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Perineal Hernia  Animals
 

Perineal Hernia Animals

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FROM Dr.MUDASIR BASHIR

FROM Dr.MUDASIR BASHIR
M.V.Sc SCHOLAR
VETERINARY SURGERY AND RADIOLOGY
I.V.R.I

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    Perineal Hernia  Animals Perineal Hernia Animals Presentation Transcript

    • Role of computers in veterinary surgery Dr.Mudasir Bashir Roll no.4856 MVSc scholar
      • Computer :-machine that carries out computation.
      • Al-jazari in 1206-”castle clock”an astronomical clock-ist computer analog.
      • Charles babbage credited for invention of computers.
      • In medical practices its use started in 1960`s.
      • Computers in veterinary science were started in 1980`s.
    • computers as Virtual labs
      • Virtual physiology series:-includes------
      • Sim vessel,sim muscle,sim nerve,sim patch and sim heart.
      • These are computer programmes wherein we are able to detect effects of various drugs on different organs of the body.
      • It avoids animal cruelty used for practical purposes.
    • ROLE IN VETERINARY HOSPITAL:
      • MANAGEMENT OF DATA WITHIN A HOSPITAL RECORD:-
      • Patient demographics,
      • Signalment,
      • Final Diagnosis,
      • Medical-surgical Summaries
      • Anaesthesia And Drug Histories etc
    • COMPUTERS IN SURGERY:-
      • Programmes loaded in computers assist in:-
      • Diagnosis
      • Guidance for developing therapeutic option
      • Allowing interactive and continuing educational oppertunities
      • Assist in primary surgical instruction
      • Allowing data management applications
      • COMPUTER ASSISTED DIAGNOSIS AND PATIENT MANAGEMENT:-
      • Higher level processes include automated analysis of matrix considering all diagnostic possibilities from signs presented.
      • Currently many computerassisted diagnostic problems are available in both vety.and medicine and are most applicable in multifaceted or complex clinical situation.
      • These donot have observational ability,clinical experience or common sense..
      • As machines become more efficient and rapid data base access becomes more common,it is possible for local systems to automatically acquirethe latest references and abstracts from national and international bibliographic reference
      • COMPUTER-ASSISTED DIAGNOSTIC INSTRUMENTATION:-
      • Electroencephalography,electroretinography,digital radiography,digital flouroscopy,axial tomography,and thermal and ultrasonic image enhancement by computers are outstanding applications.
    • Computers in operating room and critical care unit:-
      • Continuous and automated physiological monitoring of certain postsurgical patients in the recovery room and critical care ward is well established e.g.; computerized signal processing from electrocardiographic monitors is especially prevalent and detects cardiac rate and rhythm changes.
    • Flouroscopy:-
      • PRESENTATION OF IMAGE->FLOUROSCOPY
      • More suited to study of moving structures and dynamic processes than x-rays
      • It gives an image that is continous in time and is required for maximum information.
      • X-ray beam is directed through patient & on to an image intensifier which amplifies the x-ray coming through the patient->decrease x-ray dose.
      • Resulting images are videotaped & hence permanent medical record
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      • DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY (DR)
      • X-ray tube is coupled to a specialised rerceiver that changes x-rays into electrical signals
      • Analog image is digitalized & displayed on integrated computer screen
      • Data is stored in magnetic optical discs(MODs),CDs,DVDs.
      • ADVANTAGES
      • No films are required.
      • No screens are required.
      • No processing is required.
      • Brightness & contrast of images can be adjusted.
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    • COMPUTED RADIOGRAPHY
      • Similar to DR except an x-ray receiver similar to cassete is required & must be processed in special machine which contains photostimulable phosphor that changes x-ray photons in latent electronic images that is read by processor & is transferred to computer.
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    • ULTRASONOGRAPHY
      • PRINCIPLE PULSE-ECHO
      • Pulse is generated by piezoelectric crystals in an ultrasound transducer & is transferred to the patient ->Echo formed is transmitted in the form of electrical waves->images are formed on the computer.
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    • NUCLEAR MEDICINE
      • TWO TYPES
      • THERAPEUTIC NM & DIAGNOSTIC NM
      • THERAPEUTIC NMː
      • Administration of radioactive iodine for treatment of hypothyroidism & thyroid tumours
      • DIAGNOSTIC NM ː
      • Administration of radioactive nuclides to patients and detection by gama-scintillation camera of electromagnetic rays
      • Technetium->primary choice-------t 1/2= 6hr
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    • Computerized tomography (CT)
      • CT scan is obtained by passing a very thin x-ray beam through patient & measurring x-ray attenuation at multiple sites in a thin slice of patients anatomy.
      • Computer reconstructs the transmitted x-ray data into a crossectional image on a video monitor.
      • Animal is kept in dorso-ventral or ventro- dorsal position.Table then moves the patient through circular gantry that houses the x-ray tube & detectors.
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    • MAGNETIC RESONANT IMAGING (MRI)
      • Unlike CT scan, no ionizing radiation is used.
      • MRI represents the intensity of a radiowave signal from tissues in which hydrogen nuclei has been disturbed by a characteristic radiofrequency pulse.
      • Advantages over CT scan
      • Better image resolution
      • Anatomic definition & sensitivity to tissue composition differences
      • Mainly used for CNS evaluation
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    • ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY PRINCIPAL->COLOUR DOPPLER EFFECT
      • Used to diagnose cardiovascular system disease.
      • Provides helpful information including size & shape of heart, its pumping capacity and location and extent of any damage to its tissues.
      • It is specially useful for assessing diseases of heart valves
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    • LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY
      • Keyhole surgery-operation performed through small incision.
      • Two types of laparoscope
      • Telescopic rod lens system-usually connected to camera.
      • Digital laparoscope where charge-coupled device is placed at the end of laparoscope eliminating the rod lens system.
      • Operative field illuminator-cold light source (halogen or xenon)
      • CO 2 insuffulation is done to avoid abdominal wall over internal organ.
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    • ROBOTICS & TECHNOLOGY
      • In recent years, electronic tools have been developed to aid surgeons.
      • Some of the features of these electronic tools are :
      • Visual magnification-use of large viewing screens improves visibility.
      • Stabilization-electromechanical damping of vibrations due to machinary or shaky human hands
      • Simulators-use of specialized virtual reality training tools to improve physicians proficiency in surgery
      • Reduced number of incisions
      • Advantages of robotic surgery:-
      • Precision.
      • Small size incision.
      • Decrease blood loss.
      • Less pain.
      • Unmanned surgery.
      • Quicker healing.
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    • NATURAL ORIFICE TRANS LUMINAL ENDOSCOPIC SURGERY (NOTES)
      • Surgical technique where by scar less abdominal operations can be performed with an endoscope passed through a natural orifice (mouth, urethra, anus etc)
      • -> then through this an internal incision in stomach, vagina, bladder or colon is given->thus avoiding any external incision or scar.
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    • THANKS