitious
      • Review and summarize
  • 10. 3. Present new material
    • Demonstrations
      • Learning Activity, experiment, demonstration
      • WOW em’!
      • Allow students to practice immediately
  • 11. 4. Guided practice with corrective feedback
    • Guided and independent practice
      • Teacher controls & monitors guided
      • Teacher evaluates & corrects independent
      • Questions should be prepared in advance
  • 12. 5. Assign independent practice with corrective feedback
    • Homework
      • A formative step … not a summative step
    • Worksheets
  • 13. 6. Review periodically with corrective feedback if necessary
    • Check homework promptly
    • Base new instruction on results
    • Re-teach if necessary
  • 14. Other Teaching Techniques
    • Brainstorming
    • Situations for use:
    • Generate ideas (quantity is more important than quality)
    • Students have some level of experience
    • Planning Required:
    • Formulate the question
    • Plan for recording ideas
  • 15. Brainstorming Steps
    • Pose question to class
    • Generate ideas with group
    • Accept all ideas (do not criticize)
    • Go back to summarize
    • Discard “unacceptable” or unworkable ideas
    • Determine the best solution(s)
  • 16. Supervised Study
    • Common technique used in problem solving instruction, but certainly not the only technique appropriate for problem solving instruction.
    • Also a major technique used in competency-based education programs.
    • Often misused technique. A really bad form of this technique is: Read the chapter in the textbook and answer the questions at the end of the chapter.
    • Would be classified as an individualized instruction technique.
  • 17. Supervised Study
    • Situations Appropriate for Use
    • Discovery or inquiry learning is desired
    • Access to good reference materials (textbooks, extension publications, web resources, industry publications, etc.)
    • Students may need to “look up” information
    • May be alternate answers that are acceptable
    • Many structured lab activities are actually a form of supervised study
  • 18. Supervised Study
    • Strengths:
    • Provides skills in learning that are useful throughout students’ lives. They need to know how to locate and analyze information.
    • Recall is enhanced when student have to “look up” information, rather than being lectured to.
    • Students have to decide what information is important and related to the question posed.
    • Opportunity for students to develop writing and analytical skills.
  • 19. Supervised Study
    • Weaknesses:
    • Easy for students to get off-task.
    • Students may interpret questions differently and locate incorrect information (practicing error).
    • Unmotivated students will do the absolute minimum.
    • Students tend to copy information from sources rather than analyze and synthesize information
    • Requires more time than lecture
    • Relies on students being able to read and comprehend information at the appropriate level
  • 20. Supervised Study
    • Procedures in Conducting Supervised Study:
    • Teacher develops a list of study questions for students to answer.
    • Resources and reference materials are located or suggested to students as possible sources of answers.
    • Students are given time in class to find answers to the questions and to record the answers in their notes.
      • Note: Due to time constraints, teachers may want to assign different questions to specific students, so that every student is not looking for the same information.
    • Summary consists of discussing the correct answers to the questions with the entire class.
      • Note: Teachers must be careful to emphasize that incorrect answers must be corrected.
  • 21. Supervised Study
    • Role of the Teacher:
    • Develop a list of study questions that focus on the objectives of the lesson
    • Develop the anticipated answers to the questions--it is important that the teacher have a firm idea of what are correct or incorrect answers.
    • Establish time frame for completing the activity. Students need to feel a sense of urgency, so don’t give them more time than you think they will need.
    • Supervise during this activity. NOT A TIME TO GRADE PAPERS, MAKE PHONE CALLS, PLAN FOR THE NEXT LESSON, OR LOCATE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS IN THIS LESSON!
    • Assist students in locating information, but do not find it for them.
    • Keep students on task and eliminate distractions.
    • Plan for reporting of answers
  • 22. Small Group Discussion
    • Also Called:
    • Buzz Groups
    • Huddle Groups
    • Phillips 66
      • 6 people per group
      • 6 ideas to be generated
      • 6 minutes
  • 23. Small Group Discussion
    • Advantages:
    • Increased participation
    • Good for generating ideas
    • Cooperative activity (students learn from each other)
  • 24. Small Group Discussion
    • Planning Required
    • Clearly form the question or topic
    • Develop a plan for grouping the students
    • Plan for reporting
    • Summarize the activity (what they should have learned)
  • 25. Small Group Discussion
    • Conducting Small Group Discussion
    • Write question or topic on board or handout
    • Give specific instructions on how the group will operate
    • Establish time limits
    • Circulate among the groups to help keep them on task (Not as a participant!)
    • Give warning near end of time allocated
    • Reports: Rotate among the groups for answers
  • 26. Role Play
    • Situations for use:
    • Introducing a lesson
    • Checking for understanding
    • Summarizing
  • 27. Role Play
    • Planning Required:
    • Script
    • Minimum: key points to cover
    • Steps:
    • Role play Summary
    • Tips:
    • Keep it short
    • Use to make a single point, not several points
  • 28. Games
    • Situations for use:
    • Motivate students
    • Reviews
    • Check for understanding
    • Strengths:
    • Active learning technique
    • Appeals to competitive students
    • High interest level
  • 29. Games
    • Planning Required
    • Game must be developed by teacher
    • Rules must be established. Try to anticipate all potential situations that might occur. You do not want the effectiveness of the activity to be destroyed by arguments over rules.
    • Develop a plan for determining teams
    • Develop plan for keeping score
    • Determine rewards--make them appropriate (usually very minor in nature)
  • 30. Games
    • Types: Games may take a variety of forms, but most often they are modeled after:
    • TV game shows
    • Sports
    • Home board games
  • 31. Field Trips and Resource Persons
    • Situations for use:
    • First hand experiences are needed
    • Need expertise
    • These appear to be different techniques, but the planning required is very similar
  • 32. Field Trips/Resource Persons
    • Planning Needed:
    • Objectives
    • Trial run/visit
    • Special considerations (safety, grouping, etc.)
    • Summarize (don’t give up responsibility!). It is critical to know what the students have learned from the activity.
    • Tips:
    • Provide advance organizers (report forms, fact sheets)
    • “ plant” questions among students
    • assign students to begin the questions

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