Coun 915 krumsboltz' learning theory of career counseling final

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Coun 915 krumsboltz' learning theory of career counseling final

  1. 1. KRUMBOLTZ‘SKRUMBOLTZ‘SLEARNING THEORYLEARNING THEORYOF CAREEROF CAREERCOUNSELING (LTCC)COUNSELING (LTCC)By:By:Lola SonaikeLola Sonaike
  2. 2. DOWN TO EARTHDOWN TO EARTH• What is a Theory?A theory is, in effect, a rationalized set ofassumptions or hypothesis that allows youto explain the past and predict the future.• There are two types of theoriesStructural Theories and DevelopmentalTheories.
  3. 3. DOWN TO EARTHDOWN TO EARTH• Structural Theories focus on individualcharacteristics and occupational tasks.e.g. Trait and Factor, PEC, Holland’sTypology Approach• Developmental Theories focus on humandevelopment across life-spane.g. Super, Krumboltz , Decision Making,Cognitive
  4. 4. ABOUT KRUMBOLTZABOUT KRUMBOLTZ• Who is he?
  5. 5. LET’S SPY HIS RESUMELET’S SPY HIS RESUME
  6. 6. SO WHAT DOES HISSO WHAT DOES HIS THEORYTHEORYSAY?SAY?According to Krumboltz, an infinite numberof accumulated learning experiencesdetermine one’s current occupationalsituation.– Interests are developed based on personallyenjoyable experiences– New beliefs are developed and changed based onnew information that causes a re-examination of allbeliefs.– Values change as one acquires experiences andgreater insight.
  7. 7. KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC)KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC)(Contd)(Contd)• The process of career developmentinvolves four factors:- Genetic endowment andspecial abilities- Environmental Influences- Learning experiences- Task Approach Skills
  8. 8. KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC)KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC)(Contd)(Contd)• Genetic: This include inherited qualities that mayset limits on the individual’s career opportunities.This may be physical, mental or special abilities• Environmental influences: in terms of how itaffects skill development, activities and careerpreferences.• Learning Experiences:- Instrumental learning experiences(‘learnings’ through reactions toconsequences). That is learnings throughdirect observable results of actions andthrough the reactions of others.
  9. 9. KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC)KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC)(Contd)(Contd)• Learning Experiences (Contd)– Associative learning experiencesThis involves negative and positive reactions to previously“neutral” statements.e.g. “You’re going to be a great cop with those flat feet!.”“All bankers are rich”“All politicians are dishonest”Task Approach Skills Skills that have been developed overtime. That is problem-solving skills, work habit. Note that skillsare often modified as a result of desirable and undesirableexperiences.
  10. 10. BY THE WAYBY THE WAYKrumboltz based histheory onBandura’s SocialLearning Theory.He also worked with:Mitchell and Gesalt
  11. 11. WHAT ABOUT SOCIALWHAT ABOUT SOCIALLEARNING APPROACH?LEARNING APPROACH?• A social-learning theory approach to careerdecision making was first proposed byKrumboltz, Mitchell, and Gesalt (1975), and thenseveral years later by Mitchell and Krumboltz(1990). More recently, Mitchell and Krumboltz(1996) have extended the earlier social-learningtheory approach to include Krumboltz’s learningtheory of career counseling, and they nowsuggest that the entire theory be referred to aslearning theory of career counseling (LTCC)
  12. 12. KEY NOTES TO COUNSELORSKEY NOTES TO COUNSELORS• The factors that influence preferences in the social-learning model are composed of numerous cognitiveprocesses, interactions in the environment, and inheritedpersonal characteristics and traits.• Genetic and environmental factors are also involved inthe development of preferences. For example, abasketball coach might reinforce tall players for theirskills than short players.• Value models, positive words, and images such as abooklet describing an occupation in glamorous terms,will lead to positive reactions to that occupation.
  13. 13. COUNSELING STRATEGIESCOUNSELING STRATEGIES• How can a counselor determine an individual’s problematic beliefsand generalization?• Identifying content from which certain beliefs and generalizationshave evolved is a key ingredient for developing counselingstrategies for individuals who have career decision-makingproblems.The counselor’s role is to probe assumptions and presuppositions ofexpressed beliefs and to explore alternative beliefs and courses ofaction.Assisting individuals to understand the validity of their beliefs is amajor component of the social-learning model.
