New Discovery Tools for Digital Humanities and Spatial Data (Summary of the July, Brown Bag Talk by Lex Berman)

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New Discovery Tools for Digital Humanities and Spatial Data (Summary of the July, Brown Bag Talk by Lex Berman)

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My colleague, (Merrick) Lex Berman, who is Web Service Manager & GIS Specialist, at the Center for Geographic Analysis at Harvard presented this as part of the Program on Information Science......

My colleague, (Merrick) Lex Berman, who is Web Service Manager & GIS Specialist, at the Center for Geographic Analysis at Harvard presented this as part of the Program on Information Science Brown Bag Series. Lex is an expert in applications related to digital humanities, GIS, and chinese history -- and has developed many interesting tools in this area.

In his talk, Lex notes how the library catalog has evolved from the description of items in physical collections into a wide-reaching net of services and tools for managing both physical collections and networked resources: The line between descriptive metadata and actual content is becoming blurred. Librarians and catalogers are now in the position of being not only docents of collections, but innovators in digital research, and this opens up a number of opportunities for retooling library discovery tools. His presentation will presented survey of methods and projects that have extended traditional catalogs of libraries and museums into online collections of digital objects in the field of humanities -- focusing on projects that use historical place names and geographic identifiers for linked open data will be discussed.

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  • 1. New Discovery Tools for Digital Humanities and Spatial Data MIT July 2014 Merrick Lex Berman Center for Geographic Analysis, Harvard
  • 2. Physical discovery finding {scrolls} John Willis Clark, The Care of Books (Cambridge, 1901). Paul Pelliot at the Mogao Caves, Dunhuang (1908).
  • 3. Transmission reading {texts} John Willis Clark, The Care of Books (Cambridge, 1901). The Emperor and the Assassin (1999).
  • 4. Bound and chained preserving information {locks} St. Walburga Library, Zutphen, Netherlands 1564). Andrews, William: “Curiosities of the Church: Studies of Curious Customs, Services and Records” (1891)
  • 5. Abyssinian manuscript (ms 134, Goldschmidt no 21) Frankfurt University Library Bibliotheque Nationale Binding pages: forming collections systematizing {knowledge}
  • 6. indexing {resources} Denver Public Library – Horses, biography. John Allen, “Farewell Cards,” On Wisconsin Magazine, Summer 2012.
  • 7. Internal catalogs → federated catalogs → digital indexing {URIs}
  • 8. accessing {digital objects}
  • 9. traversing {internal structures} Denver Public Library – Horses, biography. John Allen, “Farewell Cards,” On Wisconsin Magazine, Summer 2012.
  • 10. integrating {digital surrogates}
  • 11. Are footnotes connections or stops? citing {references} “A Squib, from Dr. Jortin’s Tabby-Cat,” The Gentleman’s Magazine, (April 1792).
  • 12. CHARON http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charon_(mythology) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_mythology From references to graphs traversing {links}
  • 13. William Cunningham, The Cosmographical Glasse (John Day, 1559). Rational structure
  • 14. a tiny slice of the Internet (showing 5 million edges) The center will not hold! To a noisy interconnected universe of knowledge {graph}
  • 15. So what happens to the library? Philology Library at the Free University of Berlin
  • 16. On the road from DH 1.0 to DH 2.0 monolithic database projects - custom data models - custom user interfaces Patrik Svensson, The Landscape of Digital Humanities http://digitalhumanities.org/dhq/vol/4/1/000080/000080.html
  • 17. monolithic database projects - custom data models - custom user interfaces open APIs - machine readable - metadata and content
  • 18. monolithic database projects - custom data models - custom user interfaces open APIs - machine readable - metadata and content linked open data - machine readable - disaggregated interoperability - ontologies
