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Social Marketing
Fasten your seat belt. Eat
more fruit.
Pull over to talk on your
cell phone.
Don’t litter. Get a mammogram
Content of the Seminar
1. Introduction
2. What is social marketing?
3. Historical Background
4. Framework for social marke...
Social change happens when
• We change internal
attitudes,
• external structures,
• and/or work to make
behavior unnecessa...
People are more likely to adopt a new idea quickly
if it exhibits these characteristics:
• It has a relative advantage ove...
What is Social Marketing?
One well-known definition of social marketing is
"the application of commercial marketing
techno...
key points in this definition:
Social marketing
1.Uses commercial marketing strategies.
2.Involves influencing voluntary (...
• It covers a wide variety of disciplines including
health education, advertising, economics,
business management, scienti...
Objective
• The objective of social marketing is to
promote public health, and its goal is
improved health for all. Its st...
History
• Social marketing, especially as applied to
health, has had a fairly controversial history.
• The term "social ma...
Similarities to commercial marketing include:
• Customer-orientation is critical
• Audiences are segmented
• All 4Ps are c...
Social marketing is NOT
• Just advertising or communication.
• A media campaign.( this is the most people think of
when th...
When Should We Use Social Marketing?
1. when voluntary behavior change is our goal and
2. we desire an audience-focused pr...
Confusion
• Social marketing in public health should not
be confused with the marketing activity of
new commercial health ...
• Oh…More Confusion—What is Societal
Marketing Concept?
• The overall idea of societal marketing concept
is to have those ...
APPLICATIONS
Most social marketing efforts are applied to:
• Improving public health (e.g. HIV/AIDS, tobacco
use, obesity,...
This shows you where social marketing fits in with other
interventions to support behavior change.
• “Because social marketing is based in a strong
strategic planning process, and because of its
insistence that you unders...
PRINCIPLES & TECHNIQUES OF SOCIAL MARKETTING
Components of Social Marketing
Social Marketing Consists of ?
• Audience orientation.
• Audience segmentation.
• Influenci...
Components of Social Marketing
Influencing
behavior.
Competition. Exchange. Marketing mix
Audience
orientation.
Audience
s...
Components of Social Marketing
• Addressing these elements collectively is what
makes social marketing different from othe...
1. Audience Orientation
Social marketing planners take time to learn
 What the target audience currently knows,
believes,...
2. Audience Segmentation
The process of dividing a broad target audience into
more homogeneous subgroups, called audience
...
For example: completely different programs would
be designed for these two segments:
1.Overweight adults who do not enjoy ...
3. Influencing Behavior
Influencing behavior (not just awareness or
knowledge) is the bottom line of any social
marketing ...
To do this, need to understand
• Current behaviors of
audience.
• Ideal behaviors.
• Reasonable steps to move
the audience...
4. Competition
• Social marketing, like commercial marketing, takes place
in a competitive environment.
• Competition is d...
5. Exchange
• For every choice we make, there is an exchange that
occurs: we give one thing up in return for something els...
5. Exchange
• The exchange should increase the perceived
benefits of the target behavior and minimize its
costs.
• Or it c...
Here is a public health example.
The perceived benefits of the behavior must outweigh the
perceived costs in order for the...
Here is another public health example.
It is important for us to understand what our audience sees as the
costs and benefi...
What is the cost of Behavior
• Notice that the “costs”
associated with the behavior
we are asking people to do
are not alw...
While behavioral change is the first–and ultimate–
goal, it is most likely to be achieved step-by-step
through smaller, in...
4 P’s
Marketing
Mix
Product
Price Place
Promotion
6. Marketing Mix
• The marketing mix, also known as the "4 P's," is made up of
four parts that, together, create the excha...
We Discussed
Audience orientation.
Audience segmentation.
Behavior change.
Competition.
Exchange & Marketing Mix
We’ve discussed the following elements
• Audience orientation.
• Audience segmentation.
• Behavior change.
• Competition.
...
Social Marketing Planning Process
• The social marketing planning process is a
structured approach to developing and
imple...
Social Marketing Planning Process
Problem
description.
Formative
research.
Strategy
development.
