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Feasibilty report

  1. 1. Feasibility ReportMix herd of 210 goats and 10 cattle By Dr. Mubasher Solangi Veterinary Physician/ Trainer Research and Training Institute
  2. 2.  Feasibility Report Tando Mohammad Khan Page 2
  3. 3.  Feasibility Report Feasibility Report A Five year report for a mix herd of 210 goats and 10Cows Dr. Mubasher Solangi, DVM  For UBA farms  3/24/2013 Abstract Commercial herds should be oriented on milk production relying on the improved husbandry system, production of as much as possible doelings for reproduction. Animals for meat should use pasture as much as possible. Owner can get more profit by applying modern scientific rule in feeding and management of animals. A 12650 sq. foot area is sufficient for 210 goats and 10 cattle with all the essentials of farm. Capital investment will be near 4023000 PKR, yearly income 23215000 PKR, expenses 15180500 PKR and profit will be 834500 PKR. Capital investment will be recovered within three years; remaining two years farm will not get anything rather only give to owner Inside the report Nutritional Requirements Housing Needs Health Management Labour Requirements Cost report for a 5-year period Revenue Generation Environmental issues related to Animal Breeding Latest trends and scientific applications Conclusion  Page 3
  4. 4.  Feasibility ReportFeasibility ReportA Five year report for a mix herd of 210 goats and 10CowsIt is estimated that in the world there are about 102 descript breeds and types of goats, 59% of them arein developing countries. India has 20, Pakistan 25 and China 25 breeds of goats respectively. Goatsproduce around 130 kg of dry manure which improves the soil fertility through pH. Goats are less proneto toxic effect of toxic herbs. They have high DM and fiber digestibility and thus can subsist on poorwoody vegetation which no other species will consume. They are the major source of milk, meat, skin,fiber and manure. There are much less housing requirements and management problems, easy tohandle even women and children can look after herding, feeding and health care.TOTAL ANIMALS INCREASE AND DECREASE PER YEARS Increase per year Decrease per year end of year Initial No. No at the Replaced Replaced PurchaseYear Animal Expired Soled Total Total Birth d st1 Buck - 10 10 10 Doe (Dry) - 50 50 40 50 Doe (Milking) 50 50 50 Buckling - 50 Doeling - 40 40 55 Kid - 50 60 110 05 60 Cow (Dry) - 02 02 01 Cow (Milking) 05 05 06 Bull calf - Bull heifer - Calf - 03 03 03Basic rules for counting are as under: Doe mortality rate 5% Doe cull rate 5% Birth rate 90% Birth rate with twins 25% Male and Female ratio 50:50 Kid post birth mortality rate 10% Page 4
  5. 5.  Feasibility Report Kids sold 17%This is an average for one year. Total number of animal may increase or decrease with respect to timeand condition. Bull is not included in cattle herd because it is more expensive to hire a bull for 10 cows.On the other hand Artificial Insemination is the best option. 210 goats and 10 cattle is fixed ratio, whileincreased animals will be sold out, replaced on for old one (which have decrease in production) so as tomaintain the fixed ratio of 210 goats and 10 cattle, as well as get profit.Nutritional RequirementsGoats are ruminants, highly adaptable to various climate and environmental conditions with the abilityto consume a whole range of plants and different type of fodder including browsing, forage, grains,legumes etc. Goats are energetic, inquisitive and versatile in their feeding habits. They are adaptable tovarious environments and can consume over 90 different plants. Water is the cheapest feed ingredientand often the most neglected. Feed of goat comprises mainly fibrous feed (roughage), and forage orgood quality, such as legume hay. Feeding GoatsGoat can consume more feed than Cow in terms of DM consumption the records are even up to 11%body weight has been observed as compare to 2.5-3% in cattle. Goat requires more leguminous fodderand also has an outstanding mineral requirement. PasturePasture and browse are usually the primary and most economical source of nutrients especially for meatgoats, and in some cases, pasture and browse are all goats need to meet their nutritional requirements.Pasture tends to be high in energy and protein when it is in a vegetative state. However, it has highmoisture content, and it is difficult for a high-producing doe or fast-growing kid to eat enough grass tomeet its nutrient requirements. As pasture plants mature, palatability and digestibility decline, thus it isimportant to rotate pastures