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Neuroscience Workshop PowerPoint
 

Neuroscience Workshop PowerPoint

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    Neuroscience Workshop PowerPoint Neuroscience Workshop PowerPoint Presentation Transcript

    • Neuroscience and Ethics of Trauma-Informed PracticeNASW Provider # 886580997-9477 Lunch provided by
    • Mindsight • the ability for one person to perceive the mental state of another.
    • “Mindsight depends on linking together widearrays of neural input – from throughout theentire body, from multiple regions of thebrain, and even from the signals we receivefrom other people.” Dan Siegel
    •  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DD- lfP1FBFk Review 5 - steps
    • Brain Stem (“reptilian brain”) • Controls body’s energy levels (i.e., regulating heart rate and respiration) • Moves information from the body proper to the brain (i.e., nauseas, hair on the back of your neck, nervous feeling, rapid heart beat) • Influences response to flee, fight, or freeze in the face of overwhelming situation
    • Brain Stem (i.e., “reptilian brain”) • “Giving” and “receiving” love are the same • Working together, the brain stem and limbic areas– o Push toward deep drives (i.e., food, shelter, reproduction, safety) o Influences states (i.e., drive toward vs. satiated) of arousal (i.e., sexual and appetite)
    • • Emotional center of the brain• Attributes meaning to feelings (i.e., feelings have meaning)• Motivates us to act in response to meaning we assign (i.e., emotions evoke motion)• Mammalian lineage – our drive to connect with others
    • Hypothalamus • Secretes hormones (i.e., cortisol) to help regulate the body (i.e., sexual organs, thyroid) • Small amounts of cortisol enhance functions such as memory • Overwhelming situations with which we can’t cope lead to chronically elevated cortisol.
    • Hypothalamus – High Cortisol Over Time • Sensitizes limbic reactivity so that minor adversities spike cortisol. • Interferes with brain growth and damages neural tissues • Self-soothing activities (i.e., meditation, walks in nature) that draw on higher areas of the brain are critical to create a “cortical override”
    • Amygdala • Fear response • Emotional states can be created without conscious awareness • Remembers any and all dangers and generalizes (i.e., attacker, man who looks like attacker, to man, etc)
    • Hippocampus • Organizes explicit memory • Compares different memories and make inferences • Late maturation
    • Cortex• Abstract and symbolic thought• Understand concepts such as self, time, others• Executive planning, social functions• Consciousness, perception, attentionMiddle Prefrontal Cortex• Integrates cortex, limbic and brain stem
    • Left-right integration enables us to: • Put feelings into words • Think about feelings
    • Memory At birth – • Hippocampus (memory and learning) not well developed • Implicit memory (memories without a “sense” of recollection) • Implicit memory enables development of mental models i.e., transferring felt experience of pacifier with nubs to visually recognizing it
    • Memory Cont’d Implicit memory • begins in the womb • predominates through early life • enables creation of mental models of the way the world works – no effort on our part • can continue to shape who we are without our awareness
    • Mirror Neurons • Hardwired from birth to detect sequences, make maps of other’s intentions • A neuron that mirrors the behavior of others, as though the observer were doing the behavior. • Fires when observing intentional behavior • Same neuron fires when conducting the behavior • Cross-modal (i.e., vision, touch, smell, etc.)
    • Resonance Circuit • A neural network called insula (i.e., information superhighway) runs from mirror neurons to limbic area which sends messages to the brainstem and body, then back to middle prefrontal cortex. • This process informs the cortex of our state of mind (i.e., energy and information flow).
    • Resonance Circuit Cont’d • This enables us to resonate physiologically with others; our respiration, blood pressure, heart rate changes with other’s internal state. • When we sense our own state, it is easier to resonate with others.
    • Resonance Circuit Cont’d • We come to know our own mind (i.e., energy and information flow) through interaction with others. • It is the awareness of our own body signals that help us understand the difference between me and you. • It is important to track distinction between me and you, lest we become flooded with others’ feelings, leading to quick burn out.
    • Infant Care-Giver Dyads –Prelude to AttachmentNeurobiology for Clinical Social Work, Applegate and ShapiroNeuroscience of Psychotherapy, Cozolino • Brain structure and processes affected by microexpressions in infant-caregiver dyads • Synapses are programmed to receive certain microexpressions • If the expected experiences are not experienced, neurons die • Death of neurons leads to a smaller volume amygdala and hippocampus (Glaser)
    • Infant Care-Giver Dyads –Prelude to Attachment Cont’d • Microexpressions occur via verbal and nonverbal responsive communication such as: o Voice pitch, tone, rhythm o Pupil dilation o Movement of eyebrows o Degree of eye openness o Fullness or terseness of lips o Level of muscle tension in the face o Other verbal and nonverbal communication
