MUDASIR BASHIR  Div. Of vety surgery & Radiology I.V.R.I  izatnagar…………………….
RICKETS <ul><li>A disease of chronic nature affecting  young growing animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by defective...
Structure  of bone
 
Etiology   <ul><li>Caused by factors disturbing metabolism of calcium & phosphorus. </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium metabolism i...
<ul><li>Factors   causing   deficiency   of   calcium ;- </li></ul><ul><li>1)  Deficiency  in diet e.g. meat and by-produc...
<ul><li>4)Steatorrhoea  as  in pancreatic  and  liver diseases . </li></ul><ul><li>5)  Renal diseases  :-  </li></ul><ul><...
Factors   causing   deficiency  of  phosphorus <ul><li>1)  Deficiency in diet as in milk and diary products.  </li></ul><u...
Factors   causing   deficiency   of   Vit . D. <ul><li>1)  Deficiency in diet like milk, cream, egg yolk  &  animal fat. <...
CALCIUM   PHYSIOLOGY :  BLOOD   CALCIUM <ul><li>Calcium flux into and out of blood: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ IN” factors:  ...
CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS DIETARY CALCIUM INTESTINAL ABSORPTION ORGAN PHYSIOLOGY ENDOCRINE PHYSIOLOGY dietary habits,  supplemen...
PATHO-PHYSIOLOGY OF RICKETS
PATHOGENESIS
 
 
CLINICAL FINDINGS <ul><li>Stunted growth. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bow legs” condition due to abnormal curvature  of long bones...
<ul><li>e)  Stiffness of joint, lameness and tendency to lay down. </li></ul><ul><li>Narrowing of chest cavity due to abno...
<ul><li>m)  Eruption of teeth is delayed and irregular , often  badly aligned and wear rapidly & unevenly. </li></ul><ul><...
Clinical pathology <ul><li>There may be decreased serum & phosphorus level. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased level of alkaline ...
 
 
Diagnosis
Treatment  <ul><li>Change of diet to major commercial balanced dog or cat foods which contain sufficient vit.D content. An...
<ul><li>Feeding some organic meals such as liver, kidney, heart, & cod liver oil to pups will correct the condition( rich ...
 
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Canine Rickets

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FROM Dr MUDASIR BASHIR
M.V.Sc SCHOLAR
VETERINARY SURGERY AND RADIOLOGY
I.V.R.I

Published in: Health & Medicine, Lifestyle
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Canine Rickets

