An Introduction of Medical
Education Domain
Md. Yunus
Co-ordinator Medical Education
Unit, NEIGRIHMS
Medical Education is Geographical
Domain
Has Boundaries
A Landscapes
Mix of inhabitants
Social system that energies it & m...
Medical Education
A life long learning continuum
Explaining how learner enter the
continuum
What they experience thereafte...
Truly continuum Domain
Divide in time line
 1. Undergraduate ME
 2. Postgraduate ME
 3. CME / CPD
 continuous professi...
The whole purpose of study medicine
To be able to promote health & relive
suffering
Come in to focus which is very
motivat...
Foundation of Medical
Education
Medical education
had as its foundation
a combination of
didactic instruction in
the class...
The Medical Council of India
MCI Regulations on
Graduate Medical
Education, 1997, made it
mandatory for all medical
colleg...
Faculty Development
Programmes
Objective
To Improve the Quality of
Medical Training by Training
the Teachers
AIMs
Sensitize teachers about new concepts in teaching &
assessment methods
Develop knowledge & clinical skills required f...
The ultimate Goal of Medical
Education
To ensure that students can be
transformed into the most effective
deliverers of pa...
MCI Regional Centres Regional Centres,
since July 2009
Workshop & Module
A 3 days module for the Basic
Course Workshop in Medical
Education Technologies
A one-day module for an ...
Fellowship in Medical Education
(FAIMER®)
In 2000, the Educational Commission for Foreign
Medical Graduates (ECFMG®) Phila...
Medical Education Unit,
NEIGRIHMS
Dr. A. Mishra Chairman
Dr. Md. Yunus Co-ordinator & M S
Dr. S. Panda Member
Dr. A. Handi...
First Aim of the Medical Education Unit
(MEU)
Training & Development of Teaching
skills of Teachers / Faculty (Faculty
Dev...
Other objectives of Medical Education Unit
Printing facility for poster
Scientific Photography section
Videography with ed...
School Teacher – Medical Teacher
There is an effective and compulsory
training programme for school teachers to
teach & tr...
•Teaching •Education
•research
•Clinical
practice
•Administration
Medical Faculty –Role
•Mentor•Faculty
…Today’s Challenges in Medical
Education
Too much information
Too little time
Too many students in crowded rooms
Exams tha...
How we learn/ learnt…
When we were medical students…
And now…are we still learning or just
teaching?
The old way of learning, was
knowing what you should know.
•BMJ 2003;327:1430-1433
Now the way of learning is knowing
what you don't know, not feeling
bad about it, and knowing how to
find out
•BMJ 2003;32...
Uncertainty was discouraged and
ignorance avoided
Now, uncertainty is legitimized and
questioning encouraged
•BMJ 2003;327...
Medical education was learning by
Humiliation, with Naming, Shaming
& Blaming
Now, students are encouraged to
question rec...
TV will be shut in 10 years, says BILL
GATES
"An interesting revolution is underway".
said Microsoft founder Bill Gates.
I...
WHAT IS TEACHING?
Teaching
Is an art
Requires 3 things - - -
Expertise at the subject
Grasp of the language
Skills to communicate
Teaching
4th important thing required is
CHOOSING THE
APPROPRIATE
TEACHING AID
Teaching
Previously educationists gave importance
to teaching only Teaching
Presently Educationist give importance to
Teac...
“I never try to teach
my students any
thing
I only try to create an
environment where
they can learn”
Albert Einstein
WHAT IS PROCESS OF
LEARNING
WHAT IS LEARING?
Learning is the sharing or
transfer of information
between two parties
Learning is…
Learning
A process resulting in some change or
modification in the learner’s way of thinking,
feeling & doing
More effecti...
How is learning initiated?
New experience‐registration
Analysis‐reflection‐action
Analysis another experience or exposure
...
Learning – relatively
permanent change in behavior
Learning
83 % - See
11% - Hear
3% - Smell
2% - Touch
1% - Taste
Retenti...
Adult learning
Why we want to discuss?
Malcolm Knowles
1980 text: Modern Practice of Adult
Education
Androgogy
Art and practice of teaching adult
learners
Distin...
