Communication Skills.B 19 29.11.04(2)
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Communication Skills.B 19 29.11.04(2) Presentation Transcript

  • 1. COMMUNICATION SKILLS Mostafa Ewees (PhD) Stanford University at California EDUCATIONAL CONSULTANT NOVEMBER , 2009
  • 2. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION
  • 3. KEY TO SUCCESS
    • WHAT YOU SAY
    • HOW YOU SAY
    “ WORDS ARE THE MOST POWERFUL DRUG USED BY MANKIND”. ( RUDYARD KIPLING)
  • 4.
    • “ TO LISTEN CLOSELY AND REPLY WELL IS THE HIGHEST PERFECTION WE ARE ABLE TO ATTAIN IN THE ART OF CONVERSATION”.
    “ LA ROCHEFOUCAULD”
  • 5. CONVERSATION SKILLS
    • WHEN TO SPEAK AND WHEN TO LISTEN
    • HOW TO MOVE A CONVERSATION FROM THE PAST TO THE PRESENT AND TO THE FUTURE
    • WHY CONVERSATIONAL LINKING IS NECESSARY
    • HOW TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN PARALLEL AND SEQUENTIAL CONVERSATION
    • HOW TO RAISE ENERGY LEVELS IN DISCUSSIONS
    • HOW TO MOVE BETWEEN PROBLEM-CENTRED CONVERSATION AND SOLUTION-CENTRED CONVERSATION
  • 6. WHAT IS AN ORGANIZATION?
    • “ A GROUP OF PEOPLE ASSOCIATED FOR BUSINESS, POLITICAL, PROFESSIONAL, RELIGIOUS, ATHLETIC, SOCIAL, OR OTHER PURPOSES”.
    • ITS ACTIVITIES REQUIRE HUMAN BEING TO INTERACT, REACT – COMMUNICATE .
    • ORGANIZATIONS FACILITATE TO EXCHANGE INFORMATION, IDEAS, PLANS, ORDER NEEDED SUPPLIES, MAKE DECISIONS, RULES, PROPOSALS, CONTRACTS, AGREEMENTS ETC.
  • 7. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION
    • VIRTUALLY EVERY MANAGEMENT FUNCTION AND ACTIVITY E.G. PLANNING, CONTROLLING, DECISION MAKING, LEADERSHIP AND STAFFING, CAN BE CONSIDERED COMMUNICATION.
    • ORG. PERFORMANCE CORRELATES DIRECTLY WITH THE QUALITY OF MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION.
    • AN AVERAGE MANAGER SPENDS MORE TIME IN COMMUNICATING THAN DOING ANYTHING ELSE.
  • 8. WHAT IS COMMUNICATION ?
    • “ COMMUNICATION IS THE PROCESS OF TRANSMITTING INFORMATION FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER”.
    • “ THE TRANSFER OF INFORMATION AND UNDERSTANDING FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER PERSON”.
    CONTED (Keith Davis)
  • 9.
    • COMMUNICATION IS A SOCIAL PROCESS.
    • COMMUNICATION IS LIKE CHAIN PROCESS, MADE UP OF IDENTIFIABLE LINKS.
    • “ A PROCESS OF TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING VERBAL AND NON-VERBAL MESSAGES THAT PRODUCE A RESPONSE”
    (MURPHY AND HILDEBRANDT)
  • 10.
    • “ COMMUNICATION REFERS TO THE ACT, BY ONE OR MORE PERSONS, OF SENDING AND RECEIVING MESSAGES THAT ARE DISTORTED BY NOISE, OCCUR WITHIN A CONTEXT, HAVE SOME EFFECT, AND PROVIDE SOME OPPORTUNITY FOR FEEDBACK”
    • (JOSEPH A. DEVITO)
  • 11. COMMUNICATION IS REPRESENTED BY: 10% WORDS – WHAT WE SAY 30% SOUNDS – TONE 60% BODY LANGUAGE – HOW WE SAY IT
  • 12. WHY TO COMMUNICATE?
    • COMMUNICATION SATISFACTION COORELATES WITH JOB SATISFACTION AND JOB PERFORMANCE.