Intervention
design.
Eval...
The first plan component is the problem or
health issue. In the problem description
phase, complete the following activiti...
Plan Components for the Problem Description
• In the problem description phase, complete
the following activities to identify the target
audience and learn more about...
• Example
• Some examples of broad target audiences
• Mothers with young children.
• • Somewhat active adults.
• • Employe...
• Gather information to help decide which behavior to
promote.
• • Identify which potential behaviors are appropriate to
a...
• An intervention strategy explains how and why you
expect behavior change to happen. During the problem
description phase...
Why is Formative Research Important?
• Formative research will enable you to
• Better understand your target audience and ...
Step 3: Choose Data Collection Method
2: Write Research Questions
Step 1: Analyze Information Gaps Step
7: Analyze and Rep...
• LIMITATIONS OF SOCIAL MARKETING
• Social marketing is not the only method of health education and
• promotion. It is onl...
• major structural barriers exist against change in individuals.
• These include poverty, lack of health facilities, polit...
Benefits
• Social marketing emphasizes advance testing of all
concepts, messages and materials to obtain feedback.
• Socia...
• GUIDING THEORIES
• Stages of Change Model describes six stages that people go through in the
behavior change process.
• ...
Social marketing seminar
Social marketing seminar
Social marketing seminar
Social marketing seminar
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Social marketing seminar

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Basic concepts of social marketing

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  • All these actions require an individual, or a community, to change abehavior in order to improve the quality of life for that individual, or forthe community as a whole. This is what social marketing is all about.
  • Public health professionals understand that people don’t change behaviors easily.
  • So, if we can figure out how to make behavior change EASY, FUN, and POPULAR it becomeseasier for us to encourage it.
  • Social marketing is the use of commercial marketing principles and techniques to promote the adoption of a behavior that will improve the health or well-being of the target audience or of society as a whole.The National Social Marketing Centre for Excellence (NSMC) defines social marketing as1:“the systematic application of marketing concepts and techniques to achieve specific behavioural goalsrelevant to a social good.”[p.4]Social marketing may broadly be defined as the application of marketing techniques to social problems.
  • Social marketing can be thought about as a Systematic and strategic planning process. Social or behavior change strategy. Mindset for addressing problems. Total package of strategies carefully chosen based on characteristics of the target audience. Target AudienceThe group that your social marketing program seeks to reach and influence. This group is aselected portion (or segment) of a larger population that is directly affected by the health problem.
  • Its arrivalwas opportune since it was becoming evident that health professionalsshould be more responsible for public communications, and socialmarketing "offered a disciplined approach for public health promotionand communication efforts" (Manoff, 1985).
  • Marketing techniques (audience research, product analysis, messagedesign, distribution, "advertising", evaluation and feedback) can beapplied to health by taking into account the interests, values andgoals of the consumers, that is individuals and communities and,according to the marketing concept, making the consumer's needs apriority. Social marketing is a tool which may be used in achievingthe goal of Health for All by the Year 2000. It includes primaryhealth care and community development.
  • Companies who market organic foods not only make a profit, but they are also performing a service to the public by providing healthier foods.
  • UPSTREAM & DOWNSTREAM Downstream social marketing focuses on influencing individual behaviors while upstream social marketing focuses on influencing policy makers, media, corporations and other social influencers. The same ten step process is applicable.
  • "the design, implementation and control of programmes seeking toincrease the acceptability of a social idea or practice in a targetgroup(s)" (Kotler 1975).
  • “Because social marketing is based in a strong strategic planning process, and because of its insistence that you understand your audience, it really can give you a 360 degree view of both the causes of a problem and potential solutions. Even if your organization cannot address all of the causes, at least you can make an informed decision on which solutions are within your purview, and which will most ‘move the needle’ on behavior change.”
  • Many of these elements are borrowed from the field of commercial marketing and Addressing these elements collectively is what makes social marketing different from other public health planning approaches.
  • for example, illustrates the use of social marketing inthe prevention and control of diseases, First a vaccine must beproduced, then social marketing can be used to help gain acceptance ofthe need for the vaccine, to make resources available for furtherdevelopment, and to create a willingness of both physicians and thepublic to use it.