Androgogy vs. Pedagogy
Pedagogy
Formal
Learners are dependent
& directed by teacher
Evaluation is external
(teachers, test...
Learning to e-learning
E-learning is also
called Web-based
learning
online learning
computer-assisted
instruction
Internet...
Didactic lectures
 The problems with
traditional didactic
lectures is that they often
present information that
targets on...
Pros and Cons of Didactic Lectures
Traditional didactic
lectures address the
delivery of factual
knowledge; however
one ca...
Knowledge Transfer a Growing
Challenge
 Effective
knowledge
transfer is of
paramount
importance for the
maintenance &
adv...
Traditional Education Methods Need Change
Traditionally, medical education had as its foundation
a combination of didactic...
The teacher & changes in medical
education
1- Changes in medical education
Medical education has seen major changes over t...
The teacher & changes in medical
education
2- Changes in medical education
• Increasing emphasis is being placed
on self-d...
The teacher and changes in medical
education
3- Changes in medical education
• The application of new learning technologie...
The teacher and changes in
medical education
4- An increased emphasis on the students
 The increasing emphasis on student...
SPICES Model of Medical Education
Student-centered ---x Teacher-centered
Problem-based---- x Information-oriented
Integrat...
Physician of the 21st century
• Effective Medical and Health Communication.
• Good clinical skills.
• EBM based Diagnosis,...
Group Dynamics & Team
Building
Teaching Learning Process
Principles of adult learning
2. Self‐directed learning
3. Motivation to learn
Taxonomy of
Educational objectives
What is MicroTeaching
Principles of assessment
(purpose, types, aligning
with objectives)
Interactive Teaching
Techniques
Appropriate and effective
use of media in teaching
learning
Assessment Of Knowledge
Construction of MCQs
Setting Of Question Paper
&
Concept Of Blue Printing
Item Analysis ‐ Process &
Demonstration
Continuous Internal
Assessment
Summery
• Medical education has a history of tinkering with the
curriculum endlessly without realizing larger
educational ...
Created by Dr Md. Yunus
for awareness of Medical Education
Email:
drmdyunus@hotmail.com
Introduction of Medical Education Domain
Introduction of Medical Education Domain
Introduction of Medical Education Domain
Introduction of Medical Education Domain
Introduction of Medical Education Domain
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Introduction of Medical Education Domain

  1. 1. An Introduction of Medical Education Domain Md. Yunus Co-ordinator Medical Education Unit, NEIGRIHMS
  2. 2. Medical Education is Geographical Domain Has Boundaries A Landscapes Mix of inhabitants Social system that energies it & manage in it
  3. 3. Medical Education A life long learning continuum Explaining how learner enter the continuum What they experience thereafter How medical practice can be made most useful to society
  4. 4. Truly continuum Domain Divide in time line  1. Undergraduate ME  2. Postgraduate ME  3. CME / CPD  continuous professional development
  5. 5. The whole purpose of study medicine To be able to promote health & relive suffering Come in to focus which is very motivating
  6. 6. Foundation of Medical Education Medical education had as its foundation a combination of didactic instruction in the classroom & integrated, hands-on "Socratic Method" learning in the clinical setting
  7. 7. The Medical Council of India MCI Regulations on Graduate Medical Education, 1997, made it mandatory for all medical colleges to establish Medical Education Units (MEUs) / MET In order to enable Faculty members to avail modern education technology for teaching
  8. 8. Faculty Development Programmes Objective To Improve the Quality of Medical Training by Training the Teachers
  9. 9. AIMs Sensitize teachers about new concepts in teaching & assessment methods Develop knowledge & clinical skills required for performing the role of competent & effective Teacher, Administrator, Researcher & Mentor (TARM) Assist Clinicians to acquire competency in communication & behavioural skills Update knowledge using Modern Information & Research Methodology Tools
  10. 10. The ultimate Goal of Medical Education To ensure that students can be transformed into the most effective deliverers of patient care that is possible…
  11. 11. MCI Regional Centres Regional Centres, since July 2009