    • COMMITMENT CORRELATES WITH JOB SATISFACTION AND PERCEPTIONS OF GOOD ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE.
  • 13. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
    • EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION OCCURS WHEN THE MESSAGE RECEIVED IS AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE AS THE MESSAGE INTENDED TO BE SENT – MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING.
    • COMMUNICATION IS EFFECTIVE ONLY IF PEOPLE:
      • - UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER
      • - STIMULATE OTHERS TO TAKE ACTION
      • - ENCOURAGE OTHERS TO THINK IN NEW WAYS.
  • 14. SEVEN “C’s” OF COMMUNICATION
    • COMPLETENESS – CONTAINS ALL FACTS THE READER OR LISTENER NEEDS FOR DESIRED ACTION.
    • CONCISENESS
    • CONSIDERATION
    • CONCRETENESS
    • CLARITY
    • COURTESY
    • CORRECTNESS
  • 15. ORGANISATIONAL BENEFITS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONS
      • INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY
      • ANTICIPATE PROBLEMS
      • MAKE DECISIONS
      • COORDINATE WORKFLOW
      • SUPERVISE OTHERS
      • DEVELOP RELATIONSHIPS
      • BETTER UNDERSTANDING IN THE WORKPLACE IN GENERAL
  • 16. COMMUNICATION TODAY
    • SIGNIFICANT SOURCE IN MANAGING AND LEADING ORGANIZATIONS.
    • OPPORTUNITY TO INVOLVE AND MOTIVATE PEOPLE TO COMMON GOALS.
    • OPPORTUNITY TO COOPERATION WITH STAKEHOLDERS.
    • CHALLENGE TO CONFIRM THE STATUS IN SOCIETY.
  • 17. COMMUNICATION SKILLS AND TOP EXECUTIVES
    • COMMUNICATION SKILLS OCCUPY AS MUCH AS 90% OF A TOP EXECUTIVE’S WORKING DAY.
    • 85% OF BUSINESS EXECs. RATED BUSINESS COMMUNICATION AS VERY IMPORTANT, WHEREAS ONLY 20% RATED KNOWLEDGE OF PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT AS VERY IMPORTANT.
    • FORTUNE 500 EXECs. RANK ORAL PRESENTATIONS, MEMO WRITING, AND REPORT WRITING AS THE TOP 3 NECESSARY COMMUNICATION SKILLS.
  • 18. HUMAN COMMUNICATION
  • 19. AREAS OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION
    • INTRAPERSONAL – TO THINK, REASON, ANALYZE, REFLECT.
    • INTERPERSONAL – TO DICOVER, RELATE, INFLUENCE, PLAY, HELP.
    • SMALL GROUP – SHARE INFORMATION, GENERATE IDEAS, SOLVE PROBLEMS, HELP.
    • ORGANANIZATIONAL – INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY, RAISE MORALE, INFORM, PERSUADE.
    • PUBLIC – INFORM, PERSUADE, ENTERTAIN
    • MASS – ENTERTAIN, PERSUADE AND INFORM
  • 20. PURPOSES OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION HUMAN COMMUNICATION TO DISCOVER TO RELATE TO HELP TO PERSUADE TO PLAY
  • 21. PROCESS AND CONTEXT OF COMMUNICATION
  • 22. BASIC COMMUNICATION PROCESS SENDER ---------- PERCEPTION --------- IDEA ENCODE MEDIUM DECODE UNDERSTANDING ---------- PERCEPTION --------- RECEIVER FEEDBACK NOISE NOISE NOISE NOISE
  • 23. ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION
    • SENDER / ENCODER
    • MESSAGE
    • MEDIUM
    • RECEIVER / DECODER
    • FEEDBACK
  • 24. COMMUNICATION CONTEXT
    • PHYSICAL CONTEXT
    • CULTURAL CONTEXT
    • SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT
    • TEMPORAL (TIME) CONTEXT
  • 25. PHYSICAL CONTEXT
    • TANGIBLE OR CONCRETE ENVIRONMENT E.I. ROOM OR HALLWAY OR PARK.
