COMMUNICATION SKILLS Mostafa Ewees (PhD) Stanford University at California  EDUCATIONAL CONSULTANT NOVEMBER , 2009
INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION
KEY TO SUCCESS <ul><li>WHAT YOU SAY </li></ul><ul><li>HOW YOU SAY </li></ul>“ WORDS ARE THE MOST POWERFUL DRUG USED BY MAN...
<ul><li>“ TO LISTEN CLOSELY AND REPLY WELL IS THE HIGHEST PERFECTION WE ARE ABLE TO ATTAIN IN THE ART OF CONVERSATION”. </...
CONVERSATION SKILLS <ul><li>WHEN TO SPEAK AND WHEN TO LISTEN </li></ul><ul><li>HOW TO MOVE A CONVERSATION FROM THE PAST TO...
WHAT IS AN ORGANIZATION? <ul><li>“ A GROUP OF PEOPLE ASSOCIATED  FOR BUSINESS, POLITICAL, PROFESSIONAL, RELIGIOUS,  ATHLET...
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>VIRTUALLY EVERY MANAGEMENT FUNCTION AND ACTIVITY E.G. PLANNING, CONTROLLING, DECISION...
WHAT IS COMMUNICATION ? <ul><li>“ COMMUNICATION IS THE PROCESS OF TRANSMITTING INFORMATION FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER”. </...
<ul><li>COMMUNICATION IS A SOCIAL PROCESS. </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATION IS LIKE CHAIN PROCESS, MADE UP OF IDENTIFIABLE ...
<ul><li>“ COMMUNICATION REFERS TO THE ACT, BY ONE OR MORE PERSONS, OF SENDING AND RECEIVING MESSAGES THAT ARE DISTORTED BY...
COMMUNICATION IS REPRESENTED BY: 10% WORDS – WHAT WE SAY 30% SOUNDS – TONE 60% BODY LANGUAGE – HOW WE SAY IT
WHY TO COMMUNICATE? <ul><li>COMMUNICATION SATISFACTION COORELATES WITH JOB SATISFACTION AND JOB PERFORMANCE. </li></ul><ul...
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION OCCURS WHEN THE MESSAGE RECEIVED IS AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE AS THE ME...
SEVEN “C’s” OF COMMUNICATION <ul><li>COMPLETENESS  – CONTAINS ALL FACTS THE READER OR LISTENER NEEDS FOR DESIRED ACTION. <...
ORGANISATIONAL BENEFITS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONS <ul><ul><li>INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ANTICIPAT...
COMMUNICATION TODAY <ul><li>SIGNIFICANT SOURCE IN MANAGING AND LEADING ORGANIZATIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>OPPORTUNITY TO INV...
COMMUNICATION SKILLS  AND TOP EXECUTIVES <ul><li>COMMUNICATION SKILLS OCCUPY AS MUCH AS 90% OF A TOP EXECUTIVE’S WORKING D...
HUMAN COMMUNICATION
AREAS OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION <ul><li>INTRAPERSONAL  – TO THINK, REASON, ANALYZE, REFLECT. </li></ul><ul><li>INTERPERSONAL ...
PURPOSES OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION HUMAN  COMMUNICATION TO DISCOVER TO RELATE TO HELP TO PERSUADE TO PLAY
PROCESS AND CONTEXT OF COMMUNICATION
BASIC COMMUNICATION PROCESS SENDER ---------- PERCEPTION --------- IDEA ENCODE MEDIUM DECODE UNDERSTANDING ---------- PERC...
ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION <ul><li>SENDER / ENCODER </li></ul><ul><li>MESSAGE </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIUM </li></ul><ul><li>RE...
COMMUNICATION CONTEXT <ul><li>PHYSICAL CONTEXT </li></ul><ul><li>CULTURAL CONTEXT </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL C...
PHYSICAL CONTEXT <ul><li>TANGIBLE OR CONCRETE ENVIRONMENT E.I. ROOM OR HALLWAY OR PARK. </li></ul><ul><li>EXERT INFLUENCE ...
CULTURAL CONTEXT <ul><li>REFERS TO THE COMMUNICATORS’ RULES AND NORMS, BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES THAT ARE TRANSMITTED FROM ONE...
SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT <ul><li>INCLUDE STATUS RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE PARTICIPANTS, THE ROLES AND THE GAMES THE PEOP...