  • You may already know a lot about your audience and have some ideas about the program's activities. It can be tempting to start planning based on these ideas, but social marketing requires that you test those assumptions with the target audience first. You may be right, but you may also be surprised at what your audience thinks and says.
  • by tailoring your efforts to a particular segment, you can greatly improve your effectiveness because you can use the programming, communication channels, and messages that are most relevant to your segment. This way, they are more likely to be reached and more likely to pay attention, creating a more effective program
  • The more specific you can get with your audience, the more likely your program will address their particular needs (and therefore help to change their behaviors).
  • Therefore, program's goals should be designed to influence behavior instead of only increasing knowledge or awareness of a problem.
  • The end point is always action. Ask yourself: What do we want the target audience to do as a result of our intervention?
  • The target audience is doing something instead of the behavior you want them to do. Why does the audience prefer the competing behavior over the behavior you want to promote? Possible competing activities for physical activity in teens– Watching TV Playing on the computer Talking on the phone Going to the mall/shopping Spending time with friends Doing homework Participating in after-school programs
  • Exchange is “Quid pro quo,” “tit-for-tat”…something for the audience/something for the programYou must determine what your target audience values and what costs they perceive to create an exchange that persuades them to adopt your behavior over the competition.
  • Here is a useful way to understand the concept of exchange. Thisis a commercial example.On the left is the cost or price our audience must pay to use ourproduct. On the right is the product or benefit they receive.Notice how some of the benefits are intangible.Think
  • Here is another public health example.It is important for us to understand what our audience sees as thecosts and benefits of the behaviors or services we are promoting!Notice that the benefits important to them are not always healthbenefits.In social marketing, we strive to frame our services or behaviors interms of benefits that are important to our audience.
  • Promotion : Promotion includes communication or education that describes the program's benefits, product, price, and place. It includes Messages. Materials. Channels. Incentives. Activities.
  • The first five phases of the social marketing planning process take you through the design and creation of a plan for an intervention or program and its evaluation. The sixth phase describes the plan's execution and the implementation of the intervention.
  • The social marketing planning process is a structured approach to developing and implementing a program or intervention for voluntary behavior change. The planning process used in this training consists of six phases. Because social marketing is shown in numbered phases, it may seem like a straightforward and linear process. In practice, however, the process is more circular and iterative.
  • For example, knowing that the issue is obesity, you might consider trying to answer the following planning questions What factors contribute to the problem of obesity? What causes or contributes to those factors? To answer these questions, look at theoretical and empirical literature. Your answers should be based on theory or evidence, not your own opinions. A social marketing intervention probably won't be able to address all contributing factors. Concentrate on factors that you can change.
  • For example, you may decide that your ideal audience would be Affected by the problem (or have the ability to change the environment of those affected by the problem). Likely and willing to change their behavior. Easily accessible by you or your partners.
  • In social marketing the following theories and models are commonly used Social-ecological model. Stages of change model. Social cognitive theory. Theory of reasoned action. Health belief model. Diffusion of innovations theory.
  • Formative Research Process can be broken into seven main steps: Step 1: Analyze Information Gaps Step 2: Write Research Questions Step 3: Choose Data Collection Method Step 4: Develop Instrument(s) Step 5: Recruit Participants Step 6: Collect Data Step 7: Analyze and Report Findings
  • socialmarketing stresses monitoring of progress towards objectives andadjustment of information to suit the chosen target audience.
  • Transcript of "Social marketing seminar"

    1. 1. Social Marketing Fasten your seat belt. Eat more fruit. Pull over to talk on your cell phone. Don’t litter. Get a mammogram
    2. 2. Content of the Seminar 1. Introduction 2. What is social marketing? 3. Historical Background 4. Framework for social marketing 5. Uses in public Health 6. Merits and Demerits 7. Conclusion 8. References
    3. 3. Social change happens when • We change internal attitudes, • external structures, • and/or work to make behavior unnecessary. Example of highway traffic safety • about seat belt use by convincing people through education and persuasion • by using public policy to mandate seat belt use • Creating cars and highways that are so safe you don’t need to convince
    4. 4. People are more likely to adopt a new idea quickly if it exhibits these characteristics: • It has a relative advantage over what exists • It’s compatible with social norms • It’s not too complex • It can be “tried out” • You can see someone either doing or using it
    5. 5. What is Social Marketing? One well-known definition of social marketing is "the application of commercial marketing technologies to the analysis, planning, execution, and evaluation of programs designed to influence voluntary behavior of target audiences in order to improve their personal welfare and that of society.” It is a process for influencing humane behavior on a large scale, using marketing principles for the purpose of societal benefit rather than commercial profit.