to keep plants in a vegetative state. During the early part of the grazingseason, browse (woody plants and brush) and weeds tend to be higher in protein and energy thanordinary pasture. Goats are natural browsers and have the unique ability to select plants when they areat their most nutritious state. HayHay is the primary source of nutrients for goats during the winter or non-grazing season. Hay is amoderate source of protein and energy for goats. The energy, as well as protein content of hay dependsupon the maturity of the forage when it was cut for forage. Proper curing and storage is also necessaryto maintain nutritional quality. Legumes make excellent hay and are usually superior to most other haycrops because of their higher protein content. While alfalfa hay is the best legume hay, variations mayoccur in quality. Good quality alfalfa hay should have a green color, small stem, adequate in leaves and17-20% protein. Legume hays – alfalfa, clover, – tend to be higher in protein, vitamins and minerals,especially calcium, than grass hays. Grass hay usually varies considerably in quality.  Page 5
  6. 6.  Feasibility ReportIn addition to pasture and/or the forages being fed, the overall ration should be balanced with a goodgrain concentrate that is fortified with minerals and vitamins. The exact amount needed will vary withpasture and forage quality. SilageSilage made from forage or grain crops have been successfully fed to goats; however, special attentionmust be paid to quality, as moldy silage can cause listeriosis or "circling disease" in goats. Concentrates (grains)It is oftentimes necessary to feed concentrates to provide the nutrients that forage alone cannotprovide. There are two types of concentrate feeds: Carbonaceous or ‘energy’ feeds include the cereal grains – corn, barley, wheat, oats, and rye and various by products feeds such as bran, beet root pulp etc. Proteinaceous concentrates or protein supplements may be of animal or plant origin and include soybean meal, sunflower meal.Goats do not store excess protein; it is burned as energy or eliminated (as nitrogen) by the kidneys. Vitamins and MineralsMost important minerals required to goat are salt, calcium, and phosphorus. The ratio of calcium tophosphorus should be kept around 2:1. Vitamins are needed in small amounts. Goats require vitamins A,D and E, whereas vitamin K and all the B vitamins are manufactured in the rumen. A free choice salt-vitamin-mineral premix should be made available to goats at all times, unless a premix has beenincorporated into the grain ration or TMR (total mixed ration). In the very least, does should be fed pre-choice mineral during late gestation and lactation. Either a loose mineral or mineral block may beoffered. Force-feeding minerals and vitamins is actually better than offering it free choice since goatswill not consume minerals according to their needs. WaterGoats should have ad libitum access to clean, fresh water at all times. A mature goat will consumebetween 5 l and 8 l of water per day. Inadequate water intake can cause various health problems. Inaddition water and feed intake are positively correlated. FEEDING VARIOUS CATEGORIES OF ANIMALSFactors that affect the nutritional requirements of goats are: Maintenance, Growth, Pregnancy, Lactation, Fiber production, Activity and Environment Page 6
  7. 7.  Feasibility Report Feeding doesAs far as nutritional level is concerned a doe has 2 periods within a productive year: Dry period and Lactation Dry period and Milking DoeThe does should be bred to freshen once each year with a dry period of about 2 or 3 months. The dryperiod allows the mammary system time to repair and regenerate for the next lactation. The greater herproduction the more likely that her body has been depleted of the nutrients used in milk secretion andthe longer the dry period required to replenish the losses and store adequate reserves for the nextlactation. Does which are not given a normal dry period usually produce only 65 to 75% as much milk inthe subsequent lactation as does given a dry period.Grain consumption should be reduced or removed near the time that the dairy goat is turned dry. In thefirst part of dry period they can be fed only of good quality hay in the amount of 2-2.5 kg. During the last6 weeks of gestation, nutrition becomes more important to the doe. She should receive better qualitygrass hay and about 0.3 kg of grains or the same type of ration she will receive after kidding. Pregnantdoe should be supplied with good quality legumes with concentrated having 25% protein.Possible distribution of lactation and dry period Dry Lactation DryJan Feb March April May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Feed requirement for Goat and CattleGiven feeding pattern in year may be altered due to shortage of fodder the herd will be on pasture for180 days and another 185 days (autumn, winter) in the barn. Concentrated fodder will be provided yeararound and depending on production stage.