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  • 1. Anatomical Terms Used In Description of Bones
    • Foramen: an opening or a hole in a bone
    • Canal: Bony tunnel (foramen of some length)
    • Canaliculus: a very narrow canal
    • Meatus: a narrow passage
    • Sulcus: a groove or furrow
    • Pit or fovea: a small depression
    • Fossa: a large depression (may be articular or non articular
  • 2.
    • Facet : a small, smooth articular area of a bone
    • Ridge: a linear elevation, usually rough
    • Crest: a ridge of some breadth
    • Lip: the raised margin of a crest
    • Process: localized elevation or projection of large size
    • Tubercle: a small localized rounded thickening
    • Tuberosity: same as tubercle but larger in size
    • Head: a round articular area of bone
    • Spine: a sharp pointed projection
    • lamina: a thin plate of bone
    • Sinus: cavity inside a bone eg. Air sinuses of skull.
  • 3. Bones of Skull
    • A. The calvaria/Brain case consists of 8 bones
    • Paired:- 1.parietal 2.Temporal
    • Unpaired:- Frontal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid
    • B. The facial skeleton consists of 14 bones
    • Paired: Maxilla, Zygomatic, Nasal, lacrimal, Palatine, Inf Nasal Concha
    • Unpaired: Mandible, Vomer
  • 4. Mandible
    • Largest & strongest bone of the face and forms the lower jaw.
    • Parts:
    • 1. Body: horse shoe (u) shaped, horizontal and convex forward
    • 2. Rami: one ramus on each side, projecting upwards from the posterior ends of the body.
    • Body
    • Possesses: 2 surfaces- 1. external 2. internal
            • 2 borders- 1.upper(Alveolar), 2. Lower (base)
  • 5.  
  • 6.
    • Surfaces:
    • A. external surface : Convex in outline
    • Presents:
    • Symphisis menti : a faint ridge in the midline in the upper part of the body (indicates fusion of two halves of foetal bone)
    • Mental protuberence : triangular raised area below sym menti, & forms the prominence of chin.
    • Mental tubercles : small tubercle at each lateral angle of the mental protuberence.
    • Mental foramen : a foramen below the interval between the 1 st & 2 nd premolar teeth. It leads into the mandibular canal. It gives exit to mental nerve and vessels.
    • Ext oblique line : a faint line running upward & backward on each side from the mental tubercle, very prominent behind and continuous with the ant border of ramus.
            • Ant part gives origin to:
            • Depressor labii inferioris: infront
            • Depressor angulioris: behind.
            • Its post part and the adjoining area gives origin of buccinator.
            • Platysma is inserted below the oblique line.
  • 7.
    • Incisive fossa : shallow depression below the incisor teeth.
      • Gives origin to:-1. Mentalis 2. Parts of orbicularis oris.
      • B. Internal Surface: Concave in outline.
      • Presents:
      • Mylohyoid ridge : (int oblique line): an oblique ridge running forward and downwards on each side from 3 rd Molar tooth to the symphysis menti; very prominent behind. It divides the int surface in to 2 areas.
      • a. Submandibular fossa below the line
      • b. Sublingual fossa above the line
      • Gives origin to :
      • mylohyoid muscle: throughout its whole length.
      • Sup constrictor muscle of pharynx: from its post end.
      • Groove for lingual nerve : a groove above the mylohyoid line but below the last molar tooth. It lodges lingual nerve. Above this groove sup constrictor muscle is attached.
  • 8.  
  • 9.
        • Sub-Mandibular fossa : a triangular hollow area below the mylohyoid line
        • Lodges- 1. submandibular gland
    • 2. submandibular lymph nodes
    • 3. facial artery
    • Sublingual fossa : a triangular concave area above the mylohyoid line.
    • lodges- sublingual salivary gland
    • Genial tubercles : 4 in numbers, just above the ant ends of mylohoid lines. They lie in pairs- 2 upper & 2 lower
    • upper tubercle- gives origin to genioglossus muscles, one on each side.
    • lower tubercle- gives origin to geniohyoid muscles, on each side.
    • Mylohyoid groove: runs downwards and forwards from the ramus on to the body below the post end of mylohyoid line
    • transmits- mylohyoid vessels and nerves.