  • 19. monolithic database projects - custom data models - custom user interfaces open APIs - machine readable - metadata and content linked open data - machine readable - disaggregated interoperability - ontologies open scholarship - digital publication - annotation - interpretation - curation + narrative - collaborative - open-ended
  • 20. Geographic data and the library Geospatial datasets - GIS
  • 21. Geographic data and the library Geospatial datasets - GIS Maps and scanned maps
  • 22. Geographic data and the library Geospatial datasets - GIS Maps and scanned maps The catalog as geodata
  • 23. Geospatial datasets
  • 24. Maps and scanned maps Federated search system Digital Repository
  • 25. The catalog as geodata geocoding {topnyms} 651 - Subject Added Entry-Geographic Name https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json?address=Georgia
  • 26. What to geocode? parsing {tokens} 651 - Geographic Name 260 – Place of Publication 245 – Title
  • 27. Mapping options: georss → openlayers serializing {feeds} http://goo.gl/UTpwyt
  • 28. Mapping options: json → leaflet Serializing { json } http://goo.gl/NGLfh6
  • 29. Mapping options: customized from Metacarta geocoding product
  • 30. Mapping options: geoHollis beta demonstration http://goo.gl/jorMvG
  • 31. Issues raised: geoHollis beta geocoding - Identification of placenames in metadata varies in accuracy - Ambiguous matches cannot be easily fixed - Geocoding many types of information can be confusing - No explicit way to match geocoded words to point on map clustering - Max number of search results greatly impacts the clusters - The geocoded words don’t explain how the cluster was decided facets - adding and removing facets is essential
  • 32. Moving forward: the semantic web linking data {rdf} Richard Cyganiak, Linked Open Data Cloud (2011).
  • 33. linking geodata {rdf}
  • 34. Locations in Classical Texts and Atlases Perseus Project Pleiades Google Ancient Places
  • 35. Pelagios - linking historical objects to places - using Pleiades Pelagios API http://pelagios.dme.ait.ac.at/api Documentation http://pelagios-project.blogspot.com/ Pleiades
  • 36. Pelagios - linking historical objects to places - using CHGIS Pelagios API http://pelagios.dme.ait.ac.at/api Documentation http://pelagios-project.blogspot.com/ Pleiades CHGIS
  • 37. XML web service for Chinese historical placenames:
  • 38. http://chgis.hmdc.harvard.edu/tgaz/apihttp://chgis.hmdc.harvard.edu/xml/ 11111 CHGIS Gazetteer Web Service Temporal Gazetteer Web Service Faceted search web service for historical placenames
  • 39. RDF gazetteer interchange format
  • 40. Potential connections: LOD projects in DH world Pelagios
  • 41. Implications for the future Transformation of the catalog: - metadata describing resources → direct access to digital resources - users expect instant, machine-readable information - human readable forms & facets → APIs - users expect both discovery and deeper analysis of content - aggregated data and visualizations of data rather than lists - linked open data and the semantic web will encroach into library science - graph databases and structures will get applied to search tools For Geographic data: - search and visualization using maps will be more commonplace - catalog metadata will be geocoded (internally or on-the-fly)
  • 42. Map to catalog spatial indexing {metadata}
  • 43. Kalev Leetaru, “Fulltext Geocoding Versus Spatial Metadata for Large Text Archives: Towards a Geographically Enriched Wikipedia” D-Lib Magazine, (Sep-Oct 2012) http://goo.gl/VUWsvO Unbound and linked analyzing {metadata}
  • 44. Interesting examples using spatial search: - New York Public Library – Maps Division - Ed Summers ici webmap for wikipedia - Europeana.eu - Spatial History Project - Stanford - Spatial Humantities – Scholar’s Lab - UVA - MapRankSearch – Klokan Tech - Digital Silk Road – Stein Placename Database - GeoCLEF 2008 - Biodiversity of the Hengduan Mountains
  • 45. Bibliography on big data and spatial humanities https://www.zotero.org/groups/dh_and_big_data/items Temporal Gazetteers and Linked Geodata http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~chgis/gazetteer