TEMPORAL CONTEXT <ul><li>TIME OF DAY AS WELL AS TIME OF HISTORY </li></ul><ul><li>FOR MANY PEOPLE MORNING IS NOT A TIME FO...
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION <ul><li>INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>CORPORATE COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>FOR...
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>NON-ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><l...
ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>CONFIDENTLY EXPRESSING WHAT YOU THINK, FEEL AND BELIEVE. </li></ul><ul><li>STANDING UP FOR...
NON-ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>RELUCTANCE OR INABILITY TO EXPRESS CONSISTENTLY WHAT YOU THINK, FEEL AND BELIEVE. </li...
AGGRESSIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>EXPRESSING YOURSELF IN WAYS THAT INTIMIDATE, DEMEAN, OR DEGRADE ANOTHER PERSON. </li></ul...
DISTORTION IN PERSONAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT  – THE PROCESS BY WHICH A SENDER CONSCIOUSLY ATTEMPTS T...
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION NETWORK (ICN) <ul><li>ICN REFERS TO PATTERN OVER TIME OF COMMUNICATION FLOWS BETWEEN INDIVIDUA...
MESSAGES AND CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION
MESSAGES AND CHANNELS <ul><li>COMMUNICATION CHANNEL IS THE MEDIUM THROUGH WHICH THE MESSAGE PASSES.  </li></ul><ul><li>RAR...
SPECIAL MESSAGES <ul><li>FEEDBACK MESSAGES </li></ul><ul><li>FEEDFORWARD MESSAGES </li></ul>
FEEDBACK MESSAGES <ul><li>POSITIVE ----- NEGATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>PERSON-FOCUSED ----- MESSAGE FOCUSED </li></ul><ul><li...
CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK <ul><li>BASED UPON TRUST BETWEEN SENDER AND RECEIVER </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIFIC RATHER GENERAL </li>...
FEEDBACK SKILLS <ul><li>EMPHASIZE WHAT YOU SEE AND HEAR –  DESCRIPTIVE RATHER EVALUATIVE FEEDBACK </li></ul><ul><li>CONCEN...
FEEDFROWARD MESSAGES <ul><li>OPEN THE CHANNELS OF COMM. </li></ul><ul><li>PREVIEW FUTURE MESSAGES </li></ul><ul><li>ALTERC...
COMMUNICATION BARRIERS
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>PROCESS BARRIERS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SENDER BARRIER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ENCODIN...
NOISE <ul><li>PHYSICAL  –  PASSING OF CARS, HUM OF COMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>PSYCHOLOGICAL  –  COGNITIVE OR MENTAL INTERF...
INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE ON COMMUNICATION <ul><li>ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FORMALLY PRESCRI...
INTERNAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>DETERMINATION OF TASKS, PRINCIPLES AND OBJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYSIS OF THE EMPLOYE...
EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>REPUTATIONAL MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>REPUTATION CAPITAL </li></ul>
ORGANIZATION CHART AND FORMAL COMMUNICATIONS SECRETARY AS Sr. JS/JS DS DS DS DS SO SO Upward Communication Information Dow...
IMPROVING UPWARD COMMUNICATION <ul><li>FORMAL GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES </li></ul><ul><li>EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE AND OPINION SURVEYS...
BECOMING A BETTER COMMUNICATOR <ul><li>EFFECTIVE LISTENING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TOLERATE SILENCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><li>EFFECTIVE WRITING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KEEP WORD SIMPLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DON’T SACRIFICE COMM. FOR RULE...
CHANGE AND COMMUNICATION <ul><li>UNSUCCESSFUL CHANGE IS MOSTLY MISSING OR POOR COMMUNICATION. </li></ul><ul><li>THE LINEAR...
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>WATCH THE LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>FOLLOW THROUGH </li></ul><ul><li>DEAL WITH UNCERTAINI...
PROBLEMS/CHALLENGES <ul><li>TECHNOLOGY SHRINKS INTERACTION AND DIALOGUE. </li></ul><ul><li>TOO MUCH INFORMATION. </li></ul...
