Eyelid Anatomy/Reconstruction
Eyelid   •   Thin skin, areolar tissue,       orbicularis occuli ms., tarsus,       levator palpabrae superioris,       Mu...
Embryology• 2 ectodermal folds containing a core of  mesenchyme• Ectoderm: eyelashes and lacrimal glands• Mesoderm: muscle...
Blood Supply• Via marginal & peripheral arcades  – Upper marginal arcade - via ophthalmic artery  – Lower marginal arcade ...
Innervation• Periorbital sensation : V1 & V2 branches• Orbicularis: temporal & zygomatic branches of  facial nerve
Eyelid Cross Section
Orbicularis oculi•   Surrounds the palpaberal fissure•   Responsible for lid closure•   Divided into palpebral & orbital r...
Orbicularis oculi
Orbital Septum• Facial membrane which separates the eyelid  structures from the deep orbital structures• Barrier that help...
Orbital Septum       • Upper lid: OS inserts         onto the levator         aponeurosis 2-5mm         above the superior...
Orbital Septum• Laterally: OS anterior to the lateral canthal ligament• Medially: OS posterior to Orbicularis oculi & ante...
Orbital Septum
Medial Canthus       • Tripartite apparatus:          – Vertical component -            suspension & fixation            o...
Lateral Canthus        • Attaches to: upper &          lower tarsal plates,          orbicularis oculi,          fibrous p...
Tarsal plates       •   Thin elongated plates of           connective tissue       •   Contribute to form and support     ...
Pre-aponeurotic fat
Upper eyelid retracters
Levator palpebrae superioris              •   Striated muscle (CN III)              •   Origin: lesser wing of sphenoid   ...
Muller’s muscle        • Smooth muscle          (sympathetic)        • Posterior to levator        • Length 10mm &        ...
Lower eyelid retractors            • Capsulopalpebral              head of the inferior              rectus            • M...
Conjunctiva      • Marginal: lid margin        to anterior skin      • Tarsal: adherent to        the tarsus      • Orbita...
Lacrimal system• Controls the tear secretion• Basic and Reflex secretors• Basic secretors – three sets of glands   Limbal:...
Lacrimal system
Lacrimal drainage system            •   Upper and Lower puncta open 5-7                mm from the canthal angle at the   ...
Lacrimal drainage system
Eyelid Reconstruction• Aims:  – To reestablish functional eyelids  – Adequate protection of the eyeball  – Reasonable cosm...
Eyelid Reconstruction• Requirements:  – Smooth mucous membrane internal lining to maintain lubrication of    the ocular su...
Eyelid Reconstruction• Anterior & Posterior lamella• Anterior lamella:  – Skin & orbicularis oculi  – Dynamic closure of u...
Eyelid Reconstruction• Anterior lamella:  – Flaps - advancement, transposition, or rotational    musculocutaneous flaps  –...
Eyelid Reconstruction• Posterior lamella:  – Tarsal-conjunctival transposition, advancement or    rotational flap  – Free ...
Eyelid Reconstruction• In the reconstruction of both anterior & posterior  lamellae, at least one must have its own blood ...
Mustarde Flap-Cheek rotation-Deep eyelid defects>75%-Often problems withsagging lower lid,ectropion, entropion,epiphora, f...
Can close defects up to 25-50% directly +/-             Canthol release.  Approximate Margin first, if tight then         ...
Tenzel Slide-Up to 70% defects oflower eyelid-best if tarsal plateremnant at each end-good in elderly withpoor other eye-M...
Hughes (TarsoConjunctival Flap)-“Like with like”-Shallow defects up to 100% of margin-4mm Tarsus needed for stability- Nee...
SOURCE OF CHONDRO- MUCOSAL GRAFT
Hughes Flap(For Posterior   Lamella)    FTSG(For Anterior  Lamella)
Tripier Flap-Shallow defects up to100% of lower lid-Can be lined or unlined-But, Tendency to sagand for margin to retract-...
Reverse Hughes                           -No support but ?good results-Note: Another type of flap good for up to 70% of ma...
Cutler-Beard 1955       -up to 100% of eyelid margin, divide at 8 weeks             -Incision 4 to 6mm below lid margin-La...