  12. 12. Workshop & Module A 3 days module for the Basic Course Workshop in Medical Education Technologies A one-day module for an Orientation programme developed for Coordinators of Medical Education Units
  13. 13. Fellowship in Medical Education (FAIMER®) In 2000, the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG®) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States Established Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER®) With the intention of helping to improve global health by improving health professions education
  14. 14. Medical Education Unit, NEIGRIHMS Dr. A. Mishra Chairman Dr. Md. Yunus Co-ordinator & M S Dr. S. Panda Member Dr. A. Handique Member Dr. W.V. Lyngdoh Member Dr. M. Agarwal Member Dr. Star Pala Member Mrs. W. Dkhar Member
  15. 15. First Aim of the Medical Education Unit (MEU) Training & Development of Teaching skills of Teachers / Faculty (Faculty Development OR Training of Trainer)
  16. 16. Other objectives of Medical Education Unit Printing facility for poster Scientific Photography section Videography with editing facility Computer skill development programme Scientific writing Bibliographic management Organization of one-two day CME/Workshop /Training programme/Guest Lectures conducted by Eminent Speakers of the Country & from abroad. Supporting other departments in the organization of CME/Workshop/Training Course Orientation program for MBBS , PG Student & New Faculty Coordination of CGR Supervision of Lts Development of protocol & Manual for Institute Many more
  17. 17. School Teacher – Medical Teacher There is an effective and compulsory training programme for school teachers to teach & train their students Unfortunately there is no such compulsory course to become a medical teacher
  18. 18. •Teaching •Education •research •Clinical practice •Administration Medical Faculty –Role •Mentor•Faculty
  19. 19. …Today’s Challenges in Medical Education Too much information Too little time Too many students in crowded rooms Exams that discourage real learning Advan. Physiol. Edu. 31: 283-287, 2007
  20. 20. How we learn/ learnt… When we were medical students… And now…are we still learning or just teaching?
  21. 21. The old way of learning, was knowing what you should know. •BMJ 2003;327:1430-1433
  22. 22. Now the way of learning is knowing what you don't know, not feeling bad about it, and knowing how to find out •BMJ 2003;327:1430-1433
  23. 23. Uncertainty was discouraged and ignorance avoided Now, uncertainty is legitimized and questioning encouraged •BMJ 2003;327:1430-1433
  24. 24. Medical education was learning by Humiliation, with Naming, Shaming & Blaming Now, students are encouraged to question received wisdom •BMJ 2003;327:1430-1433
  25. 25. TV will be shut in 10 years, says BILL GATES "An interesting revolution is underway". said Microsoft founder Bill Gates. In the future there will be elimination of text book or books altogether because we will have a very light screen, a tablet- like computer connected to the Internet that you will carry with you at all times.
  26. 26. WHAT IS TEACHING?
  27. 27. Teaching Is an art Requires 3 things - - - Expertise at the subject Grasp of the language Skills to communicate
  28. 28. Teaching 4th important thing required is CHOOSING THE APPROPRIATE TEACHING AID
  29. 29. Teaching Previously educationists gave importance to teaching only Teaching Presently Educationist give importance to Teaching‐Learning In present, the attention is more focused on Learning & the Learner
  30. 30. “I never try to teach my students any thing I only try to create an environment where they can learn” Albert Einstein
  31. 31. WHAT IS PROCESS OF LEARNING WHAT IS LEARING?
  32. 32. Learning is the sharing or transfer of information between two parties Learning is…
  33. 33. Learning A process resulting in some change or modification in the learner’s way of thinking, feeling & doing More effective the learning experience, better is the learning New experience is just a beginning step
  34. 34. How is learning initiated? New experience‐registration Analysis‐reflection‐action Analysis another experience or exposure Repetition of the process, till a demonstrable change occur in the learner Learning is thus a cyclical process Can be an uprising spiral motion
  35. 35. Learning – relatively permanent change in behavior Learning 83 % - See 11% - Hear 3% - Smell 2% - Touch 1% - Taste Retention 10% - Read 20% - Hear 30% - See 50% - See/Hear 70% - Discuss 80% - See/Hear/Do
  36. 36. Adult learning Why we want to discuss?