CONTACT Dr Mous  EMAIL:  drmus2000 @yahoo.com
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Communication Skills.B 19 29.11.04(2)

1,844

Published on

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,844
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
103
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Communication Skills.B 19 29.11.04(2)

  1. 1. COMMUNICATION SKILLS Mostafa Ewees (PhD) Stanford University at California EDUCATIONAL CONSULTANT NOVEMBER , 2009
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION
  3. 3. KEY TO SUCCESS <ul><li>WHAT YOU SAY </li></ul><ul><li>HOW YOU SAY </li></ul>“ WORDS ARE THE MOST POWERFUL DRUG USED BY MANKIND”. ( RUDYARD KIPLING)
  4. 4. <ul><li>“ TO LISTEN CLOSELY AND REPLY WELL IS THE HIGHEST PERFECTION WE ARE ABLE TO ATTAIN IN THE ART OF CONVERSATION”. </li></ul>“ LA ROCHEFOUCAULD”
  5. 5. CONVERSATION SKILLS <ul><li>WHEN TO SPEAK AND WHEN TO LISTEN </li></ul><ul><li>HOW TO MOVE A CONVERSATION FROM THE PAST TO THE PRESENT AND TO THE FUTURE </li></ul><ul><li>WHY CONVERSATIONAL LINKING IS NECESSARY </li></ul><ul><li>HOW TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN PARALLEL AND SEQUENTIAL CONVERSATION </li></ul><ul><li>HOW TO RAISE ENERGY LEVELS IN DISCUSSIONS </li></ul><ul><li>HOW TO MOVE BETWEEN PROBLEM-CENTRED CONVERSATION AND SOLUTION-CENTRED CONVERSATION </li></ul>
  6. 6. WHAT IS AN ORGANIZATION? <ul><li>“ A GROUP OF PEOPLE ASSOCIATED FOR BUSINESS, POLITICAL, PROFESSIONAL, RELIGIOUS, ATHLETIC, SOCIAL, OR OTHER PURPOSES”. </li></ul><ul><li>ITS ACTIVITIES REQUIRE HUMAN BEING TO INTERACT, REACT – COMMUNICATE . </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATIONS FACILITATE TO EXCHANGE INFORMATION, IDEAS, PLANS, ORDER NEEDED SUPPLIES, MAKE DECISIONS, RULES, PROPOSALS, CONTRACTS, AGREEMENTS ETC. </li></ul>
  7. 7. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>VIRTUALLY EVERY MANAGEMENT FUNCTION AND ACTIVITY E.G. PLANNING, CONTROLLING, DECISION MAKING, LEADERSHIP AND STAFFING, CAN BE CONSIDERED COMMUNICATION. </li></ul><ul><li>ORG. PERFORMANCE CORRELATES DIRECTLY WITH THE QUALITY OF MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION. </li></ul><ul><li>AN AVERAGE MANAGER SPENDS MORE TIME IN COMMUNICATING THAN DOING ANYTHING ELSE. </li></ul>
  8. 8. WHAT IS COMMUNICATION ? <ul><li>“ COMMUNICATION IS THE PROCESS OF TRANSMITTING INFORMATION FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER”. </li></ul><ul><li>“ THE TRANSFER OF INFORMATION AND UNDERSTANDING FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER PERSON”. </li></ul>CONTED (Keith Davis)
  9. 9. <ul><li>COMMUNICATION IS A SOCIAL PROCESS. </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATION IS LIKE CHAIN PROCESS, MADE UP OF IDENTIFIABLE LINKS. </li></ul><ul><li>“ A PROCESS OF TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING VERBAL AND NON-VERBAL MESSAGES THAT PRODUCE A RESPONSE” </li></ul>(MURPHY AND HILDEBRANDT)
  10. 10. <ul><li>“ COMMUNICATION REFERS TO THE ACT, BY ONE OR MORE PERSONS, OF SENDING AND RECEIVING MESSAGES THAT ARE DISTORTED BY NOISE, OCCUR WITHIN A CONTEXT, HAVE SOME EFFECT, AND PROVIDE SOME OPPORTUNITY FOR FEEDBACK” </li></ul><ul><li>(JOSEPH A. DEVITO) </li></ul>
  11. 11. COMMUNICATION IS REPRESENTED BY: 10% WORDS – WHAT WE SAY 30% SOUNDS – TONE 60% BODY LANGUAGE – HOW WE SAY IT
  12. 12. WHY TO COMMUNICATE? <ul><li>COMMUNICATION SATISFACTION COORELATES WITH JOB SATISFACTION AND JOB PERFORMANCE. </li></ul><ul><li>COMMITMENT CORRELATES WITH JOB SATISFACTION AND PERCEPTIONS OF GOOD ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE. </li></ul>