  14. 14. COUNSELING STRATEGIESCOUNSELING STRATEGIES(Contd)(Contd)• Intervention strategies suggested by Mitchell andKrumboltz include the use of job clubs. Individuals canoffer support to each other in the job search process. Awide range of media should be made available to clients,and local employers should offer high school studentsstructured work-based learning experiences.• Career counselors should use behavioral counselingtechniques, including role playing or trying newbehaviors, desensitization when dealing with phobias,and paradoxical intention. The latter technique suggeststhat a client engage in types of behavior that havecreated a problem. (Mitchell & Krumboltz, 1996)
  15. 15. WHAT ARE THE EMPIRICAL SUPPORTSWHAT ARE THE EMPIRICAL SUPPORTSFOR KRUMBOLTZ’S LEARNING THEORYFOR KRUMBOLTZ’S LEARNING THEORY• The learning theory of career counseling hasbeen developed only recently and thereforerelevant research is yet to be accomplished.The original theory, social-learning theory ofcareer decision making, claimed validity from thedevelopment of educational and occupationalpreferences, the development of task approachskills and factors that cause people to takeaction, and from an extensive database ongeneral social-learning theory of behavior.
  16. 16. SOME PSYCHOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS THATSOME PSYCHOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS THATMAY BE USED FOR THIS APPROACH ARE:MAY BE USED FOR THIS APPROACH ARE:• My Vocational Situation (Holland, Daiger, and Power 1980)• A Questionnaire to Determine Beliefs about Career Decision Making(Mitchell and Krumboltz, cited by Mitchell 1980• Inventory on Anxiety in Decision Making (Mendonca 1974)• An Attitudinal Assessment of Decision Making (Item wording byClarke Carney)• Efficacy Questionnaire (Mitchell, Krumboltz, and Kinnier, Cited inMitchell 1980)PLEASE SEE HANDOUT FOR MORE INVENTORIES AND FORBRIEF DESCRIPTION OF EACH INVENTORY
  17. 17. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS/PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS/IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORSIMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORSAPPLICATIONS- People need to expand their capabilities and interests, not basedecisions on existing characteristics only- People need to prepare for changing work tasks, not assume thatoccupations will remain stable.- People need to be empowered to take action, not merely given adiagnosis- Career counselors need to play a major role in dealing with allcareer problems, not just with occupational selection.
  18. 18. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS/PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS/IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORSIMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORSIMMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELING• The role of career counselors and the goals of career counselingneed to be reevaluated. Counselor need to continue to promoteclient learning but perhaps in a different way. Counselors may haveto become coaches and mentors to help individuals meet thechanges in work force requirements.• Counselors should attempt to discover unlimited experiencesamong clients and offer proper learning solutions.• Assessment results can be used to create new experiences
  19. 19. COUNSELING STRATEGIESCOUNSELING STRATEGIES(Contd)(Contd)The counselor should address the followingproblems:• Client may fail to recognize that a remediable problem exists (individualshave a tendency to assume that most problems are a normal part of life andcannot be altered.• Client may fail to exert the effort needed to make a decision or solve aproblem (individuals exert little effort to explore alternatives, they take thefamiliar way out.• Client may eliminate a potentially satisfying alternative for inappropriatereasons (individuals over generalize from false assumptions and overlookpotentially worthwhile alternatives).• Client may choose poor alternatives for inappropriate reasons (theindividuals are unable to realistically evaluate potential careers because offalse beliefs and unrealistic expectations).• Persons may suffer anguish and anxiety over perceived inability to achievegoals (individual goals may be unrealistic or in conflict with other goals).
