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Communication Skills.B 19 29.11.04(2)
 

Communication Skills.B 19 29.11.04(2)

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    Communication Skills.B 19 29.11.04(2) Communication Skills.B 19 29.11.04(2) Presentation Transcript

    • COMMUNICATION SKILLS Mostafa Ewees (PhD) Stanford University at California EDUCATIONAL CONSULTANT NOVEMBER , 2009
    • INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION
    • KEY TO SUCCESS
      • WHAT YOU SAY
      • HOW YOU SAY
      “ WORDS ARE THE MOST POWERFUL DRUG USED BY MANKIND”. ( RUDYARD KIPLING)
      • “ TO LISTEN CLOSELY AND REPLY WELL IS THE HIGHEST PERFECTION WE ARE ABLE TO ATTAIN IN THE ART OF CONVERSATION”.
      “ LA ROCHEFOUCAULD”
    • CONVERSATION SKILLS
      • WHEN TO SPEAK AND WHEN TO LISTEN
      • HOW TO MOVE A CONVERSATION FROM THE PAST TO THE PRESENT AND TO THE FUTURE
      • WHY CONVERSATIONAL LINKING IS NECESSARY
      • HOW TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN PARALLEL AND SEQUENTIAL CONVERSATION
      • HOW TO RAISE ENERGY LEVELS IN DISCUSSIONS
      • HOW TO MOVE BETWEEN PROBLEM-CENTRED CONVERSATION AND SOLUTION-CENTRED CONVERSATION
    • WHAT IS AN ORGANIZATION?
      • “ A GROUP OF PEOPLE ASSOCIATED FOR BUSINESS, POLITICAL, PROFESSIONAL, RELIGIOUS, ATHLETIC, SOCIAL, OR OTHER PURPOSES”.
      • ITS ACTIVITIES REQUIRE HUMAN BEING TO INTERACT, REACT – COMMUNICATE .
      • ORGANIZATIONS FACILITATE TO EXCHANGE INFORMATION, IDEAS, PLANS, ORDER NEEDED SUPPLIES, MAKE DECISIONS, RULES, PROPOSALS, CONTRACTS, AGREEMENTS ETC.
    • ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION
      • VIRTUALLY EVERY MANAGEMENT FUNCTION AND ACTIVITY E.G. PLANNING, CONTROLLING, DECISION MAKING, LEADERSHIP AND STAFFING, CAN BE CONSIDERED COMMUNICATION.
      • ORG. PERFORMANCE CORRELATES DIRECTLY WITH THE QUALITY OF MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION.
      • AN AVERAGE MANAGER SPENDS MORE TIME IN COMMUNICATING THAN DOING ANYTHING ELSE.
    • WHAT IS COMMUNICATION ?
      • “ COMMUNICATION IS THE PROCESS OF TRANSMITTING INFORMATION FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER”.
      • “ THE TRANSFER OF INFORMATION AND UNDERSTANDING FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER PERSON”.
      CONTED (Keith Davis)
      • COMMUNICATION IS A SOCIAL PROCESS.
      • COMMUNICATION IS LIKE CHAIN PROCESS, MADE UP OF IDENTIFIABLE LINKS.
      • “ A PROCESS OF TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING VERBAL AND NON-VERBAL MESSAGES THAT PRODUCE A RESPONSE”
      (MURPHY AND HILDEBRANDT)
      • “ COMMUNICATION REFERS TO THE ACT, BY ONE OR MORE PERSONS, OF SENDING AND RECEIVING MESSAGES THAT ARE DISTORTED BY NOISE, OCCUR WITHIN A CONTEXT, HAVE SOME EFFECT, AND PROVIDE SOME OPPORTUNITY FOR FEEDBACK”
      • (JOSEPH A. DEVITO)
    • COMMUNICATION IS REPRESENTED BY: 10% WORDS – WHAT WE SAY 30% SOUNDS – TONE 60% BODY LANGUAGE – HOW WE SAY IT
    • WHY TO COMMUNICATE?
