Premalignant & malignant diseases of oral cavity ii n


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Premalignant & malignant diseases of oral cavity ii n

  1. 1. The oral cavity is a mirror that reflects the health of the individual. Diseases of Oral Cavity Part II
  2. 2. • I. Ulcerative & Inflammatory lesions: Aphthous Ulcers ( Canker Sores) Herpesvirus Infection Oral Candiasis AIDS & Kaposi Sarcoma ----------------------------------------------------------------------------_______________________________________________ II. LEUKOPLAKIA & ERYTHROPLAKIA III. Cancers of the Oral Cavity & Tongue IV. Salivary Gland Diseases Sialadenitis Salivary Gland Tumors
  3. 3. Leukoplakia --Definition Leukoplakia. A whitish, well-defined mucosal patch or plaque caused by epidermal thickening or hyperkeratosis. • WHO. Leukoplakia is a white patch or plaque that cannot be scraped off and cannot be characterized as any other disease.
  4. 4. Leukoplakia Age. The plaques are more frequent among older men. Site. Most often on the vermilion border of the lower lip, buccal mucosa, the hard and soft palates, and less frequent on the floor of the mouth and other intraoral sites. They appear as localized, sometimes multifocal or even diffuse, smooth or roughened, leathery, white, discrete areas of mucosal thickening.
  5. 5. Leukoplakia Microscopy Various forms: 1. HYPERKERATOSIS without underlying epithelial dysplasia 2. MILD DYSPLASIA 3. Severe dysplasia bordering on carcinoma in situ. Only histologic evaluation distinguishes these lesions.
  6. 6. Leukoplakia Risk factors 1. Tobacco 2. Chronic friction 3. Alcohol 4. HPV 5. Irritant foods
  7. 7. Leukoplakia Risk factors cont. 6. Candida infection 7. HSV1 8. HSV6, HSV8 (Kaposi Sarcoma) 9. Oral sepsis 10. Vitamin deficiencies ( A, B complex, Iron) 11. Idiopathic 12. Tertiary Syphilis
  8. 8. Leukoplakia Risk Factors • 13.Galvanism (The therapeutic application of electricity to the body ) • 14. Actinic Radiation • 15. Oral Submucous fibrosis • 16. Tumor suppressor genens (p53, p Rb etc.).
  9. 9. Leukoplakia Risk of malignancy • Malignant transformation-- 3-25% (depending somewhat on location • The transformation rate is greatest with lip and tongue lesions and lowest with those on the floor of the mouth. • The more the dysplasia the greater the probability of cancerous transformation.
  10. 10. Erythroplakia A slow-growing, erythematous, velvety red lesion with well-defined margins, occurring on a mucous membrane, most often in the oral cavity. With more malignant potential than leukoplakia
  11. 11. ORAL CANCER
  12. 12. Cancers of the oral cavity and tongue • The most common cancers of oral cavity are squamous cell carcinomas. These cancers tend to occur late in life and rarely before the age of 40 years..
  13. 13. Risk factors for oral cancer Factor 1. 2. Leukoplakia, Erythroplakia Comments • Risk of transformation in leukoplakia is 3% to 25% • More than 50% risk in Erythroplakia. Best established influence particularly pipe smoking and smokeless tobacco. 3. Tobacco use 4. HPV 16 & 18 5. Alcohol abuse 6. Protracted irritation 30-50 of cases Weaker influence than tobacco use, but the two habits interact to greatly increase risk Weakly associated
  14. 14. Cancers of the Oral Cavity Clinical features • Mostly asymptomatic so the lesion is ignored. • May cause local pain and difficulty in chewing. • As a result , a significant number are not discovered until beyond cure. About half result in death within 5 years and indeed may have already metastasized by the time the primary lesion is discovered
  15. 15. Morphology • Predominant sites: • 1. Vermilion border of the lateral margins of the lower lip, • 2. Floor of the mouth, and • 3. Lateral borders of the mobile tongue.
  16. 16. Morphology cont. pearly white to gray, circumscribed thickenings of the mucosa. Exophytic growth: Nodular lesions Fungating lesions May be endophyting growth Invasive pattern: Cancerous Ulcers ‡A fungating lesion is a type of skin lesion that is marked by ulcerations and necrosis and that usually has a bad smell.
  17. 17. Well differentiated
  18. 18. Morphology cont. • The squamous cell carcinomas are usually moderately to well differentiated keratinizing tumors.