  20. 20. LET’S BRAINSTORMLET’S BRAINSTORMCOMPETITION TIME
  21. 21. COMPARISON OF KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC)COMPARISON OF KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC)WITH FEW OTHER THEORIESWITH FEW OTHER THEORIESCOMPARISON OF KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC) WITH TRAIT-AND-FACTOR THEORYTheories Basic Assumptions Key Terms OutcomesTrait-and-Factor Individuals have uniquepatterns of ability or traitsthat can be objectivelymeasured and correlatedwith requirements ofoccupations.Traits primarily refer to abilities andinterests. Parsons three step-model included stydying theindividual, surveying occupation,and matching the individual withThe primary goal of usingassessment data was topredict job satisfaction andsuccess. Contemporarypractices stress therelationships between humanfactors and workenvironments. Test data isused to observe the similaritybetween client and currentworkers in a career field.Krumboltzs LearningTheoryApproachEach individuals unique learningexperiences over the life spandevelop primary influencesthat lead to career choice.Development involves geneticendowments and specialabilities, environmentalconditions and events,learning experiences, andtask approach skillsGenetic endowments are inheritedqualities that may set limits oncareer choice. Environmentalconditions are contextualinteractions that influenceindividual choices. Instrumentallearning experiences are thoseacquired throuh observation,consequences, and reaction ofothrs. Associative learningexperiences are negative andpositive reactions to neutralexperiences. Task approachskills are work habits, mentalsets, emotional responses andcognitive responsesCareer development is a lifelongprocess occuring in stages.Self-concepts is shapedthrough life experiences.Clients are involved in severallife roles of child, student,leisure, citizen, worker,spouse, homemaker, parent,and pensioner. All life rolesaffect one another. Indevelopments societal factorsinteract with biologicalpsychological factors.
  22. 22. KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND PERSON-KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND PERSON-ENVIRONMENT FIT THEORYENVIRONMENT FIT THEORYCOMPARIZON OF KRUMBOLTZ (LTCC) WITH PERSON-ENVIRONMENT-FITTheories Basic Assumptions Key Terms OutcomesPersonEnvironment-FitIndividuals bring requirements to awork environment, and thework environment makes itsrequirements of individuals. Tosurvive, individuals and workenvironments must achievesome degre of congruence.Personality structure is a stablecharactristic made up of abilitiesand values. Ability dimensionsindicate levels of work skills.Values are considered as workneeds. Satisfactoriness refers toclients who are more achievementoriented. Satisfaction refers tomore self fulfilled oriented clients.Work adjustment refers to aworkers attempt to improve fit in awork environment.Client abilities (work skills) and values(work needs) are criteria used forselecting work environments.Work requirements determinereinforcers available byoccupations. Knowledge of clientswho are more achievement(satisfactoriness) or self-fulfilled(satisfaction) oriented enhancescareer choiceKrumboltzsLearningTheory ApproachEach individuals unique learningexperiences over the life spandevelop primary influences thatlead to career choice.Development involves geneticendowments and specialabilities, environmentalconditions and events, learningexperiences, and taskapproach skillsGenetic endowments are inheritedqualities that may set limits oncareer choice. Environmentalconditions are contextualinteractions that influence individualchoices. Instrumental learningexperiences are those acquiredthrouh observation, consequences,and reaction of othrs. Associativelearning experiences are negativeand positive reactions to neutralexperiences. Task approach skillsare work habits, mental sets,emotional responses and cognitiveresponsesCareer development is a lifelongprocess occuring in stages. Self-concepts is shaped through lifeexperiences. Clients are involvedin several life roles of child,student, leisure, citizen, worker,spouse, homemaker, parent, andpensioner. All life roles affect oneanother. In developments societalfactors interact with biologicalpsychological factors.
  23. 23. KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND SUPER’SKRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND SUPER’SLIFE-SPAN, LIFE-SPACE APPROACHLIFE-SPAN, LIFE-SPACE APPROACHCOMPARIZON OF KRUMBOLTZ (LTCC) WITH SUPERS LIFE SPAN LIFE SPACE APPROACHTheories Basic Assumptions Key Terms OutcomesSupersLifes-Span,Life-SpaceApproachCareer Development ismultidimensional. Thereare developmental tasksthroughout the life-span.Vocational maturity isacquired throughsuccessfully accomplishingdevelopmental tasks withina common series of lifestages. Individualsimplement their self-concepts into careers thatwill provide th most efficientmeans of self-expression.Success in one liferolefacilitates success inanother.Stages of vocational developmentare Growth, Exploratory,Establishment, Maintenanceand Decline. Developmentaltasks are Crystalization,specification, ImplentationStabilization and Consolidation.Self-concept is the drivingforce that establishes a careerpattern. Attitudes andcompetencies are related tocareery growth and identifiedas career Maturity.Career development is a lifelongprocess occuring in stages.Self-concepts is shapedthrough life experiences.Clients are involved in severallife roles of child, student,leisure, citizen, worker,spouse, homemaker, parent,and pensioner. All life rolesaffect one another. In development societal factorsinteract with biologicalpsychological factors.KrumboltzsLearningTheoryApproachEach individuals unique learningexperiences over the lifespan develop primaryinfluences that lead tocareer choice.Development involvesgenetic endowments andspecial abilities,environmental conditionsand events, learningexperiences, and taskapproach skillsGenetic endowments are inheritedqualities that may set limits oncareer choice. Environmentalconditions are contextualinteractions that influenceindividual choices.Instrumental learningexperiences are thoseacquired throuh observation,consequences, and reaction ofothrs. Associative learningexperiences are negative andpositive reactions to neutralexperiences. Task approachCareer development is a lifelongprocess occuring in stages.Self-concepts is shapedthrough life experiences.Clients are involved in severallife roles of child, student,leisure, citizen, worker,spouse, homemaker, parent,and pensioner. All life rolesaffect one another. Indevelopments societal factorsinteract with biologicalpsychological factors.