    • EXERT INFLUENCE ON THE CONTENT (WHAT WE SAY) AS WELL AS THE FORM (HOW WE SAY IT) OF THE MESSAGE.
  • 26. CULTURAL CONTEXT
    • REFERS TO THE COMMUNICATORS’ RULES AND NORMS, BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES THAT ARE TRANSMITTED FROM ONE GENERATION TO ANOTHER.
    • DIRECT EYE CONTECT BETWEEN CHILD AND ADULT SIGNIFIES DIRECTNESS AND HONEST IN ONE CULTURE AND DEFIANCE AND LACK OF RESPECT IN OTHER.
  • 27. SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT
    • INCLUDE STATUS RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE PARTICIPANTS, THE ROLES AND THE GAMES THE PEOPLE PLAY, AND THE CULTURAL ROLE OF THE SOCIETY IN WHICH THEY ARE COMMUNICATING.
    • INCLUDE FRIENDLINESS OR UNFRIENDLINESS, FORMALITY OR INFORMALITY, AND SERIOUSNESS OR HUMOUROUSNESS OF THE SITUATION.
  • 28. TEMPORAL CONTEXT
    • TIME OF DAY AS WELL AS TIME OF HISTORY
    • FOR MANY PEOPLE MORNING IS NOT A TIME FOR COMMUNICATION; FOR OTHERS IT IS IDEAL
    • APPROPRIATENESS AND IMPACT OF MESSAGES DEPEND, IN PART, ON THE TIME IN WHICH THEY ARE UTTERED.
  • 29. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
  • 30. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
    • INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
    • CORPORATE COMMUNICATION
    • FORMAL COMMUNICATION
    • NON-FORMAL COMMUNICATION
    • ORAL COMMUNICATION
    • WRITTEN COMMUNICATION
    • NON-VERBAL COMUNICATION
  • 31. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
    • ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION
    • NON-ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION
    • AGGRESSIVE COMMUNICATION
  • 32. ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION
    • CONFIDENTLY EXPRESSING WHAT YOU THINK, FEEL AND BELIEVE.
    • STANDING UP FOR YOUR RIGHTS WHILE RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF OTHERS.
    • CONVEYING MEANING AND EXPECTATIONS WITHOUT HUMILATING OR DEGRADING OTHERS.
    • BASED UPON RESPECT FOR YOURSELF AND RESPECT FOR OTHER PEOPLE’S NEED AND RIGHTS
  • 33. NON-ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION
    • RELUCTANCE OR INABILITY TO EXPRESS CONSISTENTLY WHAT YOU THINK, FEEL AND BELIEVE.
    • ALLOWS OTHERS TO VIOLATE YOUR RIGHTS WITHOUT CHALLENGE.
    • REFLECTS LACK OF RESPECT FOR YOUR OWN PREFERENCES.
    • OTHER CAN EASILY DISREGARD YOUR THOUGHTS, FEELINGS, AND BELIEVES.
  • 34. AGGRESSIVE COMMUNICATION
    • EXPRESSING YOURSELF IN WAYS THAT INTIMIDATE, DEMEAN, OR DEGRADE ANOTHER PERSON.
    • PURSUING WHAT YOU WANT IN WAYS THAT VIOLATES THE RIGHTS OF ANOTHER PERSON.
    • “ THIS IS WHAT I THINK. YOU ARE DUMB FOR THINKING DIFERENTLY”.
  • 35. DISTORTION IN PERSONAL COMMUNICATION
    • IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT – THE PROCESS BY WHICH A SENDER CONSCIOUSLY ATTEMPTS TO INFLUENCE THE PERCEPTIONS THAT THE RECEIVERS FORM. COMMONLY USED IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT STATEGIES ARE: -
      • INGRATIATION: USING FLATTERY, SUPPORTING THE OPINIONS OF THE OTHER PERSON, DOING FAVOURS, SMILING EXPRESSIVELY IN SUPPORT OF THE PERSON ETC.
      • SELF-PROMOTION: COMMUNICATING ONE’S PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES IN A HIGHLY POSITIVE AND EXAGGERATED WAY.