  37. 37. Malcolm Knowles 1980 text: Modern Practice of Adult Education Androgogy Art and practice of teaching adult learners Distinct from learning in childhood Pedagogy
  38. 38. Androgogy vs. Pedagogy Pedagogy Formal Learners are dependent & directed by teacher Evaluation is external (teachers, tests) Learners extrinsically motivated (grades) Androgogy Informal & cooperative Learners are independent & self‐directed Evaluation through self assessment Learners intrinsically Motivated
  39. 39. Learning to e-learning E-learning is also called Web-based learning online learning computer-assisted instruction Internet-based learning
  40. 40. Didactic lectures  The problems with traditional didactic lectures is that they often present information that targets one of the many learning style of the students involved.  In addition, the time & resources required to deliver the material is high and often does not completely meet the needs of those who are participating
  41. 41. Pros and Cons of Didactic Lectures Traditional didactic lectures address the delivery of factual knowledge; however one can question both the effectiveness as well as efficiency of this mode of education The traditional didactic lecture is more passive in nature & less effective as a teaching tool compared with active learning methods
  42. 42. Knowledge Transfer a Growing Challenge  Effective knowledge transfer is of paramount importance for the maintenance & advancement of our health care system
  43. 43. Traditional Education Methods Need Change Traditionally, medical education had as its foundation a combination of didactic instruction in the classroom & integrated, hands-on "Socratic Method" learning in the clinical setting Of late an increase in the use of problem-based learning discussions (PBLD's) In an effort to integrate basic science knowledge & clinical decision making with a goal of teaching critical decision making skills to upcoming physicians & other health care providers
  44. 44. The teacher & changes in medical education 1- Changes in medical education Medical education has seen major changes over the past decade Integrated teaching Problem-based learning Community-based learning Core curricula with electives or options & more systematic curriculum planning
  45. 45. The teacher & changes in medical education 2- Changes in medical education • Increasing emphasis is being placed on self-directed study with students expected to take more responsibility for their own learning
  46. 46. The teacher and changes in medical education 3- Changes in medical education • The application of new learning technologies has supported this move • New directions can be identified too in the area of assessment with increased emphasis on performance assessment
  47. 47. The teacher and changes in medical education 4- An increased emphasis on the students  The increasing emphasis on student autonomy in medical education has moved the centre of gravity away from the teacher and closer to the student Indeed it has become fashionable to talk about learning & learners rather than teaching & the teacher
  48. 48. SPICES Model of Medical Education Student-centered ---x Teacher-centered Problem-based---- x Information-oriented Integrated -----x Discipline-based Community-based ----x Hospital-based Elective ----x Uniform Systematic ---x Apprenticeship
  49. 49. Physician of the 21st century • Effective Medical and Health Communication. • Good clinical skills. • EBM based Diagnosis, Management, Therapeutics • Lifelong Learning. • Social & Community Contexts of Health Care. • Ability to effectively use tools of medical informatics
  50. 50. Group Dynamics & Team Building
  51. 51. Teaching Learning Process
  52. 52. Principles of adult learning 2. Self‐directed learning 3. Motivation to learn
  53. 53. Taxonomy of Educational objectives
  54. 54. What is MicroTeaching
  55. 55. Principles of assessment (purpose, types, aligning with objectives)
  56. 56. Interactive Teaching Techniques
  57. 57. Appropriate and effective use of media in teaching learning
  58. 58. Assessment Of Knowledge Construction of MCQs Setting Of Question Paper & Concept Of Blue Printing
  59. 59. Item Analysis ‐ Process & Demonstration
  60. 60. Continuous Internal Assessment
  61. 61. Summery • Medical education has a history of tinkering with the curriculum endlessly without realizing larger educational objectives • Medical college have yet to create a True learner- centered environment that makes active, Self-Directed Learning • Under the close Tutelage of Interested Faculty Members
  62. 62. Created by Dr Md. Yunus for awareness of Medical Education Email: drmdyunus@hotmail.com
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