    6. 6. key points in this definition: Social marketing 1.Uses commercial marketing strategies. 2.Involves influencing voluntary (not forced or coerced) behavior change (not just increased awareness or increased knowledge). 3.Promotes an end goal of improved personal welfare and improved welfare of society.
    7. 7. • It covers a wide variety of disciplines including health education, advertising, economics, business management, scientific research, systems analysis, community organization psychology and epidemiology. • Social marketing aims to persuade or motivate people to adopt specific courses of action or behavior which are generally accepted as being beneficial.
    8. 8. Objective • The objective of social marketing is to promote public health, and its goal is improved health for all. Its strategy is therefore predominantly preventive. It could even be seen to be in competition with commercial health care marketing as it seeks to reduce the market for curative services.
    9. 9. History • Social marketing, especially as applied to health, has had a fairly controversial history. • The term "social marketing of health" was fallen upon by accident during the 1960s as a useful distinction from commercial marketing. It received acclaim in July 1971 when the Journal.of mpr oduced an issue on the topic (Kotler, 1971).
    10. 10. Similarities to commercial marketing include: • Customer-orientation is critical • Audiences are segmented • All 4Ps are considered • Market research is key to success • Results are measured for improvement In commercial marketing, however: • Financial versus societal gain is the goal • Goods & services are sold versus behaviors • Competitors are other similar organizations •
    11. 11. Social marketing is NOT • Just advertising or communication. • A media campaign.( this is the most people think of when they hear term marketing.) • Not driven by Organizational expert’s agenda (it is a balance between the expertise of professionals and the experiential expertise of our audience(s).) • Reaching everyone. • A fast process. • A theory.
    12. 12. When Should We Use Social Marketing? 1. when voluntary behavior change is our goal and 2. we desire an audience-focused program 3. Also, we must have the time and skills to adhere to the process. You would not use social marketing if you were only trying to educate or raise awareness. Although, if the hope is that education or awareness will lead to behavior change, then social marketing would be appropriate
    13. 13. Confusion • Social marketing in public health should not be confused with the marketing activity of new commercial health care and hospital corporations. • The aim of the latter is to market health products and services for the profit of shareholders. The coincident benefits to health are part of the business objective and, it may be argued, need not always be "beneficial" to health.
    14. 14. • Oh…More Confusion—What is Societal Marketing Concept? • The overall idea of societal marketing concept is to have those who market to the public take into consideration what is socially good for the public.
    15. 15. APPLICATIONS Most social marketing efforts are applied to: • Improving public health (e.g. HIV/AIDS, tobacco use, obesity, teen pregnancy, tuberculosis) • Preventing injuries (e.g., traffic collisions, domestic violence, senior falls, drowning) • Protecting the environment (e.g., water quality, air quality, water conservation, habitat protection) • Contributing to communities (e.g., voting, spaying and neutering pets, volunteering, crime prevention)
    16. 16. This shows you where social marketing fits in with other interventions to support behavior change.
    17. 17. • “Because social marketing is based in a strong strategic planning process, and because of its insistence that you understand your audience, it really can give you a 360 degree view of both the causes of a problem and potential solutions. Even if your organization cannot address all of the causes, at least you can make an informed decision on which solutions are within your purview, and which will most „move the needle‟ on behavior change.”
    18. 18. PRINCIPLES & TECHNIQUES OF SOCIAL MARKETTING
    19. 19. Components of Social Marketing Social Marketing Consists of ? • Audience orientation. • Audience segmentation. • Influencing behavior. • Competition. • Exchange. • Marketing mix
    20. 20. Components of Social Marketing Influencing behavior. Competition. Exchange. Marketing mix Audience orientation. Audience segmentation.
