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<ul><li>psychology relies on empirical methods </li></ul><ul><li>theories are general propositions about causal relationsh...
<ul><li>Hypothesis: Southern white males are more prone to aggression than are Northern white males. (conjecture) </li></u...
<ul><li>putting theories to the test </li></ul><ul><li>What evidence supports (and, more importantly, disconfirms) our the...
<ul><li>assesses the amount or average level of a given variable in a population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., public opinio...
<ul><li>What is the white male homicide rate in the South? </li></ul>adapted from Nisbett (1993)
<ul><li>critical issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>random sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>basis of comparison </li></ul></u...
<ul><li>investigates whether changes in one variable are related to changes in another variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What...
<ul><li>correlation coefficients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>range from +1.00 to -1.00 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>positive   cor...
 
<ul><li>correlation coefficients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>range from +1.00 to -1.00 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>negative corre...
 
<ul><li>correlation coefficients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>range from +1.00 to -1.00 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>strength of th...
 
<ul><li>What is the relationship between being from the South and aggressive behavior? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nisbett (1993...
<ul><li>strengths of this approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can be a random sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>actual behavior...
<ul><li>weakness of this approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cannot infer a cause-effect relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>fa...
<ul><li>temporal priority </li></ul>southernness homicide rates time
<ul><li>temporal priority </li></ul>southernness homicide rates homicide rates southernness or time time
<ul><li>temporal priority </li></ul><ul><li>direction of causality problem </li></ul>southernness homicide rates homicide ...
<ul><li>rule out a spurious relationship </li></ul>southernness homicide rates another variable spurious
<ul><li>rule out a spurious relationship </li></ul>southernness homicide rates poverty rs = .38 & .42 (Nisbett, 1993)
<ul><li>rule out a spurious relationship </li></ul><ul><li>3rd variable problem </li></ul>southernness homicide rates anot...
<ul><li>strengths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>potential for numerous variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good generalizability ...
<ul><li>direction of causality problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does “southernness” lead to more aggression or does a propens...
<ul><li>direction of causality problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if we control who is insulted, then measure aggressiveness, w...
<ul><li>random assignment to condition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if SES or social skills have an effect on aggression, it shou...
<ul><li>characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>manipulation of a variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>solves the directi...
<ul><li>language of experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>independent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dependent variable <...
<ul><li>testing theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the independent variable cause changes in the dependent variable? </li><...
<ul><li>the Southern culture of honor hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cohen et al. (1996) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 (S...
Insult No Insult Distance at which participants gave way to confederate (inches)
Insult No Insult Distance at which participants gave way to confederate (inches)
Insult No Insult Percentage Change in Cortisol Level
Insult No Insult Percentage Change in Cortisol Level
Insult No Insult Percentage Change in Testosterone Level
Insult No Insult Percentage Change in Testosterone Level
<ul><li>strengths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allows for causal conclusions to be made -- best test of theory </li></ul></ul><ul...
<ul><li>expectancy effects </li></ul><ul><li>demand characteristics of the situation </li></ul><ul><li>social desirability...
<ul><li>refutation: process of testing theories </li></ul><ul><li>descriptive research is informative, but limited in theo...
<ul><li>social cognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how we think about the social world </li></ul></ul>
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Research Methods In Social Psychology

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Transcript of "Research Methods In Social Psychology"