%age of maintenance and production ration/ animal 10% body weight Goat Cattle Food Maintenance Production Maintenance ProductionGreen 90% 70% 80% 75%Dry 15% 12%Concentrates 09.8% 29.8% 4.8% 12.8%Minerals 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2%Total 100% 100% 100% 100% Concentrates - 0.3 kg corn - 0.3 kg barley - 0.25 kg oat - 0.125 kg soy bean meal  Page 7
  8. 8.  Feasibility Report Minerals should be added @ 2% of concentrates. For cattle 1kg of additional amount of concentrates is required for every 2.5 Kg of milk over the above maintenance ration.Daily feed requirement for different animalsAnimal No. of animal Green fodder Dry fodder Concentrated Minerals /anim Total /anim Total /anim Total /anim TotalBuck 10 2.5 kg 25 10gms 100Doe (Dry) 50 2.5 kg 125 10gms 500Doe (Milking) 50 2.5 kg 125 1 kg 50 10gms 500Buckling 25 2 kg 50 10gms 250Doeling 25 2 kg 50 10gms 250Kid 50Cow (Dry) 02 32 64 06 12 02 04 80gms 160Cow (Milking) 05 30 150 05 25 07 35 80gms 400Bull calfBull heiferCalf 03 10 30 03 09 01 03 50gms 150Total 220 619 46 92 2.3Again ration will depend upon availability and session. Buck does not need any excessive ration duringbreeding session if he is on good pasture.Feed Schedule of KidBody weight Milk (ml/day) Green fodder (kg/day) Concentrated (g/day)2.5 400 - -3 500 - -3.5 600 - -4 600 - -5 600 Ad Lib. 506 700 Ad Lib. 1007 700 Ad Lib. 1508 600 Ad Lib. 2009 500 Ad Lib. 25010 350 Ad Lib. 35015 200 Ad Lib. 35020 - 1.5 35025 - 2 35030 - 2.5 350Culling may be done after 130 days of birth in goats. Page 8
  9. 9.  Feasibility ReportAt the form yearly feed consumption should be maintained from daily and monthly feed records. Anaverage is shown in the table below. This is an estimate of daily consumption. Actual result will beobtained when following the farm record.Feed 24 hrs Yearly Five year From table (kg) Daily×365 (kg) Yearly×5 (kg) (Tons)Green 619 225935 1129675 2824.1875Dry 46 16790 83950 209.875Concentrated 92 33580 167900 419.75Minerals 2.3 839.5 4197.5 10.49Housing NeedsGoats are very adaptive animals and do not require expensive housing. Whatever husbandry system orclimate conditions, goats need protection from the basic elements. Goats can tolerate cold weather, butshould not remain cold and wet for long periods of time. They are sensitive to draft. During the summermonths, it is important to provide a shady area with adequate air circulation. The primary need forhousing is during kidding, especially if kidding occurs during cold weather. Housing facility for goatsshould meet basic requirements such as: Relative humidity 60-80%, Adequate temperature for all categories of animals, especially for the kids Min. temperature Optimal temperature Max. temperatureAdult animals 5 °C 10 - 15 °C 27 °CKids 12 °C 18 - 20 °C 27 °CQualities of good housing House should be located minimum 3-4 feet above surface area. Location of shed should be north to west. Separate pen for dry, milking goats, kids and buck. Kid’s pen should be adjacent to mother kid. Adequate feeding and water supply provided all the day. Dipping pools for goat and cattle. Sun light must enter in pen at day time. Use of exhausted fen to control temperature and humidity. Loafing area for cattle, Milk record room, office, and clinic should be available. Boundary wall for protection from wild animals. Preferably away from city in rural areas but must be nearby road.  Page 9
  10. 10.  Feasibility ReportLocation for goat farm Farms should be located on a dry place a bit higher than the surrounding area. Most appropriatelocation is one on the southern slopes protected from north cold wind during winter. Farm should beaccessible by road but not too close to human settlements. Grazing and browsing areas should bylocated in vicinity of the farm. Space requirementAnimal Sp Req. / animal Shed/ Pen for Total Shed/ pen size. Covered Open animals Covered OpenDoe (Milking) 5’×2.5’ 12 sq ft. Pair of Goat 60 15’×105’ 07’×105’Doe (Dry) 5’×2.5’ 12 sq ft. Pair of Goat 80 15’×105’ 09’×105’1 to 12 week 5’×6’×21’ --- 20 -25 kids per Included in milking Doe shedkid penNewly born kid 5’×6’×21’ --- 15-20 kids per penTotal space 105’×46’req.Pregnant animals in advanced pregnancy (near to delivery) are shifted in