  13. 13. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION OCCURS WHEN THE MESSAGE RECEIVED IS AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE AS THE MESSAGE INTENDED TO BE SENT – MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING. </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATION IS EFFECTIVE ONLY IF PEOPLE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- STIMULATE OTHERS TO TAKE ACTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- ENCOURAGE OTHERS TO THINK IN NEW WAYS. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. SEVEN “C’s” OF COMMUNICATION <ul><li>COMPLETENESS – CONTAINS ALL FACTS THE READER OR LISTENER NEEDS FOR DESIRED ACTION. </li></ul><ul><li>CONCISENESS </li></ul><ul><li>CONSIDERATION </li></ul><ul><li>CONCRETENESS </li></ul><ul><li>CLARITY </li></ul><ul><li>COURTESY </li></ul><ul><li>CORRECTNESS </li></ul>
  15. 15. ORGANISATIONAL BENEFITS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONS <ul><ul><li>INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ANTICIPATE PROBLEMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAKE DECISIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COORDINATE WORKFLOW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUPERVISE OTHERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEVELOP RELATIONSHIPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BETTER UNDERSTANDING IN THE WORKPLACE IN GENERAL </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. COMMUNICATION TODAY <ul><li>SIGNIFICANT SOURCE IN MANAGING AND LEADING ORGANIZATIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>OPPORTUNITY TO INVOLVE AND MOTIVATE PEOPLE TO COMMON GOALS. </li></ul><ul><li>OPPORTUNITY TO COOPERATION WITH STAKEHOLDERS. </li></ul><ul><li>CHALLENGE TO CONFIRM THE STATUS IN SOCIETY. </li></ul>
  17. 17. COMMUNICATION SKILLS AND TOP EXECUTIVES <ul><li>COMMUNICATION SKILLS OCCUPY AS MUCH AS 90% OF A TOP EXECUTIVE’S WORKING DAY. </li></ul><ul><li>85% OF BUSINESS EXECs. RATED BUSINESS COMMUNICATION AS VERY IMPORTANT, WHEREAS ONLY 20% RATED KNOWLEDGE OF PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT AS VERY IMPORTANT. </li></ul><ul><li>FORTUNE 500 EXECs. RANK ORAL PRESENTATIONS, MEMO WRITING, AND REPORT WRITING AS THE TOP 3 NECESSARY COMMUNICATION SKILLS. </li></ul>
  18. 18. HUMAN COMMUNICATION
  19. 19. AREAS OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION <ul><li>INTRAPERSONAL – TO THINK, REASON, ANALYZE, REFLECT. </li></ul><ul><li>INTERPERSONAL – TO DICOVER, RELATE, INFLUENCE, PLAY, HELP. </li></ul><ul><li>SMALL GROUP – SHARE INFORMATION, GENERATE IDEAS, SOLVE PROBLEMS, HELP. </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANANIZATIONAL – INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY, RAISE MORALE, INFORM, PERSUADE. </li></ul><ul><li>PUBLIC – INFORM, PERSUADE, ENTERTAIN </li></ul><ul><li>MASS – ENTERTAIN, PERSUADE AND INFORM </li></ul>
  20. 20. PURPOSES OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION HUMAN COMMUNICATION TO DISCOVER TO RELATE TO HELP TO PERSUADE TO PLAY
  21. 21. PROCESS AND CONTEXT OF COMMUNICATION
  22. 22. BASIC COMMUNICATION PROCESS SENDER ---------- PERCEPTION --------- IDEA ENCODE MEDIUM DECODE UNDERSTANDING ---------- PERCEPTION --------- RECEIVER FEEDBACK NOISE NOISE NOISE NOISE
  23. 23. ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION <ul><li>SENDER / ENCODER </li></ul><ul><li>MESSAGE </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIUM </li></ul><ul><li>RECEIVER / DECODER </li></ul><ul><li>FEEDBACK </li></ul>
  24. 24. COMMUNICATION CONTEXT <ul><li>PHYSICAL CONTEXT </li></ul><ul><li>CULTURAL CONTEXT </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT </li></ul><ul><li>TEMPORAL (TIME) CONTEXT </li></ul>
  25. 25. PHYSICAL CONTEXT <ul><li>TANGIBLE OR CONCRETE ENVIRONMENT E.I. ROOM OR HALLWAY OR PARK. </li></ul><ul><li>EXERT INFLUENCE ON THE CONTENT (WHAT WE SAY) AS WELL AS THE FORM (HOW WE SAY IT) OF THE MESSAGE. </li></ul>
  26. 26. CULTURAL CONTEXT <ul><li>REFERS TO THE COMMUNICATORS’ RULES AND NORMS, BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES THAT ARE TRANSMITTED FROM ONE GENERATION TO ANOTHER. </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT EYE CONTECT BETWEEN CHILD AND ADULT SIGNIFIES DIRECTNESS AND HONEST IN ONE CULTURE AND DEFIANCE AND LACK OF RESPECT IN OTHER. </li></ul>
