• Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
623
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
18
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Effective Classroom Strategies
  • Effective Classroom Strategies You will recall from our discussion last time that these this hierarchical listing of strategies finds Similarities and Differences at the top, with an effect size of 1.6.
  • Effective Classroom Strategies You will recall from our discussion last time that these this hierarchical listing of strategies finds Similarities and Differences at the top,Show video after this. with an effect size of 1.6.
  • Effective Classroom Strategies
  • Effective Classroom Strategies Page 127 – chart 11.2 imagery –based techniques
  • Effective Classroom Strategies There are four strategies listed in the book: Comparing Classifying Metaphors, and Analogies. Today we will only have time to deal with the first two, you can obtain the book and review the other two on your own.
  • Effective Classroom Strategies
  • Effective Classroom Strategies
  • Effective Classroom Strategies Show video as an example. Move Movie, guided practice

Transcript

  • 1. Effective Classroom Strategies Effective Classroom Strategies Mostafa Ewees
  • 2. Classroom Instruction That Works Effective Classroom Strategies Identifying similarities and differences Summarizing and note taking Reinforcing effort and providing recognition Homework and practice Nonlinguistic representations Cooperative learning Setting objectives and providing feedback Generating and testing hypotheses Questions, cues and organizers
  • 3. Warm-Up
    • Which strategy are you most familiar with?
    • Describe how you have used this strategy in your classroom.
    • Think-Pair-Share
    • Debrief
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 4. Following Best Practices
    • Based on current research
      • meta-analysis of 2,455 studies pertaining to instructional practices
    • Includes latest knowledge, technology and procedures
      • Research continues through McRel
    • Successful across student populations
    • Applies across content areas and grade levels
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 5. Classroom Instruction That Works – Effect Size Effective Classroom Strategies Category Ave. Effect Size Percentile Gain # of Studies Identifying similarities and differences 1.61 45 31 Summarizing and note taking 1.00 34 179 Reinforcing effort and providing recognition .80 29 21 Homework and practice .77 28 134 Nonlinguistic representations .75 27 246 Cooperative learning .73 27 122 Setting objectives and providing feedback .61 23 408 Generating and testing hypotheses .61 23 63 Questions, cues and organizers .59 22 1251
  • 6. Diane Paynter Video Clip
    • Importance of 30 years of research
    • Impact the “Essential 9” can have on student achievement
    • If the effect size for Identifying Similarities/Differences is +1.61, resulting in a percentile gain of 45%, where would the curve indicating the average scores of students be?
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 7. Effect Size and the Normal Curve Effective Classroom Strategies 2% 16% 50% 84% 98% 99.9%
  • 8.
    • Effect Size is a unit of measure used with meta-analysis that expresses the increase or decrease in student achievement
    • Cohen simplified the range of effect sizes
      • Small: 0.20 to 0.49
      • Medium: 0.50 to 0.79
      • Large: 0.80 and above
    Classroom Instruction That Works Effect Size Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 9. The Instructional Strategy Focus for the Day
    • Identifying similarities and differences.
    • (ES 1.61)
      • Comparing
      • Classifying
      • Metaphors
      • Analogy
    • Summarizing and Note taking
    • (ES 1.00)
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 10. Getting Acquainted with the Essential 9
    • Break into groups of 4
    • Jigsaw the Essential 9 Strategies
    • As you read underline the most critical statement for each
    • Report out to group
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 11. Using the 9 Instructional Strategies in Lesson/Unit Planning
    • Clear Learning Goals
    • (#7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback)
    • Students identify and record their own goals
    • (#7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback)
    Effective Classroom Strategies 1. 2. Beginning of the Unit/Lesson
  • 12. During the Unit Phases of Learning
    • Blank Lesson Plan Guide
    • Introducing New Knowledge
    • 6 possible strategies
    • Monitoring Learning Goals
    • 3 possible strategies
    • Practicing, Reviewing and Applying Knowledge
    • 3 possible strategies
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 13. During the Unit Introducing New Knowledge
    • 1. Guide students to recall what they already know about the topics.
    • (#9 Cues, Questions, Advance Organizers)
    • 2. Provide students with ways of thinking about the topic in advance.
    • (#9 Cues, Questions, Advance Organizers)
    • 3. Compare new knowledge with what is known.
    • (#1 Identifying Similarities and Differences)
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 14. During the Unit Introducing New Knowledge
    • 4. Have students keep notes
    • (#2 Summarizing and Note-taking)
    • 5. Non-linguistic representations, share with others
    • (#5 Non-linguistic Representations)
    • 6. Have students work individually and in groups.
