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6. reproduction

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DNMU bilology lecture 6

DNMU bilology lecture 6

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  • 1. Theme:REPRODUCTION
  • 2. PLAN OF LECTURE1. THE FORMS OF REPRODUCTION2. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION3. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION4. GAMETOGENESIS5. FERTILISATION
  • 3. STUDENTS INDEPENDENT STUDY PROGRAM1. Evolution of the forms of reproduction: asexual and sexualreproduction.2. Asexual reproduction in unicellular and multicellularorganisms.3. Sexual reproduction in unicellular and multicellularorganisms.4. Spermatogenesis and oogenesis.5. Morphogenetical specialisation of sex cells: a sperm andan ovum6. Fertilisation: an eggs activation and syngamy.8. Natural and artificial parthenogenesis.9. Biological peculiarities of human reproduction.Applicable literature materials:Medical biology / K. L. Lasarev – Simferopol:IAD CSMU, 2002. pp. 58 - 74.
  • 4. Reproduction is the method bywhich individuals give rise toother individuals of same type.Reproduction can be asexualand sexual.At an asexual reproduction thegenetic information does notvary.In a basis of an asexualreproduction the mitosis lays.
  • 5. SEXUAL REPRODUCTIONAT SEXUAL REPRODUCTION THEGENETIC INFORMATION VARIES AS ARESULT OF COMBINATION.IN A BASIS OF SEXUALREPRODUCTION THE MEIOSIS LAYSAS A SOURCE COMBINATION OFVARIABILITY.
  • 6. TYPES OF ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION INSINGLECELLULAR ORGANISMS1.BINARY FISSION2.BUDDING3.ENDODIOGENY4.SHIZOGONY (OR MULTIPLE FISSION)5.SPOROGONY
  • 7. 1.BINARY FISSION –PARENT CELL SPLITS IN TWO CELLS.
  • 8. ENDODIOGENY –IN PARENT CELL FORMS ONLY TWODAUGHTER CELLS BY INTERNAL BUDDING.
  • 9. BUDDING - AFTER KARYOKINESIS THE SPECIALREGION IN PARENT CELL RAPID GROWS ANDORGANIZED INTO NEW ORGANISM.
  • 10. Sporogony - is reproduction by thespores, if its are the result ofmitosis.• Shizogony (or multiple fission) -in parent cell forms a greatamount of daughter cells.
  • 11. THE TYPES OF ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION INMULTICELLULAR ORGANISMSThe types of asexual reproduction inmulticellular organisms are:1) Vegetative (regeneration) - a group of cellsfrom the parent organism separates andnew organism forms from its.2) Polyembrionya - the production of two ormore embrions from the one zygote.3) Sporogony - is reproduction by the spores, ifits are the result of mitosis.As result of asexual reproduction is thatoffspring is genetically identical to itsparent.
  • 12. VEGETATIVE (REGENERATION)
  • 13. POLYEMBRIONYA
  • 14. The Types of Sexual Reproduction inSingle-cellular Organisms• The types of sexual reproduction insinglecellular organisms are:1)Conjugation - a cytoplasm bridge formsbetween two organisms, the nuclei transferacross this bridge and after exchange onesforms a new gene combination but no newoffspring.2)Copulation - two individuals acquire thegametes properties, fuse and form a zygotethe life of a new individual begins.
  • 15. Types of reproduction on the value ofgametes• Isogamy - observes at the first stages ofsexual reproduction, in which the gametesmorphological differentiation doesntpresent.• Anisogamy - is such period of gametedifferentiation in which they become somedifferent from each other by their sizes:some of them are smaller and another arethe largest.• Ovogamy - is the form of anisogamy inwhich gametes are very different fromeach other.
  • 16. Isogamy -Anisogamy -Ovogamy -Conjugation -
  • 17. The Types of Sexual Reproduction inMulticellular Organisms• In multicellular organism sexualreproduction may be two forms:• 1) with fertilisation and• 2) without fertilisation.• Parthenogenesis is the types ofsexual reproduction whendevelopment of new organism froman egg without fertilisation.
  • 18. PARTHENOGENESIS
