The Science of Psychology by Mostafa Ewees

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  • 1. Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Science of Psychology The PowerPoint slides were developed by Mus Khairy (PhD), Stanford University at California. Educational ,Social Psychologists at German University at Cairo (GUC) unless otherwise noted on specific slides.
  • 2. Psychology as a Science
    • Common sense vs. Verifiable evidence
    • Definition of Psychology:
      • The scientific study of behavior, both external observable action and internal thought
    • Psychology is a science
    • Not all behavior is directly observable
    Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  • 3. Goals
    • Become skilled consumer of psychology
      • Become familiar with scientific approach to psychology
      • Understand the range of questions and issues that psychology can address
      • Begin to critically evaluate social science research
  • 4. Scientific Theories in Psychology
    • What is a theory?
    • “ Why” Questions
    • Must be verifiable
    • In order to be scientific, a theory must make predictions that can be tested
    Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  • 5. Science and Theories: Three Warnings
    • 1. Science can never prove a theory correct
    • 2. Not all theories are scientific theories
    • 3. Theories do not have to be correct to be useful
    Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  • 6. The Roots of Psychology
    • The Influence of Philosophy
    • Differences between study of psychology and philosophy
    Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  • 7. Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and Natural Selection
    • The Origin of Species (1859)
    Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Charles Darwin
  • 8. Application of Darwinian Theory to Psychology
    • Realization of common ancestry among animals
    • Use of rats and other animals for psychological experiments
    • Position of humans within the animal kingdom, rather than above it
    Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  • 9. A Short History of Psychology- 19th Century
    • Wundt’s Structuralism: The basic elements of the mind
    • James’s Functionalism: The uses of the mind
    Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Wilhelm Wundt
  • 10. A Short History of Psychology- 20th Century
    • Psychoanalytic perspective
    • Behaviorist perspective
    • Humanistic psychology
    • Cognitive psychology
    • Neuroscience
    Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  • 11. A Short History of Psychology- Early 20th Century
    • Psychoanalytic perspective
      • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
    • Behaviorist perspective
      • Edward Thorndike (1874-1949)
      • John B. Watson (1878-1958)
      • B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
      • Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) ( movie )
    Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  • 12. A Short History of Psychology- Middle 20th Century
    • Humanistic Psychology
      • Maslow’s self-actualization ( link )
      • Rogers’ client-centered therapy
    • Cognitive Psychology
      • Bartlett’s schema
      • Bruner’s concept formation
      • Piaget’s stages of development
    Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  • 13. A Short History of Psychology- Late 20th Century
    • Neuroscience
    • Recent popularity due to technological advances
    • Schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s Disease
    Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  • 14. Contemporary Fields of Specialization
    • Experimental Psychology
      • basic processes (sensation, perception, learning, memory, etc.)
    • Neuroscience
      • neural aspects of basic processes
      • growing field of psychopharmacology
    Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  • 15. Contemporary Fields of Specialization
    • Personality Psychology
      • individual differences in behavior
    • Social Psychology
      • social and group phenomena
    • Developmental Psychology
      • systematic changes that occur in people throughout the life cycle
    Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  • 16. Contemporary Fields of Specialization
    • Industrial and Organizational Psychology
      • behavior related to the workplace
    • Educational Psychology
      • all aspects of the learning process
    • School Psychology
      • application of psychological knowledge
    Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  • 17. Contemporary Fields of Specialization
    • Clinical Psychology
      • diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
      • investigate causes of disorders
      • associated mental health specialists: Psychiatrists and Psychoanalysts
    Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  • 18. Contemporary Fields of Specialization
    • Counseling Psychology
      • aid mild problems of social and emotional adjustment
    • Health Psychology
      • relationships between mind and body
    Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.