    • (#6 Cooperative Learning)
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 15. During the Unit Practicing, Reviewing and Applying Knowledge
    • 1. Assign homework that requires practice, review and application of learning. Give explicit feedback as to the accuracy of all homework.
    • (#4 Homework and Practice, #7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback)
    • 2. Engage students in long-term projects that involve testing and generating hypotheses.
    • (#8 Generating and Testing Hypotheses)
    • 3. Have students revise the linguistic and nonlinguistic representations of knowledge as they refine their understanding. (# 2 Summarizing and Note taking, #5 Nonlinguistic Representations )
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 16. During the Unit Monitoring Learning Goals
    • 1. Feedback and Self-Assessment
    • (#7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback)
    • 2. Students keep track of achievement and effort expending toward goals
      • (#3 Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
      • #7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback)
    • 3. Celebrate legitimate progress
    • toward learning goals
    • (#3 Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition)
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 17. End of the unit… Helping students determine how well they have achieved their goals (#3 Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition, #7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback)
    • Provide students with clear assessments of their progress on each goal.
    • Have student assess themselves and compare with the teacher’s assessment
    • Ask them to articulate what they have learned.
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 18. 9 Strategies = Results in all subjects
    • Specific Instructional Strategies can be matched to specific types of knowledge.
    • Different types of learning sometimes necessitate different types of instruction.
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 19. Before you start…
    • Be clear about the learning that you want your students achieve.
    • Understand which strategy works best to accomplish your learning target.
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 20. Generalizations that enhance student’s understanding of what is being taught and their ability to use that knowledge.
    • Teacher directed – presenting students with guidance
    • Asking students to independently engage in the activity
    • Use non-linguistic representation
    • Student generate own explanations and create non-linguistic representation
    • Periodically review the accuracy of their explanations and representations
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 21. Categories of Subject Matter Knowledge
    • Declarative Knowledge (Information and Ideas)
      • Vocabulary
      • Details
      • Organizing Ideas
    • Procedural Knowledge (Skills and Processes)
        • Skills and Tactics
        • Processes
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 22. Effective Classroom Strategies Comparing The process of identifying and articulating similarities and differences among items. Classifying The process of grouping things into definable categories on the basis of their attributes. Creating Metaphors The process of identifying and articulating the underlying theme or general pattern in information. Creating Analogies The process of identifying relationships between pairs of concepts (e.g., relationships between relationships). 4 Strategies for Similarities and Differences
  • 23. Identifying Similarities and Differences: Comparing Task, Round 1
    • Venn Diagram
    • Apples and Oranges
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 24. Effective Classroom Strategies Characteristic 1 _____________________ Characteristic 2 _____________________ Easy to see that items are very different for this characteristic… … and very similar for this characteristic.
  • 25. What are the steps in the comparison process? Effective Classroom Strategies COMPARING 1. Select the items you want to compare. 2. Select the characteristics of the items on which you want to base your comparison. 3. Explain how the items are similar and different with respect to the characteristics you selected. To
  • 26. Our Goals for Student Learning…
    • Help prepare for further learning
    • Identify critical relationships
    • Gain understanding, clear-up
    • confusion, make new connections
    • Change in knowledge structure as a result of instruction
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 27. Effective Classroom Strategies Tips Related to the Comparison Process One key to a rigorous comparison is to identify items and characteristics that are meaningful and interesting. To do this, students need extensive modeling and feedback. If the items and characteristics are not meaningful, students will not make new distinctions or come to new conclusions about the targeted knowledge. TIP Make sure that students understand that the purpose of doing the comparison is to extend and refine their understanding of the knowledge they are learning. Asking students to select different characteristics will help them move beyond the obvious. TIP
  • 28. Identifying Similarities and Differences: Comparing Task, Round 2
    • In Jigsaw Groups:
    • Venn Diagram/Comparison Matrix
    • Apples and Oranges
    • Learning Goal: How does temperature and length of growing season effect the nutritional value of fruit?
    • How was Round 1 different than Round 2?
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 29. ELA and Math GLCE …comparing or contrasting?
    • Comparing is the process of identifying similarities and differences between or among things or ideas.
      • Comparing refers to identifying similarities
      • Contrasting refers to identifying differences.
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 30. ELA and Math GLCE Task
    • Find a GLCE at your grade level and content area that would be suitable to compare, contrast or both.
    • Would you use Venn Diagram/Comparison Matrix/other?
    • What steps would you have to take in order for students to use comparison with the GLCE independently?