      • FACE SAVING: COMMUNICATING APOLOGIES, MAKING EXCUSES, PRODUCING JUSTIFICATIONS ETC.
  • 36. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION NETWORK (ICN)
    • ICN REFERS TO PATTERN OVER TIME OF COMMUNICATION FLOWS BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL.
    • IT EMPHASIZES COMMUNICATION RELATIONSHIPS AMONG INDIVIDUALS OVER TIME, RATHER THAN ON THE INDIVIDUALS THEMSELVES.
    • NETWORK INVLOVES THE ONGOING FLOW OF ORAL, WRITTEN, AND NONVERBAL SIGNALS BETWEEN TWO PEOPLE OR BETWEEN ONE PERSON AND ALL OTHER NETWORK MEMBERS SIMULTANEOUSLY.
  • 37. MESSAGES AND CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION
  • 38. MESSAGES AND CHANNELS
    • COMMUNICATION CHANNEL IS THE MEDIUM THROUGH WHICH THE MESSAGE PASSES.
    • RARELY TAKES PLACE OVER ONE CHANNEL. MAY USE TWO, THREE, FOUR DIFFERENT CHANNELS SIMULTANEOUSLY .
      • VOCAL CHANNEL : SPEAK & LISTEN
      • VISUAL CHANNEL : GESTURE
      • OLFACTORY CHANNEL : EMITING OR DETECTING ODORS
      • TECTILE CHANNEL : TOUCHING ANOTHER PERSON
  • 39. SPECIAL MESSAGES
    • FEEDBACK MESSAGES
    • FEEDFORWARD MESSAGES
  • 40. FEEDBACK MESSAGES
    • POSITIVE ----- NEGATIVE
    • PERSON-FOCUSED ----- MESSAGE FOCUSED
    • IMMEDIATE ----- DELAYED
    • LOW MONITORING ----- HIGH MONITORING
    • SUPPORTIVE ----- CRITICAL
  • 41. CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK
    • BASED UPON TRUST BETWEEN SENDER AND RECEIVER
    • SPECIFIC RATHER GENERAL
    • GIVEN AT A TIME WHEN THE RECEIVER APPEARS TO BE READY TO ACCEPT IT.
    • CHECKED WITH THE RECEIVER TO DETERMINE WHETHER IT SEEMS VALID
    • INCLUDES BEHAVIOURS THE RECEIVER MAY BE CAPABLE OF DOING
    • DOES NOT INCLUDE MORE THAN THE RECEIVER CAN HANDLE AT ANY PARTICULAR TIME.
  • 42. FEEDBACK SKILLS
    • EMPHASIZE WHAT YOU SEE AND HEAR – DESCRIPTIVE RATHER EVALUATIVE FEEDBACK
    • CONCENTRATE ON PARTICULAR POINTS
    • OUTLINE THE POSITIVE POINTS.
    • INDICATE WHAT CAN AND SHOULD BE DONE
    • BUILD ON WHAT PEOPLE WANT
    • CHOOSE YOUR TIME
    • REACH AN AGREEMENT
  • 43. FEEDFROWARD MESSAGES
    • OPEN THE CHANNELS OF COMM.
    • PREVIEW FUTURE MESSAGES
    • ALTERCAST (PLACE THE RECIVER IN A SPECIFIC ROLE AND REQUESTING HIM TO RESPOND IN TERMS OF ASSUMED ROLE)
    • TO DISCLAIM
  • 44. COMMUNICATION BARRIERS
  • 45. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
    • PROCESS BARRIERS
      • SENDER BARRIER
      • ENCODING BARRIER
      • MEDIUM BARRIER
      • DECODING BARRIER
      • FEEDBACK BARRIER
    • PHSYSICAL BARRIERS
    • SEMANTIC BARRIERS
    • PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIERS
  • 46. NOISE
    • PHYSICAL – PASSING OF CARS, HUM OF COMPUTER
    • PSYCHOLOGICAL – COGNITIVE OR MENTAL INTERFERENCE I.E. BIASES AND PREJUDICES IN SENDER AND RECEIVERS, CLOSED-MINDEDNESS.
