Educational Psychology by Mostafa EweesPresentation Transcript
by Mostafa Kh, Ewees
Educational Psychology: A Tool for Effective Teaching
Describe some basic ideas about the field of educational psychology.
Identify the attitudes and skills of an effective teacher.
Discuss why research is important to effective teaching and how educational psychologists and teachers can conduct and evaluate research.
Exploring Educational Psychology Teaching: Art and Science Historical Background
is a branch of psychology that specializes in understanding teaching and learning in educational settings.
1850 1875 1950 1925 1900 William James John Dewey E. L. Thorndike
Emphasized the importance of observing teaching and learning in the classroom for improving education
Viewed the child as an active learner
Emphasized the child’s adaptation to the environment
Pushed for competent education for all children
Initiated an emphasis on assessment and measurement of learning
Promoted the idea that educational psychology must have a scientific base and that measurement should be a central focus
Leta Hollingworth ( 1916) - First to use the term gifted to describe students who scored exceptionally high on IQ tests. George Sanchez ( 1932) - Researcher who demonstrated that intelligence tests were culturally biased against minority children. Mamie and Kenneth Clark ( 1939) - Pioneering researchers who studied African American children’s self-conceptions and identity.
B.F. Skinner (1938)
Psychology as the science of observable behavior and controlling conditions
1950s programmed learning
1950s Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Skills
1980s Cognitive Psychology memory, thinking, reasoning – to help student learn
How is teaching both art and science?
Effective Teaching Commitment and Motivation Professional Knowledge and Skills
What were the characteristics of the most effective teachers in your educational experience?
Exhibit subject matter competence
Implement appropriate instructional strategies
Set high goals for themselves and students and plan for instruction
Create developmentally appropriate instructional materials and activities
Manage classrooms for optimal learning
Use effective strategies to promote students’ motivation to learn
Communicate well with students and parents
Pay more than lip service to individual variations
Work effectively with students from culturally diverse backgrounds
Have good assessment skills
Integrate technology into the curriculum
Have a good attitude
Care about students
Invest time and effort
Bring a positive attitude and enthusiasm to the classroom
Characteristics of Best Teachers
Characteristics of Worst Teachers
Research in Educational Psychology Why Research Is Important Program Evaluation Research, Action Research, and the Teacher-as- Researcher Research Methods
The scientific research approach is objective, systematic, and testable.
STEP 1 Conceptualize the Problem STEP 2 Collect Information STEP 3 Draw Conclusions STEP 4 Revise Research Conclusions & Theory
Interviews and questionnaires
Personal Journals and Diaries
Measures the strength
of a relation between
Does NOT establish causal relation
Experimental vs. control groups
Independent vs. dependent variables
Observed correlation Possible explanations for this correlation As permissive teaching increases, children’s self-control decreases Permissive teaching Children’s lack of self-control Children’s lack of self-control Permissive teaching causes causes Other factors, such as genetic tendencies, poverty, or sociohistorical circumstances Permissive teaching cause both Children’s lack of self-control and
The manipulated, influential experimental factor.
The factor that is measured in an experiment.
A comparison group, no manipulation.
The group whose experience is manipulated.
Participants are assigned by chance.
A study of the effects of time management on students’ grades Participants randomly assigned to experimental and control groups Students’ grades in school Experimental Group (time management program) Control Group (no time management program)
Studying groups of people at one time
Researcher doesn’t have to wait until subjects grow older
Provides no information about the stability of data over time
Studying the same individuals over time
Evaluates how children change over time
Time consuming and costly
Program Evaluation: Designed to make decisions about a particular program.
Action Research: Used to solve a particular classroom or school problem.
Teacher-As-Researcher: Teachers conduct their own studies to improve their teaching.
Should teachers conduct research using their students as subjects?
What issues would need to be considered in conducting such a study?
What type of research would be most appropriate? Why?
If she compared the two different curricula and their outcomes, what would the independent variable be?
If she compared the two different curricula and their outcomes, what would the dependent variable be?
How should Ms. Huang go about conducting her study?