    • Think-Pair-Share
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 31. Effective Classroom Strategies CLASSIFYING 1. Identify the items you want to classify. 2. Select what seems to be an important item, describe its key attributes, and identify other items that have the same attributes. 3. Create a category by specifying the attribute(s) that the items must have for membership in this category. 4. Select another item, describe its key attributes, and identify other items that have the same attributes. What are the steps in the classifying process? Birds Fish Dogs
  • 32. Effective Classroom Strategies 5. Create the second category by specifying the attribute(s) that the items must have for membership in the category. 6. Repeat the previous two steps until all items are classified and the specific attributes have been identified for membership in each category. 7. If necessary, combine categories or split them into smaller categories and specify attribute(s) that determine membership in the category. CLASSIFYING (cont’d) Birds Fish Dogs
  • 33. Effective Classroom Strategies We have been learning that different animals live in different environments. Classify the following animals in terms of whether they live in lakes or oceans, forests, in the soil, or in the desert. raccoons moles clams scorpions squirrels frogs bears lizards deer fish ants turtles worms ducks snakes Now, reclassify these animals using another set of attributes. For example, you might identify attributes that relate to the animal’s skin or outer covering (e.g., has fur, scales, has a shell). You may use a blank classifying graphic or your own chart to do this task. Content Area: Science Knowledge: Understands that different animals live in different environments.
  • 34. Classification – a strategy for GLCE
    • ELA- Genre characteristics, poetry, types of fiction
    • Math – whole numbers, fractions, negative numbers, geometrical figures
    • Science – habitat, endangered, geographical location, adaptation
    • Social Studies – human, economic and capital resources.
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 35. Creating Metaphors
    • Identify a general or basic pattern in a specific topic and then find another topic that seems quite different at the literal level but has the same general pattern.
    • Examples…
    • Counting is a recipe.
    • Vocabulary is a map legend.
    • Instructional Strategies are onions.
    Effective Classroom Strategies Video Clip: Math Metaphors
  • 36. Steps for Creating Metaphors
    • 1. Identify the important or basic elements of the information of situation with which you are working.
    • 2. Write that basic information as a general pattern by:
        • Replacing words for specific things with words for more general things, and
        • Summarizing information whenever possible
    • 3. Find new information or a situation to which the general pattern applies.
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 37. Metaphor Organizer Effective Classroom Strategies Element Literal Pattern Abstract Relationship Literal Pattern Element Internet Coffee shop
  • 38. Examples of Metaphors in Content Areas
    • Social Studies-America is freedom and promise
    • Math-The graph of the sine function is a roller coaster
    • ELA-Writing is a process
    • Science-The cell is a factory
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 39. Recommendations for Classroom Practice
    • Giving students a model for the process.
    • Using familiar content to teach students the steps in creating metaphors
    • Giving students graphic organizers, and
    • Giving students guidance as needed
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 40. Analogies … A question
    • What is the purpose of asking students to create analogies?
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 41. The purpose of analogies in the classroom
    • Help make connections between things that are very different
      • Pattern is A:B::C:D
      • A is to B as C is to D
      • happy:sad::big:small
      • happy and big are opposites of sad and small
      •  Analogy problems are common in testing situations – PSAT, SAT, ACT.
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 42. Using Analogies in the Classroom
    • Help explain an unfamiliar concept by making a comparison to something that we understand.
    • Question… What is this analogy?
    • One:trillion::one square inch: the area of the city of Chicago
    • Pushes students to think about how items and concepts are related: how do two things interact, and how is the relationship similar to the relationship between the second pair.
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 43. Analogies Organizer – Great Depression Effective Classroom Strategies Stock Market Crash of 1929 U.S. Economy A Is to B Something attacks a system and weakens its ability to prevent serious affliction. AS C D
  • 44. Effective Classroom Strategies Bob Marzano says… “ Summarizing has a robust and long history of research.”
  • 45. Task: Strategic questioning
    • What is the goal or purpose of engaging students in summarizing activities?
    • To what extent do you think the act of summarizing varies from grade level to grade level? From content area to content area? Why do you think this?
    • Think-Share-Pair
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 46. Critical questions for Watching Video Clip
    • For the student:
      • How do I decide what is important?
      • What should I keep?
      • What should I substitute?
      • What should I delete?
    Effective Classroom Strategies
    • For the teacher:
      • What strategies do you teach students to help them become proficient in summarizing?
      • To what extent do you think these strategies support them in identifying what they should keep, substitute, and delete?
      • How do you know if engaging in these strategies is really helping students to deepen their understanding of the content?
  • 47. A Model for Summarizing
    • Steps for Rule-Based Summarizing
    • Delete trivial material that is unnecessary to understanding.
    • Delete redundant material.