    21. 21. Components of Social Marketing • Addressing these elements collectively is what makes social marketing different from other public health planning approaches.
    22. 22. 1. Audience Orientation Social marketing planners take time to learn  What the target audience currently knows, believes, and does.  All decisions are made with the audience's perspective in mind.  The program is designed to fulfill the audience's needs and wants. • Target Audience • The group that your social marketing program seeks to reach and influence. This group is a • selected portion (or segment) of a larger population that is directly affected by the health problem.
    23. 23. 2. Audience Segmentation The process of dividing a broad target audience into more homogeneous subgroups, called audience segments. We segment our audience because a) different factors in people’s lives can contribute to the same problem. b) Different life circumstances can require different interventions. A one-size solution does not fit all. c) And also the purpose of dividing up an audience into segments is to make our program more effective and to use our resources wisely
    24. 24. For example: completely different programs would be designed for these two segments: 1.Overweight adults who do not enjoy physical activity and are not motivated to participate in it. (The program for this segment would need to address the target audience's motivation before behavior change can be expected.) 2.Overweight adults who like physical activity and are motivated to do it, but can't find the time during the day to participate in it. (The program for this segment would need to address the target audience's perception of the barrier of lack of time.)
    25. 25. 3. Influencing Behavior Influencing behavior (not just awareness or knowledge) is the bottom line of any social marketing program. We may want our target audience a) to adopt a new behavior, b) stop a current behavior, c) or refrain from starting a new behavior.
    26. 26. To do this, need to understand • Current behaviors of audience. • Ideal behaviors. • Reasonable steps to move the audience from the current behavior towards the ideal behavior. • What determines their behavior. • The initial behavior change you ask for may not be to adopt the ideal behavior. The audience may need to start with smaller changes that move them towards the ideal behavior. Example • Current behavior: Watches app. 5 hrs of TV per day • Recommended behavior: Watching 2 or fewer hrs of TV per day • Possible behavior change: Reduce TV viewing by one hour-long TV show per day (an intermediate behavior change that will move the audience towards the ideal behavior). 3. Influencing Behavior
    27. 27. 4. Competition • Social marketing, like commercial marketing, takes place in a competitive environment. • Competition is defined as the "behaviors and related benefits that the target audience is accustomed to—or may prefer—to the behavior the program is promoting. • In social marketing programs, competition should be acknowledged, explored, and addressed by the strategies of the program.
    28. 28. 5. Exchange • For every choice we make, there is an exchange that occurs: we give one thing up in return for something else. • In the commercial marketing world, this exchange can be tangible (pay an extra quarter and get more fries), or it can be intangible (buy a brand-name pair of shoes and get the image that goes with the brand). • While the exchange can be tangible in social marketing (paying a higher price for a healthier vending machine option), • The exchange is often intangible, such as giving up a TV show to go for a walk to improve one's health.
    29. 29. 5. Exchange • The exchange should increase the perceived benefits of the target behavior and minimize its costs. • Or it could increase the perceived costs of the competing behaviors and minimize their benefits. • “We can use the concept of exchange several ways in marketing...”
    30. 30. Here is a public health example. The perceived benefits of the behavior must outweigh the perceived costs in order for them to try it.
    31. 31. Here is another public health example. It is important for us to understand what our audience sees as the costs and benefits of the behaviors or services
    32. 32. What is the cost of Behavior • Notice that the “costs” associated with the behavior we are asking people to do are not always monetary. • People go through a “cost/benefit” analysis at some level when they decide to act. • The perceived benefits of the behavior must outweigh the perceived costs in order for them to try it. Understanding Cost and Benefit of Audience • It is important for us to understand what our audience sees as the costs and benefits of the behaviors or services we are promoting! • Notice that the benefits important to them are not always health benefits. • In social marketing, we strive to frame our services or behaviors in terms of benefits that are important to our audience.