Mustarde Lid Switch    -Laterally based is unreliable-Medially based is a 2 stage procedure
Full Thickness Skin Graft harvested     from left preauricular area
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Eyelid recon

  1. 1. Eyelid Anatomy/Reconstruction
  2. 2. Eyelid • Thin skin, areolar tissue, orbicularis occuli ms., tarsus, levator palpabrae superioris, Muller’s ms., septum orbitale, fat and conjunctiva • Skin – thin, elastic, moderately adherent to orbicularis over the tarsus, becomes more loose and mobile in the preseptal and orbital regions • Becomes thicker at the junction of the skin of the cheek and eyebrow at the bony orbital margin
  3. 3. Embryology• 2 ectodermal folds containing a core of mesenchyme• Ectoderm: eyelashes and lacrimal glands• Mesoderm: muscles & tarsal plate
  4. 4. Blood Supply• Via marginal & peripheral arcades – Upper marginal arcade - via ophthalmic artery – Lower marginal arcade - via facial artery branches – Medial peripheral network - via anastomosis from ICA & ECA systems – Lateral peripheral network - via branches of STA & lacrimal artery
  5. 5. Innervation• Periorbital sensation : V1 & V2 branches• Orbicularis: temporal & zygomatic branches of facial nerve
  6. 6. Eyelid Cross Section
  7. 7. Orbicularis oculi• Surrounds the palpaberal fissure• Responsible for lid closure• Divided into palpebral & orbital regions• Palpebral region subdivided into pretarsal & preseptal parts
  8. 8. Orbicularis oculi
  9. 9. Orbital Septum• Facial membrane which separates the eyelid structures from the deep orbital structures• Barrier that helps prevent the spread of hemorrhages, infection, inflammation• Attaches to the orbital margin at a thickening of the periosteum called the arcus marginalis• Arcus is also the point of confluence of the facial bones periosteum and the periorbita
  10. 10. Orbital Septum • Upper lid: OS inserts onto the levator aponeurosis 2-5mm above the superior portion of the tarsus • Lower lid: OS inserts into the lower edge of the tarsus
  11. 11. Orbital Septum• Laterally: OS anterior to the lateral canthal ligament• Medially: OS posterior to Orbicularis oculi & anterior to Superior oblique/Trochlear pulley & inserts into the posterior lacrimal crest• Superomedially: AM forms the inferior part of the supraorbital groove• Inferomedially: OS attaches to the anterior lacrimal crest & inferior orbital rim• Recess of Eisler: potential space along the lateral half of the orbital rim where OS originates just inferior to the orbital margin
  12. 12. Orbital Septum
  13. 13. Medial Canthus • Tripartite apparatus: – Vertical component - suspension & fixation of the medial canthus – Horizontal components contribute little to stability
  14. 14. Lateral Canthus • Attaches to: upper & lower tarsal plates, orbicularis oculi, fibrous portion of OS • Inserts to: lateral orbital tubercle of Whitnall (5mm behind the rim)
  15. 15. Tarsal plates • Thin elongated plates of connective tissue • Contribute to form and support the eyelids • Closely related to the LPS, medial, lateral canthal structures • Superior tarsus 10-12mm tapering to the sides. Inferior tarsus 3.8-4.5 mm • The meibomian glands are approx 20 in each lid within the substance opening in a row of tiny dots corresponding to the Grey line – mucocutaneous junction
  16. 16. Pre-aponeurotic fat
  17. 17. Upper eyelid retracters
  18. 18. Levator palpebrae superioris • Striated muscle (CN III) • Origin: lesser wing of sphenoid anterior to the optic foramen • Length: 40-45mm (including 10-15mm aponeurotic extension) • Aponeurosis attaches to the lower 7-8mm of the anterior tarsus & sends fibres through the orbicularis to the skin - upper lid crease • Total excursion 10-15mm
  19. 19. Muller’s muscle • Smooth muscle (sympathetic) • Posterior to levator • Length 10mm & inserts into tarsal plate • Excursion 2-3mm • Horner’s syndrome
  20. 20. Lower eyelid retractors • Capsulopalpebral head of the inferior rectus • Muller’s muscle
  21. 21. Conjunctiva • Marginal: lid margin to anterior skin • Tarsal: adherent to the tarsus • Orbital: posterior to Muller’s muscle • Bulbar: extends posterior to the fornix
