Feminist & Queer Pedagogies 2011


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This is an update of the feminist and queer pedagogies slide shows.

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Feminist & Queer Pedagogies 2011

  1. 1. Feminist & Queer Pedagogies Kurt Love, Ph.D. Central Connecticut State University
  2. 2. Feminist Theory ✴ Feminist Theory - Critically Examining Male Domination ✴ History of patriarchy ✴ Knowledge construction ✴ Objectivity ✴ Objectification of nature ✴ Rugged individualism ✴ Embedded in language ✴ Masculinity Studies ✴ Gender Construction/Expression ✴ Sexuality Studies
  3. 3. Social Construction of “Manhood” • Competitive • Rugged • Individualistic, unattached • Unemotional/Stoic • “Strong” • Tendency towards violence • Not good with children • Speaks infrequently • Obsessive about sports • Loves cars and power tools • Eats a lot • Dirty, smelly • Not a “thinker”, but is a “doer” • Endures physical pain What are the ways that mainstream society constructs the concept of being a “man?”
  4. 4. “Manhood” and the Construction of aViolent Mind • Men commit: • 85% of murders • 90% of assault • 95% of domestic violence • 95% of dating violence • 95% of child abuse • 99.8% of rape • 1 in 4 men will be violent towards another woman
  6. 6. A LITTLE HISTORY: FIRST WAVE FEMINISM Began in late 1700‘s, but gains increasing attention in the late 1800’s in U.S. and Western Europe Women’s suffrage Men controlling women in the home Mary Wollstonecraft (1792) A Vindication ofWomen’s Rights
  7. 7. A LITTLE HISTORY: SECOND WAVE FEMINISM 1950’s-1980’s in U.S. and Western Europe “Body politics,” or what’s private is public/political Equal pay for equal work Largely responsible the levels of societal practices that exist today White women’s agenda
  8. 8. A LITTLE HISTORY: SECOND WAVE FEMINISM Simone de Beauvoir (1945) Second Sex
 (a) Becomes a woman, (b) Women are “mysterious” so men don’t have to understand them. Betty Friedan (1963) Feminine Mystique
 (a) Women should pursue rigorous education, (b) Not forced into domestic roles, (c) Sexual liberation
  9. 9. A LITTLE HISTORY: BACKLASH As a response to the civil rights movements from the 1950’s-1970’s, conservatives, men, and the ideology of the “rugged individual” became dominant in popular culture and politics Starting in the 1980’s in the U.S., strong patriarchal figures gained popularity and provided a discourse against the civil rights movements of the previous twenty years
  10. 10. EXAMPLES OF BACKLASH Ronald Reagan George H.W. Bush WWE Rush Limbaugh Rambo Sarah Palin Tea Party Andrew “Dice” Clay
  11. 11. Backlash
  12. 12. THE “LOVABLE WOMANIZER” 1.Sam from Cheers 2.Joey from Friends 3.Charlie from Two and a Half Men 4.Mike from Growing Pains 5.Uncle Jessy from Full House 6.Fonzie from Happy Days 7.Al Bundy from Married with Children 8.Christian from Nip/Tuck 9.Barney from How I Met Your Mother 10. Entire cast from Mad Men 11. Sawyer from Lost 12. Ryan from The O.C. 13. Mark from Grey’s Anatomy 14. House,Taub & Chase from House 15. Luka from ER 16. Moe from The Simpsons Is there a female equivalent? ! Why is this not only allowable, but also popular entertainment?