    33. 33. While behavioral change is the first–and ultimate– goal, it is most likely to be achieved step-by-step through smaller, incremental goals. But A readily achieved result will give the audience positive reinforcement and put the programmer in a position to make more changes that will eventually lead to the ultimate health goal
    34. 34. 4 P’s Marketing Mix Product Price Place Promotion
    35. 35. 6. Marketing Mix • The marketing mix, also known as the "4 P's," is made up of four parts that, together, create the exchange offered to the target audience • Product: What the audience gets or what you offer; can be tangible items, intangible benefits, or the behavior itself. • Price: What the audience gives up to get a tangible product; also the costs or barriers to making the desired behavior change. • Place: Where the audience is located or gathers, performs the desired behavior, accesses. products/services, or is thinking or hearing about the health issue. • Promotion: Messages, materials, channels (path used to reach the target audience), and activities to promote behavior change and describe the product, price, and place features of the program.
    36. 36. We Discussed Audience orientation. Audience segmentation. Behavior change. Competition. Exchange & Marketing Mix
    37. 37. We’ve discussed the following elements • Audience orientation. • Audience segmentation. • Behavior change. • Competition. • Exchange. • Marketing mix. • There are the pieces of social marketing that, when integrated, form a social marketing program. Again, it's the collective use of these elements that make a social marketing program
    38. 38. Social Marketing Planning Process • The social marketing planning process is a structured approach to developing and implementing a program or intervention for voluntary behavior change. The planning process used in this training consists of six phases. • Six Phases 1. Problem description. 2. Formative research. 3. Strategy development. 4. Intervention design. 5. Evaluation. 6. Implementation.
    39. 39. Social Marketing Planning Process Problem description. Formative research. Strategy development. Intervention design. Evaluation. Implementation. Six Phases
    40. 40. The first plan component is the problem or health issue. In the problem description phase, complete the following activities to identify the problem and learn more about it • Define the problem or health issue. • Find existing information about the problem. • Identify contributing factors
    41. 41. Plan Components for the Problem Description
    42. 42. • In the problem description phase, complete the following activities to identify the target audience and learn more about them: • Determine the criteria for selection. • Identify potential broad target audiences (who should change behavior). • Identify potential secondary audiences (those who influence the primary target audience).
    43. 43. • Example • Some examples of broad target audiences • Mothers with young children. • • Somewhat active adults. • • Employees of daycare centers. • • Health care providers. • • Adults living in a particular neighborhood. • • Women who want to lose weight • Identify Audience Influencers As you review the literature and talk to subject matter experts about the health problem, also consider potential secondary audiences, or influencers. These audiences are the people who can support or hinder behavior change in your target audience. Once you identify and refine your target audience, you can begin exploring the secondary audiences in more detail.
    44. 44. • Gather information to help decide which behavior to promote. • • Identify which potential behaviors are appropriate to address for each broad audience. • • Identify potential benefits and barriers that the audience faces for changing their behavior. Benefits and Barriers As you continue to look at existing behaviors that can be changed (or new behaviors that can be adopted), consider the potential benefits the audience may receive and what barriers they may face. Be sure to consider the audience's perspective. What benefits and barriers do they perceive? Which benefits and barriers are most important to them?
    45. 45. • An intervention strategy explains how and why you expect behavior change to happen. During the problem description phase, you will study theories, behavioral models, and existing programs to identify potential intervention strategies. Complete the following activities to learn more about strategies for change • Identify factors or concepts from behavioral theories and models that may help explain behavior change in your audience. • Identify information about other programs, both successful and unsuccessful.