  • 10. Borders
      • Upper border (alveolar part):
    • presents: 16 sockets, 8 on each side for lodging the roots of teeth.
    • Dental formulae: ICPM/2123
    • Lower border (base of mandible):
    • -thick and rounded
    • -continuous with lower border of ramus behind 3 rd molar teeth.
    • Presents:-
    • #Digastric fossa: a shallow depression on either side of mid-line. It gives origin to ant belly of digastric.
    • #Insertion of platysma: lower border & extending anteriorly on to the adjoining ext surface.
  • 11. Ramus
    • Flattened, quadrilateral part projecting upwards from the post end of the body on each side, gives insertion to all muscles of mastication.
    • Possesses:
    • 2 surfaces: 1. external (lateral) 2. internal (medial)
    • 4 borders: anterior, posterior, upper, lower
    • 2 processes: 1. coronoid 2. condyloid
    • Surfaces:
    • a. lateral (ext) surface: flat surface, rough throughout except in upper & post part which is smooth
    • Presents:-
  • 12.
    • Insertion of masseter muscle: to a rough area
    • Parotid gland lies in smooth upper & post part.
    • B. Medial (int surface)
    • Presents:-
    • Mandibular foramen- near the center,leads into a mandible canal and finally into mental foramen.
    • Lingula- a sharp thin process of bone projection from medial margin of mandibular foramen. Gives attachment to sphenomandibular ligaments.
    • Mylohyoid groove- begins just behind linguala and runs downwards & forwards to fade out at the post end of submandibular fossa.
    • Lodges- mylohyoid vessels & nerves
    • 4. Medial pterigoid is inserted below & behind the mylohyoid groove.
  • 13.
    • Borders:-
    • Ant border : sharp/ prominent. Continuous above to the anterior border of coronoid process & below the oblique line.
    • Post border: thick/ rounded, concave in the middle
    • Upper (superior) border :
    • Presents:
    • Mandibular notch- in the middle
    • Coronoid process- in front
    • Condyloid process- behind
    • Mandibular notch transmit- masseteric vessels & nerves
    • Lower (inferior) border : continuous in front with the base of mandible.
    • Processes:
    • Coronoid process : flat & traingular with the apex pointing upwards while the base is fused with upper & ant part of ramus. Its ant border is continuous with ant border of the ramus & the post border forms the ant boundary of mandibular notch.
    • Insertion of temporalis muscle: to the apex, margins, whole of medial surface and a part of lat surface close to the apex.
    • Masseter covers lateral surface.
  • 14.
    • Condyloid process : projects upwards from the upper & post part of ramus.
    • Presents:-
    • Head of Mandible: thick and expanded upper part. Articulates with the articular part of mandibular fossa of temporal bone to form TMJ.
    • Neck of Mandible: the constricted part just below the head. It gives attachment to lat. Ligament of TMJ.
    • Ant surface of the neck is hollowed out into a depression called pterygoid fovea or pit which gives insertion to lat pterygoid muscle.
  • 15. cervical vertebrae
    • Vertebral column consists of a number of separate irregular bones called vertebrae. Forms the central axis of the body
    • Functions:
    • Protects spinal cord
    • Supports and transmits body weight
    • Provides attachment to axial muscles
    • Provides movement of the trunk
    • There are 33 vertebrae & 31 pairs of spinal nerves
    12 thoracic 12 thoracic 1 coccyx 4 coccyx 5 sacral 5 sacral 5 lumber 5 lumber 8 cervical 7 Cervical number Spinal Number Vertebrae
  • 16. Characteristics of vertebrae:
    • A typical vertebrae has 2 parts
    • Body – Ant or ventral
    • Neural arch- post or dorsal
    • Vertebral foramen: lies between body and arch. In between vertebrae there are intervertebral discs. Vertebral foramen lodges spinal cord with its meninges & blood vessels.
    • Body of vertebrae:
    • Shape and size: nearly cylindrical and shape varies in different regions.
    • 6 surfaces: Ant/post, upper/lower, 2 lateral
    • Vertebral (neural ) arch:
    • Pairs of pedicles
    • Pairs of lamina
    • Seven processes-
    • Spinous-1
    • Articular-4
    • Transverse-2
    • Arch is connected to the body by the pedicles.
  • 17.