  1. 2. <ul><li>psychology relies on empirical methods </li></ul><ul><li>theories are general propositions about causal relationships amongst constructs </li></ul><ul><li>hypotheses are conceptual statements that require operationalization </li></ul><ul><li>science is a process of “conjecture and refutation” </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Hypothesis: Southern white males are more prone to aggression than are Northern white males. (conjecture) </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll look at different strategies to examine hypotheses. (refutation) </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>putting theories to the test </li></ul><ul><li>What evidence supports (and, more importantly, disconfirms) our theories? </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>assesses the amount or average level of a given variable in a population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., public opinion surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>not a true test of an hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the white male homicide rate in the South? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>What is the white male homicide rate in the South? </li></ul>adapted from Nisbett (1993)
  6. 7. <ul><li>critical issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>random sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>basis of comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><li>informative, but not a hypothesis test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What else could account for the findings? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>investigates whether changes in one variable are related to changes in another variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the relationship between being from the South and aggressive behavior? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>correlation coefficients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>range from +1.00 to -1.00 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>positive correlation : increase/decrease in the same direction </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>correlation coefficients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>range from +1.00 to -1.00 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>negative correlation : increase/decrease in opposite directions </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>correlation coefficients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>range from +1.00 to -1.00 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>strength of the relationship: closeness to +1.00/-1.00, not by the valence (+/-) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which indicates a stronger correlation: -.74 or +.21? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 15. <ul><li>What is the relationship between being from the South and aggressive behavior? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nisbett (1993) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>homicide rate and “southernness”: rs = .37 & .52 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the social sciences (Cohen, 1992) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>r = .50 (strong) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>r = .30 (moderate) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>r = .10 (small) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 16. <ul><li>strengths of this approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can be a random sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>actual behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has good generalizability (i.e., external validity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>potential for numerous variables </li></ul></ul>
  13. 17. <ul><li>weakness of this approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cannot infer a cause-effect relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>factors for inferring causality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>association -- yes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>temporal priority -- no </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rule out a spurious relationship -- no </li></ul></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>temporal priority </li></ul>southernness homicide rates time
  15. 19. <ul><li>temporal priority </li></ul>southernness homicide rates homicide rates southernness or time time
  16. 20. <ul><li>temporal priority </li></ul><ul><li>direction of causality problem </li></ul>southernness homicide rates homicide rates southernness or time time
  17. 21. <ul><li>rule out a spurious relationship </li></ul>southernness homicide rates another variable spurious
  18. 22. <ul><li>rule out a spurious relationship </li></ul>southernness homicide rates poverty rs = .38 & .42 (Nisbett, 1993)
  19. 23. <ul><li>rule out a spurious relationship </li></ul><ul><li>3rd variable problem </li></ul>southernness homicide rates another variable spurious
  20. 24. <ul><li>strengths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>potential for numerous variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good generalizability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>weaknesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cannot make causal conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>direction of causality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3rd variable problem </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 25. <ul><li>direction of causality problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does “southernness” lead to more aggression or does a propensity for aggression lead to more “southernness”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solution: we cause (i.e., manipulate) one of the variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>insult one group on Southerners, but not another </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 26. <ul><li>direction of causality problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if we control who is insulted, then measure aggressiveness, we know the direction of causality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but, we still have the 3rd variable problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>poor social skills </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 27. <ul><li>random assignment to condition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if SES or social skills have an effect on aggression, it should be equal for both groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We can address the problems of correlational research by doing experiments. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 28. <ul><li>characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>manipulation of a variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>solves the direction of causality problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>randomly assign to conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>solves the 3rd variable problem </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 29. <ul><li>language of experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>independent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dependent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>operational variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>random assignment </li></ul></ul>
  26. 30. <ul><li>testing theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the independent variable cause changes in the dependent variable? </li></ul></ul>southernness aggression cause
  27. 31. <ul><li>the Southern culture of honor hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cohen et al. (1996) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 (Southern/Northern) X 2 (insult/no insult) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ chicken”, cortisol, testosterone </li></ul></ul>
  28. 32. Insult No Insult Distance at which participants gave way to confederate (inches)
  29. 33. Insult No Insult Distance at which participants gave way to confederate (inches)
  30. 34. Insult No Insult Percentage Change in Cortisol Level
  31. 35. Insult No Insult Percentage Change in Cortisol Level
  32. 36. Insult No Insult Percentage Change in Testosterone Level
  33. 37. Insult No Insult Percentage Change in Testosterone Level
  34. 38. <ul><li>strengths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allows for causal conclusions to be made -- best test of theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>weaknesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not all questions are amenable to experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>concerns about generalizability </li></ul></ul>
  35. 39. <ul><li>expectancy effects </li></ul><ul><li>demand characteristics of the situation </li></ul><ul><li>social desirability concerns </li></ul><ul><li>ethical dilemmas </li></ul>
  36. 40. <ul><li>refutation: process of testing theories </li></ul><ul><li>descriptive research is informative, but limited in theory testing </li></ul><ul><li>correlational research is more informative, but does not allow for causal explanations </li></ul><ul><li>experiments are the best test of theories </li></ul>
  37. 41. <ul><li>social cognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how we think about the social world </li></ul></ul>
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