  24. 24. KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND JOHNKRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND JOHNHOLLAND’S TYPOLOGY APPROACHHOLLAND’S TYPOLOGY APPROACHCOMPARIZON OF KRUMBOLTZ (LTCC) WITH HOLLANDS TYPOLOGY APPROACHTheories Basic Assumptions Key Terms OutcomesHollands TypologyApproachCareer choice is an expressionof, or an extension ofpersonality into the world ofwork. Individuals searchfor environments that willlet them exercise their skillsand abilities, express theirattitudes and values, andtake on agreeableproblems and roles. Thereare six kinds ofoccupational environmentsand six matching personalorientations.The six types of categories forindividuals and workenvironment are Realistic,Investigative, Artistic, Social,Enterprising and ConventionalConsistency refers topersonality, i.e. those clientswho relate strongly to one ormore of the categories.Differentiation refers to thosewho have poorly definedpersonality styles. Identityrefers to the degree in whichone identifies with a workenvironment. Congruency is agood match between individualand work environment.Individuals are products of thirenvironment. Stability ofcareer choice depends ondominance of personalorientation. Individuals who fita pure personality type willexpress little resemblance toother types. Clients who havemany occupational goals havelow identity. Congruenceoccurs when clientspersonality type matches thecorresponding workenvironment.KrumboltzsLearningTheoryApproachEach individuals unique learningexperiences over the lifespan develop primaryinfluences that lead tocareer choice.Development involvesgenetic endowments andspecial abilities,environmental conditionsand events, learningexperiences, and taskapproach skillsGenetic endowments are inheritedqualities that may set limits oncareer choice. Environmentalconditions are contextualinteractions that influenceindividual choices.Instrumental learningexperiences are thoseacquired throuh observation,consequences, and reaction ofothrs. Associative learningexperiences are negative andpositive reactions to neutralexperiences. Task approachCareer development is a lifelongprocess occuring in stages.Self-concepts is shapedthrough life experiences.Clients are involved in severallife roles of child, student,leisure, citizen, worker,spouse, homemaker, parent,and pensioner. All life rolesaffect one another. Indevelopments societal factorsinteract with biologicalpsychological factors.
  25. 25. ReferencesReferences• Krumboltz, J. D. (1979). A Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making. In .Mitchell, A.M.., Jones, F. B., & Krumboltz, J. D., (Eds), Social Learning andCareer Decision Making, edited by Mitchell, pp. 19-49• Krumbotlz, J. D., (1994). The career beliefs inventory, Journal of Counseling andDevelopment, 72(4), 424-428• Krumbotlz, J. D., (1996). A learning theory of career counseling. In M. L. Savickas &W. B. Walsh (Eds.) . Handbook of career counseling theory and practice (pp55-80), Palto Alto, CA: Davies-Black.• Mitchell, L. K., & Krumboltz, J. D. (1987). The effects of cognitive restructuring anddecision-making training on career indecision. Journal of Counseling andDevelopment, 66, 171-174• Mitchell, L. K., & Krumboltz, J. D. (1990). Social learning approach to career decisionmaking; Krumboltz’s theory. In D. Brown, L. Brooks, & Associates (Eds.).Career choice and development (2nd ed.) San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass• Niles, S. G, & Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (2002). Career development interventions in the21st century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. (Companionwebsite: http://www.prenhall.com/niles)• Nystul, M.S. (1999), 5th edition. Introduction to Counseling: An Art and SciencePerspective, Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Pp (321–342)
  26. 26. THE ENDTHE END

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