    • pedicles- short, thick & passes backwards from the junction of lat & post surface of the body.
    • Laminae- broad plates lying behind & medial to pedicles. They fuse behind in a median plane into the spinous process.
    • Spinous process- passes backward and downward from the junction of the 2 laminae.
    • Articular processes- 4 in number, 2 superior, 2 inferior. Arises from junction of pedicles & laminae.
    • Transverse processes- 2 in number projects lat from the junction of pedicle and laminae. In thoracic region they articulates with ribs.
    • Distinguishing features of vertebrae:
    • Cervical- presence of foramen in transverse process called foramen transversarium.
    • Thoracic- presence of costal facet on the body
    • Lumber- no foramen no costal facets on the body.
  • 18. Cervical vertebrae
    • 7 in numbers
    • Identification: presence of foramen transversarium in the transverse process
    • Typical c.v: 3,4,5,6
    • Atypical c.v: 1,2,7
    • 1 st c.v – atlas
    • 2 nd c.v- axis
    • 7 th c.v- vertebra prominens
    • Characteristics of typical vertebrae:
    • Body :
    • Smallest of all vertebrae
    • Transverse> AP measurement
    • Post surface has 2 vascular foramen, to transmit basi vertebral vein & NA.
    • Ant. & post surfaces are flat.
  • 19.  
  • 20.
    • Attachments:
    • A. Anterior surface:
    • Ant long ligament: to upper and lower borders
    • B. Posterior surface:
    • Post long ligament: to upper and lower borders
    • 2. Vertebral foramen:
    • Larger than the body
    • Triangular
    • 3. Pedicles:
    • Projects laterally and backwards
    • 4. Laminae:
    • Long and narrow
    • Ligamentum flava attached to upper and lower part of anterior surface.
  • 21.
    • 5. Spine:
    • short and bifid
    • Ligmentum nuchae is attached to it
    • 6. Articular processes:
    • Form an articular pillar which projects laterally at the junction of pedicles and laminae.
    • Articular facets are flat and oval
    • 7. Transverse process:
    • pierced by foramen called foramen transversarium
    • Transmits: vertebral artery & vein
    • Attachment:
  • 22. Atlas
    • Distinguishing points:
    • No body
    • No spine
    • It has 2 arches: ant & post
    • 2 lateral masses
    • Lateral masses:
    • Lie obliquly between 2 arches
    • Superior articular facets:
    • Faces upwards and medially
    • Concave and elongated (kidney shaped)
    • B. Inferior articular facet:
    • Faces downwards and backwards.
    • Round, slightly concave and flat
    • 2. Anterior arch:
    • Short, curved anteriorly
    • Connects to lateral masses
    • There is a rough tubercle on the anterior aspect called the rough tubercle
  • 23.  
  • 24.
    • 3. Posterior arch:
    • Upper surface has a wide groove behind the lateral masses
    • Posterior tubercle: small tubercle at the posterior part. It represents spinous process.
    • Attachments:
    • 4. Transverse processes:
    • Quite long and strong
    • Ends laterally in a tubercle
    • Attachments:
  • 25. Axis (2 nd cervical vertebrae)
    • Distinguishing point:
    • Presence of odontoid process (dens)
    • Odontoid process:
    • Strong tooth like process projecting from superior surface of the body.
    • Half inch long
    • Represents the body of the atlas
    • Acts as a pivot around which atlas rotates
    • Attachment:
    • 2. Body:
    • the odontoid process arises from the superior surface
    • On the lateral side of the upper surace a large circular facet is present which articulates with the inferior facet of the lateral mass of atlas
  • 26.
    • 3. laminae:
    • Thickest and strongest of all c.v
    • Gives attachment to ligamentum flava
    • 4. spine:
    • Large and very strong
    • Attachment:
    • 5. Transverse process:
    • Very small
    • Attachment:
  • 27.  
  • 28. seventh cervical vertebrae
    • Called vertebra prominence because of its long and thick prominent spinous process
    • spine:
    • Long, thick, horizontal
    • Not bifurcated, ends behind in a tubercle
    • Attachment:
    • 2. Transverse process:
    • Big size
    • Foramen transversarium is relatively small
    • F.T may be double or absent
    • Transversed by accessory vertebral vein
    • Attachment:
  • 29.