calving pen measuring in size(4’×4’×4’) before parturition. Pregnant, non pregnant, milking and dry animals must be sectionedseparately. Separate pens for Buck should be constructed; a 10 buck pen should measure 10’×20’×6’.Isolation pen for small animals should measure 15’×15’Animal Sp Req. / animal Shed/ Pen Total Shed/ pen size. Covered Open for animals Covered OpenCow 5’×7’ 24 sq. ft One Cow 10 10’×25’ 20’×18’Calf 2.5’×3’ aprx. double One calf -- 5’×7’ 15’×7’Total space 25’×25’req.2-2.5 foot manger with 10” wide water line for cattle. Calving room measures 10’×12’×10’.Map of farm is given next; some values are adjusted and or changed from standard ones according tothe space available. For example calving room is provided 10’×15’×10’ instead of 10’×12’×10’. Page 10
  11. 11.  Feasibility Report Map of building N W E S 75’ 20’ 15’ Doe (Milking) 22’ Kid pen 7’ Loafing area 9’ Loafing area 100’ 15’ Doe (Dry) Dipping Room for grass pools cutting 15’ 10’×10’ 10’×15’ 15’ 10’×10’ 10’×10’ 10’×10’ Store Calving pen Labor Buck pen Office Clinic room 15’ 18’ ca lv es 20’ Loafing Isolation shed Area 25’ 25’ Grass store 10’ room Cattle shed 50’ 25’  Page 11
  12. 12.  Feasibility ReportHealth ManagementGoats require energy, protein, vitamins, minerals, fiber (bulk) and water. Energy (calories) isusually the most limiting nutrient, whereas protein is the most expensive. Deficiencies, excessesand imbalances of vitamins and minerals can limit animal performance and lead to varioushealth problems. Fiber is necessary to maintain a healthy rumen environment and preventdigestive disturbances. Good feeding and proper care must reduce the risk of disease. Vaccination andde worming is also necessary for good health management. De wormingTime Medicine PurposeApril Trichlobendazole To control Liver flukeAugust Oxfendazole To control internal parasites and worms. Cobalt, seleniumDecember Albendazole To control internal parasites and worms. Inj. Ivermectin may be given if need arises VaccinationTime Animal Goat CattleJanuary CPP HSFebruary FMD, AnthraxMarch HS (Not recorded in Pakistan)April Pox Black QuarterMay FMD (Not recorded in Pakistan) FMDJune RinderpestJuly Black quarterAugust FMD (Not recorded in Pakistan) HSSeptember EnterotoxaemiaOctober RinderpestNovemberDecemberAge of 15 days 30-40 cc HS serumAge of 3 months Anthrax vaccineAge of 3.5 months Black Quarter vaccineAnimals vaccinated according to schedule to prevent from disease. Dose varies for each company,recommended doses should be used. Page 12
  13. 13.  Feasibility Report Emergency/ First aidEmergency kit is maintained for casual use when ever need arises till veterinarian arrives at the farm.Veterinary Stock Assistant present at farm should be care full and trained person, he can deal at thetimes of emergency. He can also provide help in acute cases he give intentional dose to animal to relieveit. Routine farm operationsOperation PurposeCastration Avoid in rainy sessions because there is risk of tetanus. Increase meat and skin quality, rapid weight gainDehorning To segregate horned and polled animals. It is practiced within one week with caustic potash.Foot trimming To reduce the risk of over growing feet.Dipping To control the external parasites.Marking For identification purpose. Ear tagging, ear notching ear tattooing are the different ways of identification.Labor RequirementsS# Designation No of Salary/ month Duties Employee1 Farm manager 01 20000/= PKR Employed on regular basis. Over all internal and external management of farm. Investment and profit record.2 Veterinarian 01 1000/= PKR Veterinarian is called when ever need arises. He per visit also gives two routine visits in a month to inspect general health of animals.3 Veterinary SA 01 10000/= Regular Employee of farm work under the instructions of Veterinary physician. Conduct routine farm operations. Provide first aid facility.4 Lower staff 04 8000/= Collection, preservation and distribution of feed, security, transport etc. Nobody is fixed for a particular work; duties are changed alternately to reduce the cost of farm.  Page 13