      • COMMUNICATION SATISFACTION COORELATES WITH JOB SATISFACTION AND JOB PERFORMANCE.
      • COMMITMENT CORRELATES WITH JOB SATISFACTION AND PERCEPTIONS OF GOOD ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE.
    • EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
      • EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION OCCURS WHEN THE MESSAGE RECEIVED IS AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE AS THE MESSAGE INTENDED TO BE SENT – MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING.
      • COMMUNICATION IS EFFECTIVE ONLY IF PEOPLE:
        • - UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER
        • - STIMULATE OTHERS TO TAKE ACTION
        • - ENCOURAGE OTHERS TO THINK IN NEW WAYS.
    • SEVEN “C’s” OF COMMUNICATION
      • COMPLETENESS – CONTAINS ALL FACTS THE READER OR LISTENER NEEDS FOR DESIRED ACTION.
      • CONCISENESS
      • CONSIDERATION
      • CONCRETENESS
      • CLARITY
      • COURTESY
      • CORRECTNESS
    • ORGANISATIONAL BENEFITS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONS
        • INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY
        • ANTICIPATE PROBLEMS
        • MAKE DECISIONS
        • COORDINATE WORKFLOW
        • SUPERVISE OTHERS
        • DEVELOP RELATIONSHIPS
        • BETTER UNDERSTANDING IN THE WORKPLACE IN GENERAL
    • COMMUNICATION TODAY
      • SIGNIFICANT SOURCE IN MANAGING AND LEADING ORGANIZATIONS.
      • OPPORTUNITY TO INVOLVE AND MOTIVATE PEOPLE TO COMMON GOALS.
      • OPPORTUNITY TO COOPERATION WITH STAKEHOLDERS.
      • CHALLENGE TO CONFIRM THE STATUS IN SOCIETY.
    • COMMUNICATION SKILLS AND TOP EXECUTIVES
      • COMMUNICATION SKILLS OCCUPY AS MUCH AS 90% OF A TOP EXECUTIVE’S WORKING DAY.
      • 85% OF BUSINESS EXECs. RATED BUSINESS COMMUNICATION AS VERY IMPORTANT, WHEREAS ONLY 20% RATED KNOWLEDGE OF PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT AS VERY IMPORTANT.
      • FORTUNE 500 EXECs. RANK ORAL PRESENTATIONS, MEMO WRITING, AND REPORT WRITING AS THE TOP 3 NECESSARY COMMUNICATION SKILLS.
    • HUMAN COMMUNICATION
    • AREAS OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION
      • INTRAPERSONAL – TO THINK, REASON, ANALYZE, REFLECT.
      • INTERPERSONAL – TO DICOVER, RELATE, INFLUENCE, PLAY, HELP.
      • SMALL GROUP – SHARE INFORMATION, GENERATE IDEAS, SOLVE PROBLEMS, HELP.
      • ORGANANIZATIONAL – INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY, RAISE MORALE, INFORM, PERSUADE.
      • PUBLIC – INFORM, PERSUADE, ENTERTAIN
      • MASS – ENTERTAIN, PERSUADE AND INFORM
    • PURPOSES OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION HUMAN COMMUNICATION TO DISCOVER TO RELATE TO HELP TO PERSUADE TO PLAY
    • PROCESS AND CONTEXT OF COMMUNICATION
    • BASIC COMMUNICATION PROCESS SENDER ---------- PERCEPTION --------- IDEA ENCODE MEDIUM DECODE UNDERSTANDING ---------- PERCEPTION --------- RECEIVER FEEDBACK NOISE NOISE NOISE NOISE
    • ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION
      • SENDER / ENCODER
      • MESSAGE
      • MEDIUM
      • RECEIVER / DECODER
      • FEEDBACK
    • COMMUNICATION CONTEXT
      • PHYSICAL CONTEXT
      • CULTURAL CONTEXT
      • SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT
      • TEMPORAL (TIME) CONTEXT
    • PHYSICAL CONTEXT
      • TANGIBLE OR CONCRETE ENVIRONMENT E.I. ROOM OR HALLWAY OR PARK.