  1. 2. MUDASIR BASHIR Div. Of vety surgery & Radiology I.V.R.I izatnagar…………………….
  2. 3. RICKETS <ul><li>A disease of chronic nature affecting young growing animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by defective calcification of growing bones leading to deformity of skeleton and disturbance in general health. </li></ul><ul><li>Essential lesion is failure of provisional calcification with persistent hypertrophic cartilage and enlargement of epiphysis </li></ul>
  3. 4. Structure of bone
  4. 6. Etiology <ul><li>Caused by factors disturbing metabolism of calcium & phosphorus. </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium metabolism is very much dependant on phosphorus and vit.D , rickets may result from lack/defficiency of any of these components i.e. calcium , phosphorus or vit.D or their disturbances in metabolism. </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>Factors causing deficiency of calcium ;- </li></ul><ul><li>1) Deficiency in diet e.g. meat and by-products. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Deficiency due to improper absorption from gut due to; </li></ul><ul><li>a) vit.D deficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Alkaline pH of digesta. </li></ul><ul><li>c) formation of insoluble complexes like oxalates, </li></ul><ul><li>ca-soaps with organic acids etc. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Improper Ca & P balance e.g excess phosphorus in meat & by-products form insoluble Ca3(PO4)2 which is excreted in feaces. </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>4)Steatorrhoea as in pancreatic and liver diseases . </li></ul><ul><li>5) Renal diseases :- </li></ul><ul><li>a) Less phosphorus excretion inhibiting Ca⁺⁺ absorption due to formation of insoluble compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Increased nitrogenous wastes in blood leading to acidosis for which Ca⁺⁺ acts as base so is less available for mineralization for other processes. </li></ul><ul><li>c) Reduced synthesis of 1,25(OH)2 vit. D or calcitriol. </li></ul><ul><li>6) Presence of endoparasites. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Factors causing deficiency of phosphorus <ul><li>1) Deficiency in diet as in milk and diary products. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Formation of insoluble complexes as with Ca , Fe , & Al when taken in excess. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Dogs having habit of ingesting grass containing phytic acid forming insoluble complexes. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Factors causing deficiency of Vit . D. <ul><li>1) Deficiency in diet like milk, cream, egg yolk & animal fat. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Deficiency of sunlight as in dogs retained indoors. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Steatorrhoea as in diseases of liver and pancrease. </li></ul>
  9. 11. CALCIUM PHYSIOLOGY : BLOOD CALCIUM <ul><li>Calcium flux into and out of blood: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ IN” factors: intestinal absorption, bone resorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ OUT” factors: renal excretion, bone formation (ca incorpation into bone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance between “IN” and “OUT” factors maintained by : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>organ physiology of gut, bone, and kidney </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hormone function of PTH , Vit. D. and Calcitonin. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 12. CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS DIETARY CALCIUM INTESTINAL ABSORPTION ORGAN PHYSIOLOGY ENDOCRINE PHYSIOLOGY dietary habits, supplements BLOOD CALCIUM BONE KIDNEYS URINE THE ONLY “IN” THE PRINCIPLE “OUT” ORGAN PHYS. ENDOCRINE PHYS. ORGAN, ENDOCRINE
  11. 13. PATHO-PHYSIOLOGY OF RICKETS
  12. 14. PATHOGENESIS
  13. 17. CLINICAL FINDINGS <ul><li>Stunted growth. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bow legs” condition due to abnormal curvature of long bones usually forward and outward at the knee. </li></ul><ul><li>Enlargement of limb joints mostly distal ends of radius & ulna. </li></ul><ul><li>Enlargement of costochondrial junctions appearing as string of beads(rachitic rosary). </li></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>e) Stiffness of joint, lameness and tendency to lay down. </li></ul><ul><li>Narrowing of chest cavity due to abnormal bending of ribs(pigeon chest). </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Flat toe appearance’ due to flattening of bones and relaxation of muscles & tendons. </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired muscular activity leading to lameness </li></ul><ul><li>Animal very much susceptible to fracture of bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Arched back condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Pot bellied appearance of abdomen. </li></ul><ul><li>Deformity of pelvic bones will later cause maternal dystocia. </li></ul>
  15. 19. <ul><li>m) Eruption of teeth is delayed and irregular , often badly aligned and wear rapidly & unevenly. </li></ul><ul><li>General condition is poor . </li></ul><ul><li>o) There is unthriftiness , pica & occasional diarrhoea </li></ul>
  16. 20. Clinical pathology <ul><li>There may be decreased serum & phosphorus level. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased level of alkaline phosphatase enzyme. </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmatory diagnosis by radiological examination of bone (lack of density , wide epiphyseal plate & epiphyseal line which are very much pathogonomic , wooly & moth eaten appearance of epiphyseal ends of long bones) </li></ul>
  17. 23. Diagnosis
  18. 24. Treatment <ul><li>Change of diet to major commercial balanced dog or cat foods which contain sufficient vit.D content. Animal may respond within 3 week otherwise vit.D therapy can be recommended. </li></ul><ul><li>Vit.D therapy at a suggested level of 10-12 times, the daily requirement on alternate days for 1 week (daily req. of dog is 700 I.U. </li></ul><ul><li>Supplementation of Calcium by oral feeding( bone meal , limestone powder, mineral mixtures ) and injections. </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate exposure to sunlight. </li></ul>
  19. 25. <ul><li>Feeding some organic meals such as liver, kidney, heart, & cod liver oil to pups will correct the condition( rich source of vit.D). </li></ul><ul><li>Massaging of bones with oil and then putting the animal in sunlight proves useful. </li></ul><ul><li>Correction of other disease conditions indirectly affecting bone metabolism. </li></ul>
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