    • SEMANTIC – DIFERENT LANGUAGES, USE OF JARGON OR OVERLY COMPLEX TERMS.
    • CULTURAL
    • POLITICAL
    • EMOTIONAL
    • ECONOMIC
  • 47. INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE ON COMMUNICATION
    • ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE
      • FORMALLY PRESCRIBED PATTERN OF INTER-RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE VARIOUS UNITS OF AN ORGANIZATION
      • THE NATURE AND FORM OF COMMUNICATION VARY GREATLY AS A FUNCTION OF PEOPLE’S RELATIVE POSITIONS WITH AN ORGANIZATION
    • ORGANIZATION CHART
      • DIAGRAM SHOWING THE FORMAL STRUCTURE OF AN ORGANIZATION AND INDICATING WHO IS TO COMMUNICATE WITH WHOM
  • 48. INTERNAL COMMUNICATION
    • DETERMINATION OF TASKS, PRINCIPLES AND OBJECTIVES
    • ANALYSIS OF THE EMPLOYEES’ KNOWLEDGE AND IMAGE OF THE ORGANIZATION
    • DETERMINATION OF FOCUS AREAS IN DEVELOPING COMMUNICATION
    • RESPONSIBILITIES AND RESOURCES
  • 49. EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION
    • REPUTATIONAL MANAGEMENT
    • REPUTATION CAPITAL
  • 50. ORGANIZATION CHART AND FORMAL COMMUNICATIONS SECRETARY AS Sr. JS/JS DS DS DS DS SO SO Upward Communication Information Downward Communication Instructions and Directives Efforts at Coordination Horizontal Communication
  • 51. IMPROVING UPWARD COMMUNICATION
    • FORMAL GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES
    • EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE AND OPINION SURVEYS
    • SUGGESTION SYSTEMS
    • OPEN-DOOR POLICY
    • INFORMAL GRIPE SESSIONS
    • TASK FORCES
    • EXIT INTERVIEWS
  • 52. BECOMING A BETTER COMMUNICATOR
    • EFFECTIVE LISTENING
      • TOLERATE SILENCE
      • ASK STIMULATING OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS
      • ATENTIVE EYE CONTACT, ALERT POSTURE AND VERBAL ENCOURAGERS
      • PARAPHRASE
      • SHOW EMOTION
      • KNOW YOUR BAISES AND PREJUDICES
      • AVOID PREMATURE JUDGEMENT
      • SUMMERISE
  • 53.
    • EFFECTIVE WRITING
      • KEEP WORD SIMPLE
      • DON’T SACRIFICE COMM. FOR RULES OF COMPOSITION
      • WRITE CONCISELY
      • BE SPECIFIC
  • 54. CHANGE AND COMMUNICATION
    • UNSUCCESSFUL CHANGE IS MOSTLY MISSING OR POOR COMMUNICATION.
    • THE LINEAR (ONE-WAY, TOP-DOWN) MODEL DOES NOT WORK ANY MORE.
  • 55. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
    • WATCH THE LANGUAGE
    • FOLLOW THROUGH
    • DEAL WITH UNCERTAINITY
    • BE AN ACTIVE LISTENER
    • MANAGE CONFLICT
    • RESPOND, DON’T “RE-ACT”
    • GIVE FEEDBACK
    • INVITE PARTICIPATION
    • KEEP YOUR TEAM UP-TO-DATE
    • CONNECT PERSONALLY WITH EMPLOYEES
    • TAKE ADVANTAGE OF COMMUNICATION RESOURCES
  • 56. PROBLEMS/CHALLENGES
    • TECHNOLOGY SHRINKS INTERACTION AND DIALOGUE.
    • TOO MUCH INFORMATION.
    • TOO COMPLEX ISSUES.
    • SHORTAGE OF COMMON MEANINGS AND INTERPRETATIONS.
    • EVERYONE MUST BE RESPONSIBLE FOR HIS / HER INFORMATION PURCHASE.
  • 57. CONTACT Dr Mous EMAIL: drmus2000 @yahoo.com