  • 19. GAMETOGENESIS (making gametes) –the development of the maleand female sex cells, or gametes
  • 20. REPRODUCTIVE CELLS OR GAMETESGAMETES ARE FORMED AFTERCOMPLETION OF THE PROCESS OFMEIOSIS, WHICH HALVES THE NUMBEROF CHROMOSOMES. MALE GAMETESARE MOTILE, WHEREAS FEMALEGAMETES ARE LARGER AND ARESTATIONARY; THE FUNCTION OF THELATTER IS TO STORE SUPPLIES OFFOOD FOR THE DEVELOPING EMBRYO.
  • 21. Gametogenesis is divided into four periods:1) reproduction (multiplication), 2) growing,3) maturation and 4) formation.
  • 22. TESTIS
  • 23. SPERMATOGENESISSPERMATOZOON DEVELOPMENT BEGINS INSPERMATOGONIA.A DIPLOID SPERMATOGONIUM DIVIDES MITOTICALLYAND BECOMES A PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTE AS ITMOVES TOWARD THE LUMEN OF THE TUBULE. INMEIOSIS-I, EACH SPERMATOGONIUM HALVES ITSGENETICALLY MATERIAL TO FORM TWO SECONDARYSPERMATOCYTES.
  • 24. In meiosis II, each secondaryspermatocyte divides to yieldtwo equal - sized spermatids.Therefore, each cellundergoing meiosis in male canpotentially divide to yield amaximum of four spermatids.
  • 25. Spermatogenesis
  • 26. SPERMATOZOON STRUCURETHE HEAD HAS A HAPLOID NUCLEUS.AN ACROSOME - A SMALL BUMP ON THEFRONT END OF THE HEAD CONTAINS ENZYMESTHAT HELP THE CELL PENETRATE THE OVUMSOUTER MEMBRANE.THE BODY OR MIDPIECE HAS MITOCHONDRIATO PROVIDE THE CELL ENERGY ANDCENTRIOLES.A TAIL CONSISTS OF MICROTUBULES FORMOVING.
  • 27. EACHSPERMATOZOONCONSISTS OF:1)A HEADREGION;2) A BODY ORMIDPIECE;3) A TAIL ORFLAGELLUM.
  • 28. OOGENESIS - (EGG-MAKING) BEGINSIN A DIPLOID OOGONIUM.AN OOGONIUM ACCUMULATESCYTOPLASM AND REPLICATES ITSCHROMOSOMES, BECOMING A PRIMARYOOCYTE. IN MEIOSIS I, THE PRIMARYOOCYTE DIVIDES TO FORM A SMALL POLARBODY AND A LARGE, HAPLOID SECONDARYOOCYTE.
  • 29. IN MEIOSIS II, THE SECONDARY OOCYTEDIVIDES TO YIELD ANOTHER SMALL POLARBODY AND A MATURE OVUM.THEREFORE, EACH CELL UNDERGOINGMEIOSIS IN FEMALE CAN POTENTIALLYDIVIDE TO YIELD MAXIMUM OF FOURCELLS, ONLY ONE OF WHICH WILL BECOMETHE OVUM.
  • 30. Ovary
  • 31. OOGENESIS
  • 32. AN OVUM (THE NAME FOR AN EGG CELLAFTER IT LEAVES AN OVARY) IS ENORMOUS INSIZE.CORONA RADIATA OUTSIDE THE CELLCONSISTS OF THE GREAT AMOUNT OFFOLLICULAR CELLS, WHICH PRODUCEFOLLICULAR FLUID FOR ATTRACTING THESPERMS.
  • 33. Corona radiataZona pellucidaNucleusCytoplasm withvarious inclusionbodies, includingmitochondriaREPRESENTATIONOF HUMAN EGG
  • 34. Ovulation - dischange (going out) of asecondary oocyte from a follicule of the ovary.
  • 35. FERTILISATIONThe fusion of haploidgametes to form a new diploidcell is called fertilisation .During fertilisation twoprocesses take place:1. EGGS ACTIVATION2. SYNGAMY
  • 36. EGGS ACTIVATION
  • 37. EGGS ACTIVATION - A WAVE OFCHEMICAL REACTIONS SWEEPSACROSS THE SURFACE OF THE NEWLYAROUSED EGG, CAUSING THATSURFACE TO HARDEN AND PRESENT ABARRIER TO THE ENTRY OF ANYADDITIONAL SPERM. THE EGGSOXYGEN CONSUMPTION SKYROCKETS,AS DOES ITS RATE OF PROTEINSYNTHESIS.
  • 38. EGGS ACTIVATION
  • 39. FERTILIZATION
  • 40. SYNGAMY- MALE AND FEMALE HAPLOIDNUCLEI CONVERGE AND FUSETO FORM THE ZYGOTES SINGLEDIPLOID NUCLEUS.
  • 41. SYNGAMY
  • 42. SYNGAMY
  • 43. As a result ofa fertilizationthe zygotewill bederivated,the embryobegins todevelop.
  • 44. Toxic exposures suchas alcohol, cocaineets.,may change theprocess of normalgametogenesisresulting in geneticmaterial mutation insex cells.The alteration ofthese cells by toxicsubstances provokesbirth defects.
  • 45. Key words and phrases:mitosis, asexual and sexual reproduction,generation replacement, cloning, sex cells,gametogenesis, meiosis, biological peculiarities ofhuman reproduction, endogony, shizogony,budding, sporogony, polyembrionya, sexualreproduction, conjugation, copulation,parthenogenesis, oogenesis, polar body, primaryoocyte, secondary oocyte, spermatogenesis,primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte,spermatid, ovum, spermatozoon, ovary, ovulation,fertilisation, syngamy, zygote .
  • 46. THEEND