  13. 13. A “RETURN TO FEMININITY” Take this pink ribbon off my eyes I'm exposed And it's no big surprise Don't you think I know Exactly where I stand This world is forcing me To hold your hand 'Cause I'm just a girl, little 'ol me Don't let me out of your sight I'm just a girl, all pretty and petite So don't let me have any rights ! Oh...I've had it up to here! The moment that I step outside So many reasons For me to run and hide I can't do the little things I hold so dear 'Cause it's all those little things That I fear 'Cause I'm just a girl I'd rather not be 'Cause they won't let me drive Late at night I'm just a girl, Guess I'm some kind of freak 'Cause they all sit and stare With their eyes ! I'm just a girl, Take a good look at me Just your typical prototype ! Oh...I've had it up to here! Oh...am I making myself clear? I'm just a girl I'm just a girl in the world... That's all that you'll let me be! I'm just a girl, living in captivity Your rule of thumb Makes me worry some I'm just a girl, what's my destiny? What I've succumbed to Is making me numb I'm just a girl, my apologies What I've become is so burdensome I'm just a girl, lucky me Twiddle-dum there's no comparison ! Oh...I've had it up to! Oh...I've had it up to!! Oh...I've had it up to here! “Just a Girl”
  14. 14. A “RETURN TO FEMININITY” The demand that women “return to femininity” is a demand that the cultural gears shift into reverse, that we back up to a fabled time when everyone was richer, younger, more powerful. The “feminine” woman is forever static and childlike. She is like the ballerina in an old-fashioned music box, her unchanging features tiny and girlish, her voice tinkly, her body stuck on a pin, rotating in a spiral that will never grow. From Backlash by Susan Faludi (p. 70, 1991)
  15. 15. THE WILD WOMAN "She is the life/death/life force, she is the incubator. She is intuition, she is far-seer, she is deep listener, she is loyal heart. She encourages humans to remain multi-lingual; fluent in the languages of dreams, passion, and poetry. She whispers from night dreams, she leaves behind on the terrain of a woman’s soul a coarse hair and muddy footprints. These fill women with longing to find her, free her, and love her." Clarissa Pinkola Estes, Women Who Run with Wolves Ecstasy II by Ines Honfi
  16. 16. THE WILD WOMAN 'When women tap into their forbidden wild side again, mountains will move. Before that happens a huge explosion of anger needs to be danced with and embraced; and when we dare to tap into this pool of wild rage, we discover it contains our raw fire power, our wild, untamed, creative Shakti. ! Our primal, feminine essence of the Red River is wild, passionate, fiercely protective, fearless, magnetic, alluring, sensual and playful. WILD means not living in captivity – allowing ALL of yourself to be truly free, to be sensual, to be fearlessly seen and without any shame. This opens the primal, deep, passionate ‘she-wolf’ at the core of your Womb.' ! 'Pilgrimage into the Womb: Awakening the Holy Grail' from Fountain of Life (fountainoflife.org) Feminine Mystery III by Ines Honfi
  17. 17. THE WILD WOMAN Truly, we know that we cannot really subsist on little sips of life. The wild force in a woman’s soul demands that she have access to it all. ! - Clarissa Pinkola Estés Flamenco Dancer by Fabian Perez
  18. 18. THIRD WAVE FEMINISM 1990’s - Present globally Intersectional analysis of race, gender, class, sexuality, and geopolitical location Patricia Hill Collins wrote Black Sexual Thought (1990) Collins argued that because Black women in the U.S. have a unique history, they have created understandings of themselves and the world out of a need to be self-defined.This allows for them to have a tendency towards social justice. Collins argued that looking through intersectional analyses of Black women allows for initial understandings of other peoples.
  19. 19. INTERSECTIONALITY & KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION Feminist theorists have provided the most rigorous forms of analysis because, especially since the inception of “third wave” feminism, gender is not seen as separate from race, class, religion, globalization, capitialism, etc. Intersectionality is a lens of analysis that shows how different identities articulate with one another, not separately from one another. Knowledge itself is a construction of intersections of cultures and social locations/positions
  20. 20. CRITIQUE OF THE “WAVES” Critique: These “waves” are from the perspective of White, middle class women in the U.S. and in Western Europe. Black females in the U.S. argued that they have been working on all three “waves” since the late 1800’s. Furthermore,White females often instituted racist conditions against Black women during the first and second waves.
  21. 21. DIFFERENT LEVELS OF PATRIARCHY Daily Living - Most visible 
 (Car dealerships, media, service people, church, pay scales, etc.) Research & Construction of Knowledge - Less Visible
 (Carol Gilligan, heart attacks, Puerto Rico) Social Construction of Reality - LeastVisible
 (Language, scientific philosophy, worldviews, ideologies)
  22. 22. PATRIARCHY & RACISM IN SCIENCE RESEARCH Tuskegee Trials (Syphilis purposeful not cured in 600 Black men) Looked for an “extra leg muscle” in Black men that made them run faster Infected healthy mentally disabled people in Norwich and Middletown, Conn with hepatitis NewYork prisoners forced to swallow excrement with deadly stomach flu Throughout the mid-20th century, at least half of the US states allowed scientists to experiment on healthy prisoners. Scientistis infected them with: avian flu, malaria, and gonorrhea. Mentally retarded students in Staten Island were intentionally infected with hepatitis http://m.apnews.com/ap/db_16029/contentdetail.htm?contentguid=5iL7RrKi
  23. 23. WHERE ARE WE? Sandra Harding’s “Strong Objectivity” Bring in as many different peoples into scientific research which can strengthen “objectivity.” Donna Haraway’s “Situated Knowledge” Researchers need to bring in their positions(i.e. race, history, culture, gender, location, class, etc.) into their work because knowledge is always constructed through who we are.