  14. 14.  Feasibility ReportCost report for a 5-year periodPercentage give below is a standard ratio. 5% mortality rate defines maximum rate in a year, in caseproper management this ratio will be reduced. In controlled shade mortality rate is 2%. New shade hasmortality because of the animals have come from different cities/ parts.Number of does 100Number of bucks 4Doe mortality rate 5%Doe cull rate 5%Kid birth rate 90%Kit post-birth mortality rate 10%Kids sold 17%Average milking days/doe 130Average milk production/doe (net) 1-2Cost of Housing Sheds (once)Total area sq. ft. Rs./foot Total Construction Net Total12650 100 1265000 1278000 2543000Cost of Construction Housing Sheds (once)Description Material charges Labor charges TotalShed for goats 300000 80000 380000Shed for cattle 100000 50000 150000Milk room 80000 10000 90000Isolation shed 80000 10000 90000Pregnant animal room 80000 10000 90000Dipping pools 20000 10000 30000Feed storage room 90000 10000 90000Drainage, boundary wall 40000 15000 55000Water tank 20000 2000 22000Gas and electricity 10000 1000 11000Office/ record room 80000 10000 90000Clinic 80000 10000 90000Labor Room 80000 10000 90000 Grand Total 1060000 228000 1278000 Page 14
  15. 15.  Feasibility ReportCost of Dairy Equipments (Once)Equipment Price RSMilk cooling tanks depending on capacityStainless steel milk bucket of various volumeVarious milking and feeding utensilsMiscellaneous Total 50000Cost of machines/ VehicleMachine/ Vehicle Price RsGrass cutter machine 20000Miscellaneous 10000 Total 30000Feeding cost for one yearFeed Qty. per year (kg) Rs/kg Total RsGreen 225935 05 1129675Dry 16790 15 251850Concentrate 33580 20 671600Mineral 839.5 50 41975 Net total 2095100Cost of Medicine for one yearAnimal Vaccination De worming Treatment Routine farm Total Rs operationsCattle 5000 3000 5000 5000 18000Goat 100000 10000 5000 10000 125000N. Total 105000 13000 10000 15000 143000Labor/ Employee Cost for one yearEmployee Sal/ Month No. of employees Total one month Total one yearFarm Manager 20000 1 20000 240000Veterinarian 1000/visit 1 2000 24000Veterinary SA 10000 1 10000 120000Lower staff 8000 4 32000 384000Others  Page 15
  16. 16.  Feasibility Report Net salary 64000 768000Capital investment onceDescription 1st yearAnimals purchased 1400000Housing 2543000Dairy Equipment 50000Vehicle/ Machines 30000Total 4023000This is first capital investment, it is required to start farm and next expenditure is that amountwhich is required to run the farm. Successful business depends upon this investment and inhow much years this amount is returned back in the form of profit. No need to invest more incoming years, instead some miscellaneous expenditure may occur in the form of maintainanceetc.Annual Expenditure for five yearsDescription 1st year Five yearsFeeding 2095100 10475500Medicine 143000 715000Employee 768000 3840000Miscellaneous 30000 150000Net Total 3036100 15180500Revenue GenerationSources of incomeAnimal ProductionBuck HairDoe (Milking) Milk, hairDoe (Dry) Left for next pregnancy, MeatYoung stock MeatCow (Milking) MilkCow (Dry) Left for next pregnancyYoung stock Meat Page 16
  17. 17.  Feasibility ReportDaily Production RecordProduction Type of Animal No of Animals Average Total productionMilk Doe 50 2 l/ animal 100Milk Cattle 05 10 l/ animal 50Meat Cattle/ goat Live animals soldHairs Small animalsManure All animals 220 130 kg/ year 200Annual income for five yearsDescription Qty./day Rate Amount 1st year Five yearsMilk (goat) 100 l 60 6000 2190000 10950000Milk (Cattle) 100 l 60 6000 2190000 10950000Meat (goat) 90 live animal/ yr 7000 -- 63000 315000Meat (Cattle)HairsManure 200 kg/ yr 1000 -- 200000 1000000Animal sold Net Total 4643000 23215000Comparison Annual Cost and ProfitYear Capital Total amount Income Expenditure Profit Remarks investment1st 4023000 4643000 3036100 1669002nd 1669003rd4th5thTotal 23215000 15180500 834500Previous tables showed net income and expenditure clearly. Value obtained for one year is multipliedwith five to generate five years value. Here in this table average value of one year is repeated for fivetime showing value for each year. The purpose is to get idea that how the initial investment is recoveredwithin three years, and remaining 2 years owner has only profit with no loss. Initial investment may be  Page 17
  18. 18.  Feasibility Reportdone by getting loan or self investment; in any case owner gets his investment cleared within threeyears.Environmental issues related to Animal BreedingSeveral records reveal that environment favorable to one animal is unfavorable to another, soenvironment has non random effect on animals. One of them is to alter reproductive performance. Goatcan come in estrus in all over the year, in the age of 4-6 months it may show signs of estrus and able tobreed. But in field conditions breeding is performed after the age of 12 months so that within 18 month,first calving can be achieved. At the age of 18 months adult Doe gains sufficient weight and become ableto hold on pregnancy. Reproductive efficacy is induced by shortening of day. Calving intervalCalving interval may be affected by the environment. It