Memory
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Memory

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Memory Memory Presentation Transcript

  • Memory The PowerPoint slides were developed by Mus Khairy (PhD), Stanford University at California. Educational ,Social Psychologists at German University at Cairo (GUC) unless otherwise noted on specific slides.
    • Memory – internal record of some prior event or experience; a set of mental processes that receives, encodes, stores, organizes, alters, and retrieves information over time
    • Remembering
    • and Forgetting…
      • w/ Phil Zimbardo  from the “ Discovering Psychology ” series
    View slide
    • Stage 1 - Sensory Memory is a brief representation of a stimulus while being processed in the sensory system
    • Stage 2 - Short-Term Memory (STM) is working memory
      • Limited capacity (7 items)
      • Duration is about 30 seconds
    • Stage 3 - Long-Term Memory (LTM) is large capacity and long duration
    View slide
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    • Encoding – process of translating info into neural codes (language) that will be retained in memory
    • Storage – the process of retaining neural coded info over time
    • Retrieval – the process of recovering info from memory storage
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    • Two types of LTM
      • Semantic memory refers to factual information
      • Episodic memory refers to autobiographical information as to where and when an event happened
    • Retrieval Cue – a clue or prompt that helps stimulate recall and retrieval of a stored piece of information from long-term memory
      • 2 types:
        • Recognition
        • Recall
          • Ziegarnik Effect
    • Recognition is when a specific cue (face or name) is matched against LTM
    • Recall is when a general cue is used to search memory
    • Relearning - situation where person learns material a second time.
      • Quicker to learn material 2 nd time
    • Where were you when you first heard:
      • That The WTC had been crashed into?
      • That the federal building had been bombed in Oklahoma City?
      • That Princess Diana had been killed in a car wreck?
  • Bilateral damage to the hippocampus results in anterograde amnesia (Patient H.M.)
  • Amygdala : emotional memory and memory consolidation Basal ganglia & cerebellum : memory for skills, habits and CC responses Hippocampus : memory recognition, spatial, episodic memory, laying down new declarative long-term memories Thalamus , formation of new memories and working memories Cortical Areas : encoding of factual memories, storage of episodic and semantic memories, skill learning, priming.
    • Forgetting is the inability to recall previously learned information
    • Forgetting rate is steep just after learning and then becomes a gradual loss of recall
  • Recall immediately after learning Recall several hours after learning Recall from Recall from LTM STM LTM Primacy effect – remembering stuff at beginning of list better than middle Recency Effect – remembering stuff at the end of list better than middle
    • Distributed practice refers to spacing learning periods in contrast to massed practice in which learning is “crammed” into a single session
    • Distributed practice leads to better retention
    • Proactive interference : old information interferes with recall of new information
    • Retroactive interference : new information interferes with recall of old information
    • Decay theory : memory trace fades with time
    • Motivated forgetting : involves the loss of painful memories (protective memory loss)
    • Retrieval failure : the information is still within LTM, but cannot be recalled because the retrieval cue is absent
    • Tip-of the tongue phenomenon : person can’t easily recall the item, but shows some recall for its characteristics (“…it begins with the letter ….”)
    • Amnesia is forgetting produced by brain injury or by trauma
      • Retrograde amnesia refers to problems with recall of information prior to a trauma
      • Anterograde amnesia refers to problems with recall of information after a trauma
    Point of Trauma Retrograde amnesia Anterograde amnesia
    • Reasons for inaccuracy of memory:
      • Source amnesia : attribution of a memory to the wrong source (e.g. a dream is recalled as an actual event)
      • Sleeper effect : a piece of information from an unreliable source is initially discounted, but is recalled after the source has been forgotten
      • Misinformation effect : we incorporate outside information into our own memories
    • Mnemonic devices are strategies to improve memory by organizing information
      • Method of Loci : ideas are associated with a place or part of a building
      • Peg-Word system : peg words are associated with ideas (e.g. “one is a bun”)
      • Word Associations : verbal associations are created for items to be learned