  19. 19. Prognosis • 90. At an early stage 5 year survival can exceed 90%. • 40.The overall 5 year survival rates after surgery and adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy are about 40% for cancers of the base of the tongue, pharynx, and floor of the mouth without lymph node metastasis, • 20.with less than 20% for those with lymph node metastasis.
  20. 20. Salivary Gland Diseases Sialadenitis Sialadenitis is inflammation of a salivary gland. It may be acute, chronic and recurrent. The most common lesion is: Mucocele
  21. 21. Sialadenitis • Mucocele: A mucocele is any dilatation with accumulation of mucus. • Oral mucocele Synonyms: • mucous retention cyst, • mucous extravasation cyst, • mucous cyst of the oral mucosa, and • mucous retention and extravasation phenomena
  22. 22. Causes of Sialadenitis • 1. Viral infections: Mumps • 2. Bacterial & mycotic infections: Secondary to ductal obstruction by stones (sialolithiasis). • Commonest bacteria: Staph. aureus, Strep. Viridans. • 3. Autoimmune diseases: Sjogren’s syndrome • (dry eyes, dry mouth &rheumatoid arthritis), Mikulicz’s syndrome: is the combination of inflammatory enlargement of salivary & lacrimal glands with xerostomia.
  23. 23. Sialadenitis • Cause of Mucocele: Blockage or rupture of salivary gland duct, with consequent leakage of saliva into the surrounding tissues. • Site: Lower lip • The mucocele has a bluish translucent color, and is more commonly found in children and young adults. • It can be considered a polyp, but is not a true cyst as it is not surrounded by epithelium.
  24. 24. Sialadenitis The sialadenitis may be largely interstitial, or it may cause focal areas of suppurative even necrosis or abscess formation.
  25. 25. Salivary gland tumors • About 80% of tumors occur within the parotid glands and most of the others in the submandibular glands. • Males and females are affected about equally, usually in the sixth or seventh decade of life. • In the parotids 70% to 80% of these tumors are benign.
  26. 26. List of Salivary gland tumors • Benign tumors: • Pleomorphic adenoma • Warthin tumor • Malignant tumors: • Mucoepidermoid tumor
  27. 27. 1. Pleomorphic adenoma. The dominant tumor arising in the parotids is the benign pleomorphic adenoma, which is sometimes called a mixed tumor of salivary gland origin.
  28. 28. Pleomorphic Adenoma (Mixed Tumor of Salivary Glands). • >90% of benign tumors of the salivary glands. • It is a slow-growing, well-demarcated, apparently encapsulated lesion rarely exceeding 6 cm in greatest dimension. Most often arising in the superficial parotid, it usually causes painless swelling at the angle of the jaw and can be readily palpated as a discrete mass. It is nonetheless present for years to before being brought to medical attention.
  29. 29. Pleomorphic Adenoma Morphology • The characteristic histologic feature of PA is heterogenity. The tumor cells form ducts, acini, tubules, strands or sheets of cells.
  30. 30. Pleomorphic Adenoma- Morphology • The epithelial cells are small and dark and range from cuboidal to spindle forms. • These epithelial elements are intermingled with a loose, often myxoid connective tissue stroma sometime containing islands apparently cartilage or, rarely bone.
  31. 31. 2. Warthin Tumor (Papillary Cystadenoma Lymphomatosum, Cystadenolymphoma) Warthin tumor. Much less frequent is the papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum ( Warthin tumor). Definition: Benign glandular tumor arising in the parotid gland and composes of two rows of eosinophilic epithelial cells, which are often cystic and papillary, together with a lymphoid stroma.
  32. 32. Warthin’s Tumor - Morphology Gross: Small, well-encapsulated, round to ovoid mass • That on transection often reveals musin-containing cleftlike or cystic spaces within a soft gray background. • Microscopically, it exhibits two characteristics : (1) a two-tiered epithelial layer lining the branching, cystic, or cleftlike spaces; and • (2) an immediately subjacent, well-developed lymphoid tissue sometimes forming germinal centers.
  33. 33. Salivary gland tumors • Collectively these two types account for three- fourth of parotid tumors. These tumors present clinically as a mass causing swelling at the angle of jaw.
  34. 34. Malignant tumor of Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma The most malignant tumor which occurs mainly in parotids. • When primary or recurrent benign tumors are present for many years (10-20), malignant transformation may occur, referred to then as a malignant mixed salivary gland tumor. • Malignancy is less common in the parotid gland (15%) than in the submandibular glands (40%).
  35. 35. Moderately differentiate SCC
  36. 36. SCC Oral Cavity
  37. 37. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Tongue