Truthiness What color is grass? PurpleGreen/Yellow Yellow Blueish
“TRUTH” AND “FACT”We often state:TRUTH = FACT and FACT = TRUTHIs there a difference between truth and fact?What is fact? What is veriﬁability? What is validity?Facts are a series of events that we agree upon.Facts are supported by a consensus; therefore,facts are aligned with the values (perspectives)of a cultural.
FACTS FROM CULTURAL VALUES Cultural Value “Fact” Patriotism Columbus was a hero explorer John Locke argued for personal freedomsAre there elements of social control? Helen Keller is an inspiration because she overcame her adversities
“American Mythology”• George Washington chopped down a cherry tree, but couldn’t tell a lie• Thomas Jefferson was a strong voice for public education• Betsy Ross sewed together the ﬁrst American ﬂag• “Honest” Abraham Lincoln grew up in a log cabin and fought for the abolition of slavery• Nothing of historical value occurred before European “settlement”• Lead up to Revolutionary War had only Patriots and Loyalists• Only great individual leaders make meaningful social change...and those changes have all been morally correct• America has always been on the morally right path, especially when it came to issues of genocide• Slavery was wrong, but we no longer see any effects of it in America• Streets are paved of gold and anyone who works hard enough will be successful in America• Using two nuclear bombs against Japan was morally justiﬁed• America is the model country for the world
“Science Mythology”• The best way to understand nature is to isolate and atomize it. In fact, all other ways are subordinate and borderline socially inept.• Capitalism and government have no governance over scientiﬁc research• Science includes the only right ways to determine truth• Any other ways of assembling truth are simply ignorant and part of what Carl Sagan calls a “Demon Haunted World”• The previous statement is culturally neutral. In fact, ANYTHING that science claims is true is culturally neutral.• Science is always moving us towards an ultimate and undeniable truth about the universe• There are no mystical aspects about the universe; there are only aspects that science has yet to understand
Truth & Power• “Truth” is a construct of those in power.• “Truth” is often “myth” handed down from one generation to another
Truth & Power (Reality) in U.S.“Truth” claims from the dominant discourse• God is the “Truth”• Science is the “Truth”• Free Market is the “Truth”• Europeans have “Truth” in religion, science, academy, literature, and economics
ThinkingConvergent Thinking -All paths lead to a single destination. This is rooted in abelief that there is only one “Truth.”Traditional Liberal/Progressive scaf Truth Thought fold New Truth d Thought scaffolThought Thought
ThinkingDivergent Thinking -Explore many paths in authentic settings with questionsthat have no predetermined answer. Transformative New NewThought Thought Relationship Critical Communities Info Questioning New NewThought Thought Relationship
“WISDOM”What is “wisdom”?How do we know it when we see it?Where does “wisdom” come from?
“CONSCIOUSNESS”What is “consciousness”?How do we know it when we see it?Where does “consciousness” come from?
CONSCIOUSNESSExpanding one’s consciousness Shifting our ways of relationally knowing the world and viewing “realities” Having deep understandings of the various paradigms of thought and their boundariesTo what extent do teachers develop lessons withdriving questions that help students increase theirconsciousness?
CONSCIOUSNESSTeaching towards consciousness Shifting our ways of relationally knowing the world and viewing “realities” Having deep understandings of the various paradigms of thought and their boundariesInstead of asking:What is Spanish vocabulary for a common marketplace?Asking:To what extent are Spanish-speaking peoples connected to andaffected by the global marketplace?
“SPIRITUALITY”What is “spirituality”?How do we know it when we see it?Where does “spirituality” come from?
SPIRITUALITYCan spirituality have a place in the public school if it isseen in this way: RELIGION = SPIRITUALITY and SPIRITUALITY = RELIGIONSpirituality can be one’s deeper sense of selfand/or feelings of interconnectedness
TRUTH & CONSCIOUSNESS Fact Relationship School? Experience Reason Your classroom? Argument ConsciousnessPhilosophical Truth Spiritual Wisdom