  22. 22. Lacrimal system• Controls the tear secretion• Basic and Reflex secretors• Basic secretors – three sets of glands Limbal: mucus secreting goblet cells – produce a mucoprotein layer covering the cornea Conjunctival: Accessory lacrimal glands of Krause and Wolfring located in the s/c tissue Tarsal: Oil producing Meibomian glands and the palpaberal glands of Zeis and Moll. Outermost precorneal lipid layer helps stabilize the tear film and retards evaporation• Reflex Secretors - main lacrimal gland (orbital & palpebral lobes)
  23. 23. Lacrimal system
  24. 24. Lacrimal drainage system • Upper and Lower puncta open 5-7 mm from the canthal angle at the apex of the papilla • Ampulla – vertical portion of the canaliculus – dilated portion just prior to the transition to a horizontal direction • Horizontal portion measures approximately 8mm and converge to form the common canaliculus to enter the sac, may enter separately • Lacrimal sac is located in the lacrimal fossa just posterior to the medial canthal tendon • Nasolacrimal duct passes downward inferiorly to open into the inferior meatus
  25. 25. Lacrimal drainage system
  26. 26. Eyelid Reconstruction• Aims: – To reestablish functional eyelids – Adequate protection of the eyeball – Reasonable cosmesis
  27. 27. Eyelid Reconstruction• Requirements: – Smooth mucous membrane internal lining to maintain lubrication of the ocular surface and avoid corneal irritation – Skeletal support to provide adequate lid rigidity and shape but also allow molding to the globe – Stable eyelid margin to keep eyelashes & skin away from cornea – Proper fixation of the medial & lateral canthal attachments of the lids for eyelid stability & orientation – Adequate muscle to provide tone & power for closure – Supple, thin skin to allow eyelid excursion – Adequate levator action to lift the upper lid above the visual axis
  28. 28. Eyelid Reconstruction• Anterior & Posterior lamella• Anterior lamella: – Skin & orbicularis oculi – Dynamic closure of upper & lower lids – Lacrimal pump mechanism• Posterior lamella: – Tarsal plates – Conjunctival lining
  29. 29. Eyelid Reconstruction• Anterior lamella: – Flaps - advancement, transposition, or rotational musculocutaneous flaps – Full thickness skin grafts
  30. 30. Eyelid Reconstruction• Posterior lamella: – Tarsal-conjunctival transposition, advancement or rotational flap – Free autogenous composite tarsal grafts – Tarsal substitute grafts - sclera, nasal septal chondromucosa, hard palate mucosa
  31. 31. Eyelid Reconstruction• In the reconstruction of both anterior & posterior lamellae, at least one must have its own blood supply• Techniques would depend on the size, location, configuration, & depth of the defect• Superficial defect: only anterior lamella needs to be repaired• Full thickness defect: needs reconstruction of both layers
  32. 32. Mustarde Flap-Cheek rotation-Deep eyelid defects>75%-Often problems withsagging lower lid,ectropion, entropion,epiphora, flapnecrosis, facial nerveinjury.
  33. 33. Can close defects up to 25-50% directly +/- Canthol release. Approximate Margin first, if tight then proceed to: Lateral Canthotomy Inferior Cantholysis
  34. 34. Tenzel Slide-Up to 70% defects oflower eyelid-best if tarsal plateremnant at each end-good in elderly withpoor other eye-McGregor Flap issimilar butincorporates a Z-Plasty
  35. 35. Hughes (TarsoConjunctival Flap)-“Like with like”-Shallow defects up to 100% of margin-4mm Tarsus needed for stability- Need good other eye!
  36. 36. SOURCE OF CHONDRO- MUCOSAL GRAFT
  37. 37. Hughes Flap(For Posterior Lamella) FTSG(For Anterior Lamella)
  38. 38. Tripier Flap-Shallow defects up to100% of lower lid-Can be lined or unlined-But, Tendency to sagand for margin to retract-Medially, Laterally orBipedicle-?Treacher CollinsColoboma
  39. 39. Reverse Hughes -No support but ?good results-Note: Another type of flap good for up to 70% of margin is the upper lid horizontal advancement tarsoconjunctival flap with a skin graft.
  40. 40. Cutler-Beard 1955 -up to 100% of eyelid margin, divide at 8 weeks -Incision 4 to 6mm below lid margin-Lacks support, modify with ear cartilage deep to orbicularis
  41. 41. Mustarde Lid Switch -Laterally based is unreliable-Medially based is a 2 stage procedure
  42. 42. Full Thickness Skin Graft harvested from left preauricular area
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