      • EXERT INFLUENCE ON THE CONTENT (WHAT WE SAY) AS WELL AS THE FORM (HOW WE SAY IT) OF THE MESSAGE.
    • CULTURAL CONTEXT
      • REFERS TO THE COMMUNICATORS’ RULES AND NORMS, BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES THAT ARE TRANSMITTED FROM ONE GENERATION TO ANOTHER.
      • DIRECT EYE CONTECT BETWEEN CHILD AND ADULT SIGNIFIES DIRECTNESS AND HONEST IN ONE CULTURE AND DEFIANCE AND LACK OF RESPECT IN OTHER.
    • SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT
      • INCLUDE STATUS RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE PARTICIPANTS, THE ROLES AND THE GAMES THE PEOPLE PLAY, AND THE CULTURAL ROLE OF THE SOCIETY IN WHICH THEY ARE COMMUNICATING.
      • INCLUDE FRIENDLINESS OR UNFRIENDLINESS, FORMALITY OR INFORMALITY, AND SERIOUSNESS OR HUMOUROUSNESS OF THE SITUATION.
    • TEMPORAL CONTEXT
      • TIME OF DAY AS WELL AS TIME OF HISTORY
      • FOR MANY PEOPLE MORNING IS NOT A TIME FOR COMMUNICATION; FOR OTHERS IT IS IDEAL
      • APPROPRIATENESS AND IMPACT OF MESSAGES DEPEND, IN PART, ON THE TIME IN WHICH THEY ARE UTTERED.
    • TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
    • TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
      • INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
      • CORPORATE COMMUNICATION
      • FORMAL COMMUNICATION
      • NON-FORMAL COMMUNICATION
      • ORAL COMMUNICATION
      • WRITTEN COMMUNICATION
      • NON-VERBAL COMUNICATION
    • INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
      • ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION
      • NON-ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION
      • AGGRESSIVE COMMUNICATION
    • ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION
      • CONFIDENTLY EXPRESSING WHAT YOU THINK, FEEL AND BELIEVE.
      • STANDING UP FOR YOUR RIGHTS WHILE RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF OTHERS.
      • CONVEYING MEANING AND EXPECTATIONS WITHOUT HUMILATING OR DEGRADING OTHERS.
      • BASED UPON RESPECT FOR YOURSELF AND RESPECT FOR OTHER PEOPLE’S NEED AND RIGHTS
    • NON-ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION
      • RELUCTANCE OR INABILITY TO EXPRESS CONSISTENTLY WHAT YOU THINK, FEEL AND BELIEVE.
      • ALLOWS OTHERS TO VIOLATE YOUR RIGHTS WITHOUT CHALLENGE.
      • REFLECTS LACK OF RESPECT FOR YOUR OWN PREFERENCES.
      • OTHER CAN EASILY DISREGARD YOUR THOUGHTS, FEELINGS, AND BELIEVES.
    • AGGRESSIVE COMMUNICATION
      • EXPRESSING YOURSELF IN WAYS THAT INTIMIDATE, DEMEAN, OR DEGRADE ANOTHER PERSON.
      • PURSUING WHAT YOU WANT IN WAYS THAT VIOLATES THE RIGHTS OF ANOTHER PERSON.
      • “ THIS IS WHAT I THINK. YOU ARE DUMB FOR THINKING DIFERENTLY”.
    • DISTORTION IN PERSONAL COMMUNICATION
      • IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT – THE PROCESS BY WHICH A SENDER CONSCIOUSLY ATTEMPTS TO INFLUENCE THE PERCEPTIONS THAT THE RECEIVERS FORM. COMMONLY USED IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT STATEGIES ARE: -
        • INGRATIATION: USING FLATTERY, SUPPORTING THE OPINIONS OF THE OTHER PERSON, DOING FAVOURS, SMILING EXPRESSIVELY IN SUPPORT OF THE PERSON ETC.
