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Shock
Shock
Shock
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Shock

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  • 1. Airway Exchange with environment Breathing O 2  CO 2Pulmonary Circulation Oxygenation of blood CO2 Exchange Systemic Circulation Arterial Cardiac pump system Venous Cardiac output Return Venous system Microcirculation O2 + nutrients Excahnge with cells CO2 + waste Products
  • 2. Oxygenation of Blood in Pulmonary CirculationBreathing air with adequate oxygenAirway PatencyAdequate ventilationTransfer of O2 from alveoli to capillariesTransfer of oxygenated blood from pulmonary capillaries to the left atrium and left ventricle.
  • 3. Cardiac PumpCardiac output = stroke volume X heart rateStroke volume: venous return end-diastolic volumeHeart rate = Sympathetic & Parasympathetic N.S conductive system of the heart.Effect of arrythmias on cardiac output.Heart contractibility.External compression
  • 4. Arterial SystemBlood PressurePeripheral vascular resistanceSystemic circulation Regional circulation & blood flow regulation. Autoregulation of blood flow special circulationArteriolar systemPrecapillary sphincteric mechanism.Shunting of bloodVascular dilatation↓ SVR↑ SVR
  • 5. MicrocirculationExchange with cells. Effective Oxygen supply to tissues. O2 transfer for capillaries to cells. Oxygen uptake by the cytochrome system of the cells.
  • 6. Glycolysis Diet Glucose G-6-P Amino Pyruvat lactate Acid e CO2 Acetyle - CoA Fatty acidsProtein cholestrol Acid Amino Citric acid cycle CO2
  • 7. Triglycerides lipolysisEsterfication Fatty AcidsDiet lipogenesis B- Oxidation Carbohydrate Amino acids Acetyl- CoA cholesterol Ketone bodies Citric acid cycle CO2 2
  • 8. Aerobic MetabolismATP = ADP + H + + Energy oxidative metabolism
  • 9. Anaerobic MetabolismInadequate energy to maintain cellular functions Contraction of intracellular action & myocin Cell wall pump (Na+). Synthesis of constitutive molecules. Generation of Heat.H+ Accumulation inadequate buffering Lactic acidosis
  • 10. .” State of inadequate tissue perfusion“At the cellular level“ Failure to inadequately supply the peripheral tissues and cells with oxygen.”
  • 11. Venous SystemVenous returnFactors affecting venous return.Pooling in venous systemSplanchnic vascular constriction ShuntingSubcutaneous vascular constriction
  • 12. Blood volumeWhole bloodColloidsCrystalloids.

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