  24. 24. STANDPOINT THEORY The acknowledgement that we can never be neutrally located.With that, we need to always be aware of how social, historical, and cultural processes are constructing us, our thoughts, and our knowledge production processes such as research. Our knowledge is always produced from someone’s or a group’s “standpoint.”
  25. 25. Feminist Pedagogy
  26. 26. Classroom Practices 1.Invitational Rhetoric 2.Empowerment 3.Building Community 4.Voice 5.Diverse Experiences 6.Challenge Traditional Views
 (Webb, 2002)
  27. 27. Classroom Practices
  28. 28. Invitational Rhetoric Does not try to change or control students Validates various perspectives Creates safety, value & freedom
  29. 29. Invitational Rhetoric bell hooks states that she does not intend to create a classroom space that is comfortable. It is turbulent, frank, (fiery) and full of emotional disequilibrium That is the space that allows for us to get to what is real, honest, and authentic It should be done with great care and support, though.
  30. 30. Cooperative Learning Moving away from a top-down lecture At the college level: Small group discussions Papers that incorporated personal living experiences and reflective thinking
  31. 31. Empowerment Education is not neutral “Practice of freedom” - critically questioning reality so that we may be able to transform our world
  32. 32. Voice Path for learning Being heard Sharing voice in community Exercising one’s agency - empowerment Affirming personal experiences
  33. 33. Building Community Sharing of power or “power-with” Shifting from individualism to cooperative mindsets Service learning projects
  34. 34. Building Community Nel Noddings states that classroom spaces become sites of working on issues and concerns that students care about Learning (in the school setting) becomes a process that students can genuinely care about Students support and encourage one another in their learning experiences Daring to “Care”
  35. 35. Challenge Traditional Views Education is not neutral Questioning traditional views & practices of gender Questioning traditional content and presentations of “knowledge”
  36. 36. Ways of Knowing What are the different ways that we come to know information and construct knowledge? Observation Experience Intuition Spiritually Relationships Historically Intergenerationally Emotionally Measurement Power Relations Media Senses
  37. 37. The Earth Western Science:
 The Earth is a collection of materials, minerals, and chemicals in systems. Which “ways of knowing” construct this knowledge? Which “ways of knowing” are excluded? What is missing from this description of the Earth?
  38. 38. Ways of Knowing Western Science:
 The Earth is a collection of materials, minerals, and chemicals in systems. Observation Experience Intuition Spiritually Relationships Historically Intergenerationally Emotionally Measurement Power Relations Media Senses
  39. 39. The Earth Indigenous Science:
 The Earth is an integrated, interdependent, interconnected, nurturing and spiritual being that reciprocates life through balance and sustainability. Which “ways of knowing” construct this knowledge? Which “ways of knowing” are excluded? What is missing from this description of the Earth?
  40. 40. Ways of Knowing Indigenous Science:
 The Earth is an integrated, interdependent, interconnected, nurturing and spiritual being that reciprocates life through balance and sustainability. Observation Experience Intuition Spiritually Relationships Historically Intergenerationally Emotionally Measurement Power Relations Media Senses
  41. 41. Queer Theory
  42. 42. What is Queer? • The word “queer” connotes: • Different • Unacceptable • Un-normed
  43. 43. Queer Theory • Started with looking at un-normed sexualities with relationships to sex and gender • Looked at what else is “queered” or un- normed
  44. 44. Sex • Sex is oftentimes emphasizing biological characteristics or phenotype based on genatalia • Genotypic Spectrum • “Super Male” = xyy chromosomes • Male = xy chromosomes • “Hermaphodite” = xxy chromosomes (Klinefelter’s Syndrome) • Female = xo chromosomes (Turner’s Syndrome) • Female = xx chromosomes • Female = xxx chromosomes (tend towards more “masculine bodies)
  45. 45. Gender • Gender is a social construction (i.e. how a society thinks men and women should act) • Gender Spectrum (not a binary) • Men • Transgender • Transsexual • Women
  46. 46. Gender Expression Gender is a performance or an act
  47. 47. Gender Expression Gender is a performance or an act
  48. 48. Sex & Gender • Is someone who is biologically a male automatically going to be a “man?” • Is someone who is biologically a female automatically going to be a “woman?” • Sex and gender are both along spectra • A person could have an xy chromosome (male - biological construction) but feel more comfortable as a woman (gender construction) Transgender
  49. 49. Gender Expression • Seth will be so proud!!! • okay - that's one for the wedding reception slide show!!! • You can totally use this picture for blackmail later. Smart of you to grab your camera • Lucky you got up there before they put on makeup too! • this will be the ultimate revenge some day • What happens when it's too quiet upstairs!!