is seemed in field condition that most of Doescome in estrus during February to April and July to September, while January to April is the mostfavorable session of breeding for cattle. Doe and Kid careGoat should not breed at the time that calving occur in winter session because it is not easy to care andhandle kids in winter time. Kids born in winter have high mortality rate as compared to others. On theother hand Doe in advanced pregnancy requires more care; cases of hind limb paralysis are common inthis situation due to mismanagement.Latest trends and scientific applicationsThere is no universal goat technology that is applicable to all situations. Husbandry system will dependon climate, environment, availability of fodder, land resources, type of production, etc. However, thereare recommendations which are kept in mind while running operations on farms. Scientific methodshousing and nutrition are discussed before. On the other hand; modern techniques are used at farm toprocess milk and meat, different equipments are being used for processing the products as well asroutine farm operations. Page 18
  19. 19.  Feasibility ReportApparatus Cooling machine It is called chiller used to chill the milk. Pasteurizer It is used for pasteurization of milk. Milk is heated to kill microbes so that can be stored safely. Nail Scissors Used to for foot trimming (cutting of nails). Available in verity of sizes Hoof Trimmer for Goats This is also used for hoof trimming  Page 19
  20. 20.  Feasibility Report Drench-Matic Dose Syringe This is used to drench several goats without reloading the syringe every time, it takes the recommended does automatically from gallon. Sphygmomanometer A cuff is removed around the patient’s leg., than inflated using the bulb until no sounds can be heard from dorsal pedal artery. The manometer is slowly released by opening the valve. The first sound herd is the systolic pressure number. When the sound becomes a pronounced beat, the number indicated is diastolic pressure. The diastolic pressure is not as accurate as the systolic pressure. Stethoscope It is used to hear heart beat lung sound and pulse sound Tourniquet It is used to occlude the blood vessel so a vein puncture can be performed. It also can be used as temporary muzzle. Identification Tag Applicator It is used to apply ear tags to goat and cattle Page 20
  21. 21.  Feasibility Report Marking Paint It is used to mark animals temporary when animals are medicated, vaccinated or any other reason to prevent duplicate administrations.Laparoscopy/ EndoscopyDone in Pregnant Doe to detect pregnancy at about 40 days.  Page 21
  22. 22.  Feasibility ReportConclusionsThe goat farming is rapid way income generation. This report is based upon the estimated values thatmay be increase or decrease at any time. Ultimately the result will be affected. The mix herd of cattleand goat enables owner to have best opportunity of income generating activities, like fattening of youngcalves and buckling, milk by products. It will prove to strain then weak bonds between commercialfarmers and improve marketing aspects of goat farming. Commercial herds should be oriented on milk production relying on the improved husbandry system,production of as much as possible doelings for reproduction. Animals for meat should use pasture asmuch as possible. Owner can get more profit by applying modern scientific rule in feeding andmanagement of animals. A 12650 sq. foot area is sufficient for 210 goats and 10 cattle with all theessentials of farm. Capital investment will be near 4023000 PKR, yearly income 23215000 PKR, expenses15180500 PKR and profit will be 834500 PKR. Capital investment will be recovered within three years;remaining two years farm will not get anything rather only give to owner.Recommendations It is necessary to develop of a training curriculum for goat farmers. Farmers need support fromextension service. If farmers are supported to establish an Association of Goat Breeders, it will help incollecting goat farmers at a single plate farm from which they can get basic knowledge. Farmers alsolinked with extension services, Institutes, Universities with entrepreneurs who are planning to invest ingoat sector in order to give them needed guidance and avoid mistakes which some entrepreneurs made.Goat by products market needs further development and increase in volume. Male young stock can beused for fattening instead of sell. High class fattening will generate more income as compared to selling.24/03/2013Dr. Nabi Bux SolangiTrainer (BBSYDP)Research and Training InstituteTando Mohammad Khan Page 22