  27. 27. SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT <ul><li>INCLUDE STATUS RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE PARTICIPANTS, THE ROLES AND THE GAMES THE PEOPLE PLAY, AND THE CULTURAL ROLE OF THE SOCIETY IN WHICH THEY ARE COMMUNICATING. </li></ul><ul><li>INCLUDE FRIENDLINESS OR UNFRIENDLINESS, FORMALITY OR INFORMALITY, AND SERIOUSNESS OR HUMOUROUSNESS OF THE SITUATION. </li></ul>
  28. 28. TEMPORAL CONTEXT <ul><li>TIME OF DAY AS WELL AS TIME OF HISTORY </li></ul><ul><li>FOR MANY PEOPLE MORNING IS NOT A TIME FOR COMMUNICATION; FOR OTHERS IT IS IDEAL </li></ul><ul><li>APPROPRIATENESS AND IMPACT OF MESSAGES DEPEND, IN PART, ON THE TIME IN WHICH THEY ARE UTTERED. </li></ul>
  29. 29. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
  30. 30. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION <ul><li>INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>CORPORATE COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>FORMAL COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>NON-FORMAL COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>ORAL COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>WRITTEN COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>NON-VERBAL COMUNICATION </li></ul>
  31. 31. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>NON-ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>AGGRESSIVE COMMUNICATION </li></ul>
  32. 32. ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>CONFIDENTLY EXPRESSING WHAT YOU THINK, FEEL AND BELIEVE. </li></ul><ul><li>STANDING UP FOR YOUR RIGHTS WHILE RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF OTHERS. </li></ul><ul><li>CONVEYING MEANING AND EXPECTATIONS WITHOUT HUMILATING OR DEGRADING OTHERS. </li></ul><ul><li>BASED UPON RESPECT FOR YOURSELF AND RESPECT FOR OTHER PEOPLE’S NEED AND RIGHTS </li></ul>
  33. 33. NON-ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>RELUCTANCE OR INABILITY TO EXPRESS CONSISTENTLY WHAT YOU THINK, FEEL AND BELIEVE. </li></ul><ul><li>ALLOWS OTHERS TO VIOLATE YOUR RIGHTS WITHOUT CHALLENGE. </li></ul><ul><li>REFLECTS LACK OF RESPECT FOR YOUR OWN PREFERENCES. </li></ul><ul><li>OTHER CAN EASILY DISREGARD YOUR THOUGHTS, FEELINGS, AND BELIEVES. </li></ul>
  34. 34. AGGRESSIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>EXPRESSING YOURSELF IN WAYS THAT INTIMIDATE, DEMEAN, OR DEGRADE ANOTHER PERSON. </li></ul><ul><li>PURSUING WHAT YOU WANT IN WAYS THAT VIOLATES THE RIGHTS OF ANOTHER PERSON. </li></ul><ul><li>“ THIS IS WHAT I THINK. YOU ARE DUMB FOR THINKING DIFERENTLY”. </li></ul>
  35. 35. DISTORTION IN PERSONAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT – THE PROCESS BY WHICH A SENDER CONSCIOUSLY ATTEMPTS TO INFLUENCE THE PERCEPTIONS THAT THE RECEIVERS FORM. COMMONLY USED IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT STATEGIES ARE: - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INGRATIATION: USING FLATTERY, SUPPORTING THE OPINIONS OF THE OTHER PERSON, DOING FAVOURS, SMILING EXPRESSIVELY IN SUPPORT OF THE PERSON ETC. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SELF-PROMOTION: COMMUNICATING ONE’S PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES IN A HIGHLY POSITIVE AND EXAGGERATED WAY. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FACE SAVING: COMMUNICATING APOLOGIES, MAKING EXCUSES, PRODUCING JUSTIFICATIONS ETC. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION NETWORK (ICN) <ul><li>ICN REFERS TO PATTERN OVER TIME OF COMMUNICATION FLOWS BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL. </li></ul><ul><li>IT EMPHASIZES COMMUNICATION RELATIONSHIPS AMONG INDIVIDUALS OVER TIME, RATHER THAN ON THE INDIVIDUALS THEMSELVES. </li></ul><ul><li>NETWORK INVLOVES THE ONGOING FLOW OF ORAL, WRITTEN, AND NONVERBAL SIGNALS BETWEEN TWO PEOPLE OR BETWEEN ONE PERSON AND ALL OTHER NETWORK MEMBERS SIMULTANEOUSLY. </li></ul>