        • SELF-PROMOTION: COMMUNICATING ONE’S PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES IN A HIGHLY POSITIVE AND EXAGGERATED WAY.
        • FACE SAVING: COMMUNICATING APOLOGIES, MAKING EXCUSES, PRODUCING JUSTIFICATIONS ETC.
    • INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION NETWORK (ICN)
      • ICN REFERS TO PATTERN OVER TIME OF COMMUNICATION FLOWS BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL.
      • IT EMPHASIZES COMMUNICATION RELATIONSHIPS AMONG INDIVIDUALS OVER TIME, RATHER THAN ON THE INDIVIDUALS THEMSELVES.
      • NETWORK INVLOVES THE ONGOING FLOW OF ORAL, WRITTEN, AND NONVERBAL SIGNALS BETWEEN TWO PEOPLE OR BETWEEN ONE PERSON AND ALL OTHER NETWORK MEMBERS SIMULTANEOUSLY.
    • MESSAGES AND CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION
    • MESSAGES AND CHANNELS
      • COMMUNICATION CHANNEL IS THE MEDIUM THROUGH WHICH THE MESSAGE PASSES.
      • RARELY TAKES PLACE OVER ONE CHANNEL. MAY USE TWO, THREE, FOUR DIFFERENT CHANNELS SIMULTANEOUSLY .
        • VOCAL CHANNEL : SPEAK & LISTEN
        • VISUAL CHANNEL : GESTURE
        • OLFACTORY CHANNEL : EMITING OR DETECTING ODORS
        • TECTILE CHANNEL : TOUCHING ANOTHER PERSON
    • SPECIAL MESSAGES
      • FEEDBACK MESSAGES
      • FEEDFORWARD MESSAGES
    • FEEDBACK MESSAGES
      • POSITIVE ----- NEGATIVE
      • PERSON-FOCUSED ----- MESSAGE FOCUSED
      • IMMEDIATE ----- DELAYED
      • LOW MONITORING ----- HIGH MONITORING
      • SUPPORTIVE ----- CRITICAL
    • CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK
      • BASED UPON TRUST BETWEEN SENDER AND RECEIVER
      • SPECIFIC RATHER GENERAL
      • GIVEN AT A TIME WHEN THE RECEIVER APPEARS TO BE READY TO ACCEPT IT.
      • CHECKED WITH THE RECEIVER TO DETERMINE WHETHER IT SEEMS VALID
      • INCLUDES BEHAVIOURS THE RECEIVER MAY BE CAPABLE OF DOING
      • DOES NOT INCLUDE MORE THAN THE RECEIVER CAN HANDLE AT ANY PARTICULAR TIME.
    • FEEDBACK SKILLS
      • EMPHASIZE WHAT YOU SEE AND HEAR – DESCRIPTIVE RATHER EVALUATIVE FEEDBACK
      • CONCENTRATE ON PARTICULAR POINTS
      • OUTLINE THE POSITIVE POINTS.
      • INDICATE WHAT CAN AND SHOULD BE DONE
      • BUILD ON WHAT PEOPLE WANT
      • CHOOSE YOUR TIME
      • REACH AN AGREEMENT
    • FEEDFROWARD MESSAGES
      • OPEN THE CHANNELS OF COMM.
      • PREVIEW FUTURE MESSAGES
      • ALTERCAST (PLACE THE RECIVER IN A SPECIFIC ROLE AND REQUESTING HIM TO RESPOND IN TERMS OF ASSUMED ROLE)
      • TO DISCLAIM
    • COMMUNICATION BARRIERS
    • BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
      • PROCESS BARRIERS
        • SENDER BARRIER
        • ENCODING BARRIER
        • MEDIUM BARRIER
        • DECODING BARRIER
        • FEEDBACK BARRIER
      • PHSYSICAL BARRIERS
      • SEMANTIC BARRIERS
      • PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIERS
    • NOISE
      • PHYSICAL – PASSING OF CARS, HUM OF COMPUTER
      • PSYCHOLOGICAL – COGNITIVE OR MENTAL INTERFERENCE I.E. BIASES AND PREJUDICES IN SENDER AND RECEIVERS, CLOSED-MINDEDNESS.