    • Substitute super-ordinate terms for more specific terms (e.g., use fish for rainbow trout, salmon, and halibut).
    • Select a topic sentence or invent one if it is missing.
    • Steps in Rule-Based Summarizing for Younger Students
    • Take out material that is not important to your understanding.
    • Take out words that repeat information
    • Replace a list of things with a word that describes the things in the list (e.g., use trees for elm, oak, and maple).
    • Find a topic sentence. If you cannot find a topic sentence, make one up.
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 48. Effective Classroom Strategies The word photography comes from the Greek word meaning “drawing with light”….Light is the most essential ingredient in photography. Nearly all forms of photography are based on the fact that certain chemicals are photosensitive- that is, they change in some way when exposed to light. Photosensitive materials abound in nature; plants that close their blooms at night are one example. The films used in photography depend on a limited number of chemical compounds that darken when exposed to light. The compounds most widely used today are called halogens (usually bromine, chlorine, or iodine. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia
  • 49. Effective Classroom Strategies The word photography comes from the Greek word meaning “drawing with light”….Light is the most essential ingredient in photography. Nearly all forms of photography are based on the fact that certain chemicals are photosensitive- that is, they change in some way when exposed to light. Photosensitive materials abound in nature; plants that close their blooms at night are one example. The films used in photography depend on a limited number of chemical compounds that darken when exposed to light. The compounds most widely used today are called halogens (usually bromine, chlorine, or iodine. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia
  • 50. Research generalizations on summarizing
    • Students must delete some information, substitute some information, and keep some information.
    • To effectively delete, substitute, and keep information, students must analyze the information at a fairly deep level.
    • Being aware of the explicit structure of information is an aid to summarizing information. Summary Frames
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 51. The Six Summary Frames
    • Narrative Frame
    • Topic-Restriction-Illustration Frame
    • Definition Frame
    • Argumentation Frame
    • Problem/Solution Frame
    • Conversation Frame
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 52. A summary is …
    • A summary:
      • Is an essential condensation in your own words.
      • Answers the question “what is the author really saying?”
      • Is the result of careful “listening” to the author.
      • Remains faithful to the author’s emphasis and interpretation.
      • Does not disagree with or critique the author’s opinion.
    • A summary is a comprehensive but brief statement of what has been stated previously in a longer form.
    • A summary is a wrap-up----a general picture of the information--- much like TV networks produce at the end of a year.
    • Summaries provide a quick overview of a subject without having the reader wade through a lot of facts and details. Summaries help readers and writers boil information down to its most basic elements.
    • Encyclopedias, almanacs, and digests provide good examples of summaries.
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 53. Procedural Knowledge Effective Classroom Strategies Summarizing is “procedural knowledge.” If students are expected to become proficient in procedural knowledge, they need to be able to “practice.” Mastering a skill or process requires a fair amount of focused practice. Practice sessions initially should be spaced very closely together. Over time, the intervals between sessions can be increased. Students also need feedback on their efforts. While practicing, students should adapt and shape what they have learned.
  • 54. A Rubric for Summarizing Effective Classroom Strategies 4 The student identifies the main pattern running through the information along with minor patterns. 3 The student identifies the main pattern running through the information. 2 The student addresses some of the features of the main pattern running through the information but excludes some critical aspects. 1 The student does not address the main pattern running through the information. 0 Not enough information to make a judgment.
  • 55. Planning for Summarizing Effective Classroom Strategies
    • What specific information will students need to summarize?
      • film or video
      • chapter
      • lecture
      • story
      • article
      • event
      • other_______________
    • What strategy will I ask students to use?
      • Rule-based Summarizing Strategy
      • Summary Frames
        • Narrative or Story
        • TRI
        • Definition
        • Argumentation
        • Problem/Solution
        • Conversation
      • Group Enhanced Summary Strategy
      • Other ___________
    Do I need to set aside time to teach them the strategy? When and how? How much guidance will I provide them? How will I monitor how well students are doing? What knowledge will students be learning?
  • 56. Summary and the GLCE
    • Find a GLCE at your grade level and content area that would be suitable to summarize.
    • What steps would you have to take in order for students to use summary with the GLCE you chose independently?
    • Think-Pair-Share
    Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 57. For Information on Summary Frames please visit the Saginaw Midland Intermediate School District Website. http://www.sisd.cc/departments/HOUSSEmainpage_003.htm Effective Classroom Strategies
  • 58. A Call to Arms… Effective Classroom Strategies
    • Leading Change – What can you do?
    • Teachers need to have …
      • Adequate modeling and practice
      • Feedback
      • Allowances for differences in implementation
      • Celebration