    • Infant Care-Giver Dyads –Prelude to Attachment Cont’d • Prolonged mutual gazing increases infant’s metabolic activity and neural growth • Reflexive smiling evokes positive feelings which stimulates brain development • Infant and caregiver adjust to each others’ gestures, behaviors, and sounds in a song and dance fashion
    • Infant Care-Giver Dyads –Prelude to Attachment Cont’d • A responsive song and dance (i.e., exchange of microexpressions) sets children up to experience secure attachments. (Cozolino) • Good-enough parenting
    • Attachment Patterns &Emotional Regulation Attachment patterns arise as a result of infant caregiver interactions and establish neural networks: • Secure attachment sets the stage for integrated neural networks. • Insecure attachments sets the state for unintegrated neural networks.Behavioral Videos Neurobiology Videos(7:15) Avoidant (2:04)•Secure http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qgYJ82kQIyg&feature=result•Insecure/Avoidant s_video&playnext=1&list=PL1A32ED7EF5F192F2Ambivalent Ambivalent (1:56)http://www.youtube.co http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nGhZtUrpCuc&feature=relatedm/watch?v=PnFKaaOS Disorganized (4:48)Pmk http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zovtRq4e2E8&feature=related
    • Attachment Patterns Summary Secure – • Uses caregiver as a secure base for exploring. Insecure – • Unable to use caregiver as a secure base (true for ambivalent and disorganized) • Little distress on departure, little response to return • Little effort to main contact. Low attachment equals low affect, low self-esteem. • Parent has little response to distressed child.
    • Attachment Patterns Summary Ambivalent – • Seek contact upon return but reluctant, or angrily resistant when contact is achieved. • Children are more anxious. Parent is inconsistent with dismissive and attentive responses. Disorganized – • Freezing or rocking. Contradictory, disoriented behaviors such as approaching but with the back turned. • Parent likely violent, intrusive, role confusion, negativity, contradictory affective communication.
    • How Trauma Affects Emotions • Early deprivation or chronic stress increases the chances of damage to the brain, deficits in memory, and prolonged use of primitive defenses. • Through the connect-disconnect-reconnect pattern, our experience with a “good-enough” parent establishes the neural networks for healthy affect regulation (i.e., being able to tolerate negative affect).
    • How Trauma Affects Memory Two primary implicit/explicit response patterns 1. Recall what happened and separate physical, emotional sensations • Describe traumatic event in matter-of-fact w/o making implicit body memories explicit 2. Inability to recall what happened (i.e., explicit memory) yet retain physical, emotional senses) • i.e., abusive childhood isn’t a problem, yet person is profoundly negative, critical, etc./acting out their implicit memories
    • How Trauma Affects Memory Cont’d • Inability to recall traumas that occurred in infancy, may lead children to internalize the somatization of their implicit memories and conclude they are bad. • Ambiguous stimuli (i.e., silence) activates implicit memory • Smaller hippocampus (i.e. responsible for memory and learning) due to chronically high cortisol levels, toxicity and cell death
    • Responses to Trauma Lack of vertical neural integration • Affect dysregulation i.e., inability of the cortex to process, inhibit and organize information from brainstem and limbic system such as reflexes, impulses, and emotions. • Trauma or living in an “emotional desert” leads to being cut off from bodily sensations, leading to poor judgment, lack of wisdom.
    • Responses to Trauma Cont’d Lack of horizontal neural integration (i.e., one side dominating) leads to: • Inability to put feelings into words • Somatization (i.e., manifestation of emotional conflicts into bodily illnesses) • Loss of creativity, richness, and complexity that results from integration • Inability to understand the nonverbal world of self and others
    • Healing Trauma: Strengthening NeuralIntegration Interpersonal Neurobiology Series (Cozolino, Siegel) Restoring neural integration requires simultaneous reregulation of networks on vertical and horizontal planes. This may occur through: • Strength of the therapeutic alliance • Moderate levels of stress • Narrative which involves emotion and cognition • Mindsight (i.e., ability to perceive the mental state of another person) These same factors are at work across psychodynamic, systems, and cognitive approaches to treatment.
    • Healing Trauma: Narratives and NeuralIntegration Narratives are powerful tools for high-level neural integration because they contain: • Linear storyline and visual imagery, woven with • Verbal and nonverbal expressions of emotion
    • Healing Trauma: Narratives and NeuralIntegration Cont’d Narratives facilitate neural integration by using circuitry from: • Left and right hemispheres • Cortical and subcortical networks • Amygdala and hippocampus
    • Healing Trauma: Narratives and NeuralIntegration Cont’d Narratives facilitate • Integration of neural networks • Combining sensations, feelings and behaviors with conscious awareness • Individuals placing themselves in alternate points of view
    • Hope is Present! • Based in neuroplasticity research, Dr. Siegel explains in this video explains how “making sense of what happened to us as a child” is more important than actually what happened. • “Become a Better Parent” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JNNT7loaQAo&feature=bf_prev &list=PL1A32ED7EF5F192F2&lf=results_video