      • SEMANTIC – DIFERENT LANGUAGES, USE OF JARGON OR OVERLY COMPLEX TERMS.
      • CULTURAL
      • POLITICAL
      • EMOTIONAL
      • ECONOMIC
    • INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE ON COMMUNICATION
      • ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE
        • FORMALLY PRESCRIBED PATTERN OF INTER-RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE VARIOUS UNITS OF AN ORGANIZATION
        • THE NATURE AND FORM OF COMMUNICATION VARY GREATLY AS A FUNCTION OF PEOPLE’S RELATIVE POSITIONS WITH AN ORGANIZATION
      • ORGANIZATION CHART
        • DIAGRAM SHOWING THE FORMAL STRUCTURE OF AN ORGANIZATION AND INDICATING WHO IS TO COMMUNICATE WITH WHOM
    • INTERNAL COMMUNICATION
      • DETERMINATION OF TASKS, PRINCIPLES AND OBJECTIVES
      • ANALYSIS OF THE EMPLOYEES’ KNOWLEDGE AND IMAGE OF THE ORGANIZATION
      • DETERMINATION OF FOCUS AREAS IN DEVELOPING COMMUNICATION
      • RESPONSIBILITIES AND RESOURCES
    • EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION
      • REPUTATIONAL MANAGEMENT
      • REPUTATION CAPITAL
    • ORGANIZATION CHART AND FORMAL COMMUNICATIONS SECRETARY AS Sr. JS/JS DS DS DS DS SO SO Upward Communication Information Downward Communication Instructions and Directives Efforts at Coordination Horizontal Communication
    • IMPROVING UPWARD COMMUNICATION
      • FORMAL GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES
      • EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE AND OPINION SURVEYS
      • SUGGESTION SYSTEMS
      • OPEN-DOOR POLICY
      • INFORMAL GRIPE SESSIONS
      • TASK FORCES
      • EXIT INTERVIEWS
    • BECOMING A BETTER COMMUNICATOR
      • EFFECTIVE LISTENING
        • TOLERATE SILENCE
        • ASK STIMULATING OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS
        • ATENTIVE EYE CONTACT, ALERT POSTURE AND VERBAL ENCOURAGERS
        • PARAPHRASE
        • SHOW EMOTION
        • KNOW YOUR BAISES AND PREJUDICES
        • AVOID PREMATURE JUDGEMENT
        • SUMMERISE
      • EFFECTIVE WRITING
        • KEEP WORD SIMPLE
        • DON’T SACRIFICE COMM. FOR RULES OF COMPOSITION
        • WRITE CONCISELY
        • BE SPECIFIC
    • CHANGE AND COMMUNICATION
      • UNSUCCESSFUL CHANGE IS MOSTLY MISSING OR POOR COMMUNICATION.
      • THE LINEAR (ONE-WAY, TOP-DOWN) MODEL DOES NOT WORK ANY MORE.
    • EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
      • WATCH THE LANGUAGE
      • FOLLOW THROUGH
      • DEAL WITH UNCERTAINITY
      • BE AN ACTIVE LISTENER
      • MANAGE CONFLICT
      • RESPOND, DON’T “RE-ACT”
      • GIVE FEEDBACK
      • INVITE PARTICIPATION
      • KEEP YOUR TEAM UP-TO-DATE
      • CONNECT PERSONALLY WITH EMPLOYEES
      • TAKE ADVANTAGE OF COMMUNICATION RESOURCES
    • PROBLEMS/CHALLENGES
      • TECHNOLOGY SHRINKS INTERACTION AND DIALOGUE.
      • TOO MUCH INFORMATION.
      • TOO COMPLEX ISSUES.
      • SHORTAGE OF COMMON MEANINGS AND INTERPRETATIONS.
      • EVERYONE MUST BE RESPONSIBLE FOR HIS / HER INFORMATION PURCHASE.
    • CONTACT Dr Mous EMAIL: drmus2000 @yahoo.com