Clinical manifestations of renal diseases st

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Clinical manifestations of renal diseases st

  1. 1. Clinical Manifestations of Renal Diseases Lecture 37 Define the terms: Azotemia, Uremia, Acute Renal Failure, Chronic Renal Failure
  2. 2. Azotemia
  3. 3. Types 1.Prerenal Azotemia 2.Primary Renal Azotemia 3.Postrenal Azotemia
  4. 4. GFR BUN & Creatinine 15
  5. 5. 1. Prerenal azotemia The BUN:Cr in preren al azotem ia is greater than 20.
  6. 6. 2. Renal azotemia
  7. 7. 3. Postrenal azotemia The BUN:Cr in postrenal azotemia is >15.
  8. 8. Signs and symptoms (prerenal azotemia)
  9. 9. Treatment
  10. 10. Uremia
  11. 11. Clinical features
  12. 12. Causes • Renal failure, • Increased production of urea in the liver • Decreased elimination of urea • Dehydration • Chronic infection of the kidney
  13. 13. Acute Renal Failure ARForAKI is a rapid loss of kidney function.
  14. 14. Causes • Low blood volume • Substances harmful to the kidney, • Obstruction of the urinary tract.
  15. 15. Complications • Metabolic acidosis, • High potassium levels, • Uremia, • Changes in body fluid balance, .
  16. 16. Diagnosis • AKI is diagnosed on the basis of characteristic laboratory findings, such as • Elevated blood urea nitrogen • Creatinine, • Inability of the kidneys to produce sufficient amounts of urine.
  17. 17. Management • Supportive care, such as renal replacement therapy, • as well as treatment of the underlying disorder.
  18. 18. Signs and symptoms Fatigue, Loss of appetite, Headache, Nausea vomiting.
  19. 19. • Pain in the flanks may be encountered in thrombosis of the renal blood vessels or inflammation of the kidney; this is the result of stretching of the fibrous tissue capsule surrounding the kidney.
  20. 20. Causes •Prerenal, •Intrinsic, •Postrenal.
  21. 21. Diagnosis
  22. 22. Chronic Renal Failure Chronic renal failure, or chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a slow and progressive decline of kidney function.
  23. 23. Causes of Chronic Renal Failure Diabetes mellitus Blood pressure IgA nephropathy
  24. 24. Signs of chronic renal failure 1. Increased urination, especially at night 2. Decreased urination 3. Blood in the urine (not a common symptom of chronic renal failure) 4. Urine that is cloudy or tea-colored
  25. 25. THANKS Takht Bhai KPK Pakistan

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