  37. 37. MESSAGES AND CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION
  38. 38. MESSAGES AND CHANNELS <ul><li>COMMUNICATION CHANNEL IS THE MEDIUM THROUGH WHICH THE MESSAGE PASSES. </li></ul><ul><li>RARELY TAKES PLACE OVER ONE CHANNEL. MAY USE TWO, THREE, FOUR DIFFERENT CHANNELS SIMULTANEOUSLY . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VOCAL CHANNEL : SPEAK & LISTEN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VISUAL CHANNEL : GESTURE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OLFACTORY CHANNEL : EMITING OR DETECTING ODORS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TECTILE CHANNEL : TOUCHING ANOTHER PERSON </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. SPECIAL MESSAGES <ul><li>FEEDBACK MESSAGES </li></ul><ul><li>FEEDFORWARD MESSAGES </li></ul>
  40. 40. FEEDBACK MESSAGES <ul><li>POSITIVE ----- NEGATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>PERSON-FOCUSED ----- MESSAGE FOCUSED </li></ul><ul><li>IMMEDIATE ----- DELAYED </li></ul><ul><li>LOW MONITORING ----- HIGH MONITORING </li></ul><ul><li>SUPPORTIVE ----- CRITICAL </li></ul>
  41. 41. CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK <ul><li>BASED UPON TRUST BETWEEN SENDER AND RECEIVER </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIFIC RATHER GENERAL </li></ul><ul><li>GIVEN AT A TIME WHEN THE RECEIVER APPEARS TO BE READY TO ACCEPT IT. </li></ul><ul><li>CHECKED WITH THE RECEIVER TO DETERMINE WHETHER IT SEEMS VALID </li></ul><ul><li>INCLUDES BEHAVIOURS THE RECEIVER MAY BE CAPABLE OF DOING </li></ul><ul><li>DOES NOT INCLUDE MORE THAN THE RECEIVER CAN HANDLE AT ANY PARTICULAR TIME. </li></ul>
  42. 42. FEEDBACK SKILLS <ul><li>EMPHASIZE WHAT YOU SEE AND HEAR – DESCRIPTIVE RATHER EVALUATIVE FEEDBACK </li></ul><ul><li>CONCENTRATE ON PARTICULAR POINTS </li></ul><ul><li>OUTLINE THE POSITIVE POINTS. </li></ul><ul><li>INDICATE WHAT CAN AND SHOULD BE DONE </li></ul><ul><li>BUILD ON WHAT PEOPLE WANT </li></ul><ul><li>CHOOSE YOUR TIME </li></ul><ul><li>REACH AN AGREEMENT </li></ul>
  43. 43. FEEDFROWARD MESSAGES <ul><li>OPEN THE CHANNELS OF COMM. </li></ul><ul><li>PREVIEW FUTURE MESSAGES </li></ul><ul><li>ALTERCAST (PLACE THE RECIVER IN A SPECIFIC ROLE AND REQUESTING HIM TO RESPOND IN TERMS OF ASSUMED ROLE) </li></ul><ul><li>TO DISCLAIM </li></ul>
  44. 44. COMMUNICATION BARRIERS
  45. 45. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>PROCESS BARRIERS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SENDER BARRIER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ENCODING BARRIER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MEDIUM BARRIER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DECODING BARRIER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FEEDBACK BARRIER </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PHSYSICAL BARRIERS </li></ul><ul><li>SEMANTIC BARRIERS </li></ul><ul><li>PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIERS </li></ul>
  46. 46. NOISE <ul><li>PHYSICAL – PASSING OF CARS, HUM OF COMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>PSYCHOLOGICAL – COGNITIVE OR MENTAL INTERFERENCE I.E. BIASES AND PREJUDICES IN SENDER AND RECEIVERS, CLOSED-MINDEDNESS. </li></ul><ul><li>SEMANTIC – DIFERENT LANGUAGES, USE OF JARGON OR OVERLY COMPLEX TERMS. </li></ul><ul><li>CULTURAL </li></ul><ul><li>POLITICAL </li></ul><ul><li>EMOTIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>ECONOMIC </li></ul>
