Polycystic kidney disease for students


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Polycystic kidney disease for students

  1. 1. Polycystic Kidney disease Lecture 52 Cystic Diseases of the Kidney
  2. 2. Mutations in genes located on chromosome 16p13.3 (PKD1) and 4q21 (PKD2),
  3. 3. Possible mechanisms of cyst formation in polycystic kidney disease
  4. 4. Gross Morphology The kidneys are usually bilaterally ENLARGEDand may achieve enormous sizes; weights as high as 4 kg for each kidney have been reported.
  5. 5. Morphology • The external surface appears to be composed solely of a mass of cysts, up to 3 to 4 cm in diameter, with no intervening parenchyma. However, microscopic examination reveals functioning nephrons dispersed between the cysts.
  6. 6. Morphology • The cysts may be filled with •a clear, serous fluidor, • more usually, with turbid, red to brown, • sometimes hemorrhagic fluid.
  7. 7. A and B, Autosomal-dominant adult polycystic kidney disease viewed from the external surface and bisected. The kidney is markedly enlarged and contains numerous dilated cysts.
  8. 8. Clinical Features Many of these patients remain asymptomatic until renal insufficiency announces the presence of the disease.
  9. 9. Clinical Features • Hemorrhage or progressive dilation of cysts may produce PAIN. • Excretion of blood clots causes RENAL COLIC. The enlarged kidneys, usually apparent on abdominal palpation, may induce a dragging sensation.
  10. 10. Clinical Features The disease occasionally begins with the insidious onset of hematuria, followed by other features of progressive chronic kidney disease, such as proteinuria (rarely more than 2 gm/day), polyuria, and hypertension.
  11. 11. Clinical features • Patients with PKD2 mutations tend to have an older age at onset and later development of renal failure.
  12. 12. Clinical Features • Both genetic and environmental factors influence disease severity. • Progression is accelerated in blacks (largely correlated with sickle-cell trait), in males, and in the presence of hypertension.
  13. 13. Clinical Features • Intracranial berry aneurysms, presumably from altered expression of polycystin in vascular smooth muscle, arise in the circle of Willis, and subarachnoid hemorrhages from these account for death in about 4% to 10% of individuals.
  14. 14. Extrarenal Manifestations • About 40% have one to several cysts in the liver (polycystic liver disease) that are usually asymptomatic. • The cysts are derived from biliary epithelium. Cysts occur much less frequently in the spleen, pancreas, and lungs.
  15. 15. Extrarenal Manifestations • Mitral valve prolapse and other cardiac valvular anomalies occur in 20% to 25% of patients, but most are asymptomatic. • The clinical diagnosis is made by radiologic imaging techniques.
  16. 16. Clinical Features • This form of chronic renal failure is remarkable in that patients may survive for many years with azotemia slowly progressing to uremia.
  17. 17. PROGNOSIS • Ultimately, • about 40% of adult patients die of coronary or hypertensive heart disease, • 25% of infection, • 15% of a ruptured berry aneurysm or hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage, and the rest of other causes.