    46. 46. Why is Formative Research Important? • Formative research will enable you to • Better understand your target audience and their needs and wants. • Get useful information from the right people. • Make decisions with an audience-focused mindset. • Refine your social marketing plan to ensure success of your program. Formative Research Process • The formative research process can be broken into seven main steps: Step 1: Analyze Information Gaps Step 2: Write Research Questions Step 3: Choose Data Collection Method Step 4: Develop Instrument(s) Step 5: Recruit Participants Step 6: Collect Data Step 7: Analyze and Report Findings
    47. 47. Step 3: Choose Data Collection Method 2: Write Research Questions Step 1: Analyze Information Gaps Step 7: Analyze and Report Findings 6: Collect Data Step Step 5: Recruit Participants Step Step 4: Develop Instrument(s The formative research process I: Problem/Health Issue II: Target Audience III: Behavior IV: Strategy for Change
    48. 48. • LIMITATIONS OF SOCIAL MARKETING • Social marketing is not the only method of health education and • promotion. It is only appropriate in certain circumstances and has • limitations (Brieger and Ramakrishna 1987, Manoff 1985). These • include: • 1 . Smle of intervention: The majority of health education and • promotion techniques are based on families, neighbourhoods, • villages or institutions, whereas social marketing is aimed at • individu& at the city, state, national and even international • level. • 2. Focus on isolated behaviour or products: Social marketing may • lead people with limited resources to perceive a need to choose • between the idea which is marketed and other health-promoting • behaviour. Traditional health education favours a more • integrated approach. • 3. Major structural barriers: Social marketing is unsuitable where
    49. 49. • major structural barriers exist against change in individuals. • These include poverty, lack of health facilities, political • pressure, discrimination. Social marketing is also inappropriate • where the effort and resources of the individual alone are • inadequate to achieve the desired behaviour. These insuperable • problems should be appreciated and careful examination should be • made to determine whether or how far a social marketing programme • would be appropriate. • 4. Decision-making: There are ethical difficulties as to who should • make the decisions or on what social behaviours should be • promoted, To remain an educational tool rather than a coercive • mechanism, social marketing must involve the consumer in • decision-making. • 5. Funding: Obtaining sufficient funding is always difficult. • Social marketing is often labour- and time-intensive. A cost. • effective strategy must be drawn up for each case. • Lack of support for social marketing programmes: Actual social • marketing programmes are sparse due to lack of information, • demands on personnel and financial stringencies. Trained social • marketers are rare and since the financial rewards are less, • commercial marketers are unlikely to be attracted to the area. • Social marketing's target population is outside the cash • environment and is therefore culturally, socially and • psychologically different from profitmaking efforts. Progress is • also slow and results more difficult to achieve. Marketed health • programmes are frequently of very low priority within official • channels and they therefore lack resources and opportunities. • Lack of opportunity for educational use of the mass media: • Transmission licences often only have a vague reference to public • interest, which is often unenforced. Educational programmes may • be treated the same as commercial ventures rather than be allowed • free-time allocation. Alternatively, the channel or times given • for transmission may be poor in quality or ineffective due to • inappropriate timing. In addition, the mass media are aimed at • those with economic means and are less feasible in developing • countries due to financial difficulties. • "Getting the product r i g h t" i n the Kenya Ministry of Health • Education Department • 8. Poor management and implementation of a social marketing effort: • Some of the problems that can be encountered by social marketers • in decision-making areas are outlined by Bloom and Novelli • (1981).The implementation of social marketing creates greater • problems than those experienced in the commercial sphere. These • include the following:
    50. 50. Benefits • Social marketing emphasizes advance testing of all concepts, messages and materials to obtain feedback. • Social marketing provides the health educator with a unique opportunity to bridge the communication gaps between the audience and the authorities; between educational assumption and popular perception; educational content and marketplace reality; between dissonant messages from other responsible agencies: the health care system and those who are unmotivated to use the system; and it tackles the competition between curative services and prevention.
    51. 51. • GUIDING THEORIES • Stages of Change Model describes six stages that people go through in the behavior change process. • Social Norms Theory is based on the central concept that much of people’s behavior is influenced by their perceptions of what is “normal” or “typical.” • Health Belief Model emphasizes target audiences are influenced by perceived personal susceptibility and seriousness of the health issue, and benefits, barriers and cues to action for the desired behavior. • Theory of Reasoned Action /Theory of Planned Behavior suggests the best predictor of behavior is intention to act and this intention is influenced by perceived benefits, costs and social norms. • Social Cognitive Theory states that likelihood of adopting the behavior is determined by perceptions that benefits outweigh the costs and belief in self-efficacy (ability to perform the behavior). • Exchange Theory postulates that in order for an exchange to take place, target markets must perceive benefits equal to or greater than perceived costs.
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