  47. 47. INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE ON COMMUNICATION <ul><li>ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FORMALLY PRESCRIBED PATTERN OF INTER-RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE VARIOUS UNITS OF AN ORGANIZATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE NATURE AND FORM OF COMMUNICATION VARY GREATLY AS A FUNCTION OF PEOPLE’S RELATIVE POSITIONS WITH AN ORGANIZATION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATION CHART </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DIAGRAM SHOWING THE FORMAL STRUCTURE OF AN ORGANIZATION AND INDICATING WHO IS TO COMMUNICATE WITH WHOM </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. INTERNAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>DETERMINATION OF TASKS, PRINCIPLES AND OBJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYSIS OF THE EMPLOYEES’ KNOWLEDGE AND IMAGE OF THE ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>DETERMINATION OF FOCUS AREAS IN DEVELOPING COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>RESPONSIBILITIES AND RESOURCES </li></ul>
  49. 49. EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>REPUTATIONAL MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>REPUTATION CAPITAL </li></ul>
  50. 50. ORGANIZATION CHART AND FORMAL COMMUNICATIONS SECRETARY AS Sr. JS/JS DS DS DS DS SO SO Upward Communication Information Downward Communication Instructions and Directives Efforts at Coordination Horizontal Communication
  51. 51. IMPROVING UPWARD COMMUNICATION <ul><li>FORMAL GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES </li></ul><ul><li>EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE AND OPINION SURVEYS </li></ul><ul><li>SUGGESTION SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>OPEN-DOOR POLICY </li></ul><ul><li>INFORMAL GRIPE SESSIONS </li></ul><ul><li>TASK FORCES </li></ul><ul><li>EXIT INTERVIEWS </li></ul>
  52. 52. BECOMING A BETTER COMMUNICATOR <ul><li>EFFECTIVE LISTENING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TOLERATE SILENCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASK STIMULATING OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATENTIVE EYE CONTACT, ALERT POSTURE AND VERBAL ENCOURAGERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PARAPHRASE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SHOW EMOTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KNOW YOUR BAISES AND PREJUDICES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AVOID PREMATURE JUDGEMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUMMERISE </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>EFFECTIVE WRITING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KEEP WORD SIMPLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DON’T SACRIFICE COMM. FOR RULES OF COMPOSITION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WRITE CONCISELY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BE SPECIFIC </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. CHANGE AND COMMUNICATION <ul><li>UNSUCCESSFUL CHANGE IS MOSTLY MISSING OR POOR COMMUNICATION. </li></ul><ul><li>THE LINEAR (ONE-WAY, TOP-DOWN) MODEL DOES NOT WORK ANY MORE. </li></ul>
  55. 55. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>WATCH THE LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>FOLLOW THROUGH </li></ul><ul><li>DEAL WITH UNCERTAINITY </li></ul><ul><li>BE AN ACTIVE LISTENER </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGE CONFLICT </li></ul><ul><li>RESPOND, DON’T “RE-ACT” </li></ul><ul><li>GIVE FEEDBACK </li></ul><ul><li>INVITE PARTICIPATION </li></ul><ul><li>KEEP YOUR TEAM UP-TO-DATE </li></ul><ul><li>CONNECT PERSONALLY WITH EMPLOYEES </li></ul><ul><li>TAKE ADVANTAGE OF COMMUNICATION RESOURCES </li></ul>
  56. 56. PROBLEMS/CHALLENGES <ul><li>TECHNOLOGY SHRINKS INTERACTION AND DIALOGUE. </li></ul><ul><li>TOO MUCH INFORMATION. </li></ul><ul><li>TOO COMPLEX ISSUES. </li></ul><ul><li>SHORTAGE OF COMMON MEANINGS AND INTERPRETATIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>EVERYONE MUST BE RESPONSIBLE FOR HIS / HER INFORMATION PURCHASE. </li></ul>
  57. 57. CONTACT Dr Mous EMAIL: drmus2000 @yahoo.com
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×