  50. 50. Sexualities • Heterosexual or “Straight” • Homosexual or “Gay,” “Lesbian” • Bisexual • Asexual • Polyamorous
  51. 51. Sex, Gender & Sexuality • A male identifying as a woman who partners with a male also identifies as being straight • A female identifying as a man who partners with a man also identifies as being gay
  52. 52. Born Gay? • Arguments of sexuality being a choice or being “genetic” • People know by no later than 4th grade • Born gay = Disease to be treated
  53. 53. Norming Sexuality & Gender • Gender Norm = Hegemonically fitting everyone’s gender into the binary of male/ female • Sexuality Norm = Hegemonically making everyone as heterosexuals • Homophobia used as a tool to hegemonically reinforce the norms of sexuality
  54. 54. What/Who Does the Queering? • People in the dominating roles (i.e. those who adhere to and profit from the norms) • Contexts
  55. 55. Sites of Hegemony • Religions • Public Spaces • Family • Schools • Media • Laws
  56. 56. Straight Teacher? • Why should a straight teacher care about issues of sexuality? • It’s like asking,“Why should a white teacher care about racial issues?”
  57. 57. Supporting Students • Being present for the student • Not claiming to know any answers • What does the student need from you? • Working with counselors and school psychologist to ensure that student is supported
  58. 58. Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA) • Extracurricular clubs where students meet to be active in supporting peoples of all sexualities and genders • New Britain High School has the largest GSA of any high school in the United States.
  59. 59. Being Queered • Being queered means that the person/ group, knowledge, or practice is not only un-normed, but it is also unacceptable and subordinated. • Uncomfortable • “Weird”
  60. 60. What Else is Queered? • Queering groups of people • Queering knowledge • Queering practices
  61. 61. What/Who Else is Queered? • A person speaking Arabic in the U.S. • A person speaking Ebonics • A Black woman in a suit with braids • Conscientious objectors • Politicians who do not follow the narrow discursive norms of their party (i.e. Dennis Kucinich, Ron Paul) • Homeless people • Wiccans/Witches/Pagans • Indigenous Ecological Knowledge • Voodoo • Feminists • Intuition • Female Scientists like Rosalind Franklin, Barbara McClintock, and Jane Goodall
  62. 62. Queer Pedagogy
  63. 63. In a Lesson • As with any transformative pedagogy, it’s not about having the “right” method... • It’s about developing the “right” question. • Meaningful, thought-provoking, connected to real world issues
  64. 64. In a Lesson • Investigating “queered” relationships in the content • Investigating “queered” knowledges • Combining with aesthetic (fine arts, performing arts, Theatre of the Oppressed) to provide divergent thinking and experiential processes • Purposely “othering” knowledge so that students can respond by calling out “othering” • Investigating how a community produces “queering”
  65. 65. In a Lesson • How was Boo Radley “queered” in To Kill a Mockingbird? • How was the Ugly Duckling “queered”? • How did Harvey Milk and his supporters fight being politically “queered”? • Forum Theater on how queering happens in your school/classroom • How do boys “queer” each other based on definitions of masculinity?
  66. 66. References ! Britzman, D. P. (1995). "Is there a queer pedagogy? Or stop reading straight". Educational Theory, 45(2), 151-165. ! Butler, J. (1999). Gender trouble. New York: Routledge.! Butler, J. (2004). Undoing gender. New York: Routledge.! hooks, b. (1989). Talking back: Thinking feminist, thinking Black. Boston: South End Press.! hooks, b. (2003). Teaching community: A pedagogy of hope. New York City: Routledge.! Noddings, N. (1992). The challenge to care in schools: An alternative approach to education. New York: Teachers College Press.! Noddings, N. (2008). All our students thinking. Educational Leadership, 65(5), 8-13.! Sumara, D. J., & Davis, B. (1999). Interrupting heteronormativity: Toward a queer curriculum theory. Curriculum Inquiry, 29(2), 191-208.! Talbert, S., & Steinberg, S. R. (Eds.). (2000). Thinking queer: Sexuality, culture and education. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc.! Webb, L. M., Allen, M. W., & Walker, K. L. (2002). Feminist pedagogy: Identifying basic principles. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 6(1), 67-72.!