1910- Albrecht Kosel
scientist got nobel prize for the work “ in
recognition of the contribution to our
knowledge of cell chemistry made
through work on proteins , including the
American wounded soldier receiving blood plasma
in August, 1943 ."Dried plasmas" were developed and
first used in World War II. Prior to the United States'
involvement in the war, liquid plasma and whole
blood were used. The "Blood for Britain" program
during the early 1940s was quite successful (and
popular in the United States) based on
Dr. Charles Drew's contribution.
The resulting dried plasma package came in two tin
cans containing 400 cc bottles. One bottle contained
distilled water to reconstitute the dried plasma. In
about three minutes, the plasma ready to use, stay
fresh for around four hours
Coagulation of blood
Maintain colloidal osmotic pressure
Maintaining viscosity of blood
Maintaining systemic arterial pressure
Stability to blood
Maintain acid-base balance
55% blood volume , 5% B.W.
Types : Prealbumin & Albumin
Prealbumin : MW-60,000, Normal plasma level-0.03
-binds Thyroxine (T 4 and T3)
Albumin : MW69,000, Normal plasma level-3-5 gm/dL
(avg. 4.8 gm/dL)o
-Controls colloidal osmotic pressure
-Binding and Carrier protein : anions, cations
,dyes, drugs, hormones, fatty acids, metals, aminoacids
, enzymes & bilirubin
•Can be separated into different
fractions on the basis of their
electrophoretic mobility and
-α –globulin – 0.78-0.81
-β- 0.79-0.84 gm/dL
11. METHOD OF STUDY
Precipitation by salt
Sedimentation in Ultracentrifuge
12. ULTRA CENTRIFUGATION
1.Ultracentrifugation (analytical or Sedimentation
velocity ultracentrifuge) at 60,000 per.min. (Refractive
index the boundary between the solvent and the protein
is visualized by an optical system –called Sehlieren
Most useful for the determination of the mol. wt of
High cost of each analysis and poor resolving capacity
(when applied to whole serum or plasma)
Protein in aqueous solution are charged groups (e.g.
carboxylic (Asp.Glu), amino groups (Lys,Arg), they can
be separated under an electric field using various
N.B. Amino groups undergo ionic dissociation at alkaline
pH and carboxylic undergo dissociation at acid pH. Most
proteins are –ve at pH 8.6. The pH at which +ve charges
equal to –ve charges is characteristic for a protein and is
called isoelectric point ).
•Boundary electrophoresis: Separation in free liquid
•Zone electrophoresis -Separation in stabilizing
media(e.g. Paper, Cellulose
acetate, Starch, Polyacrylamide , Agarose)
Separates proteins on the basis of their charge.
-Free boundary: separation under an electric field in a
Separates plasma proteins five bands: albumin(5458%), α1 globulins(6-7%), α2 globulins( 8-9%), β globulins (13-14%),γ-globulins (11-12%).
-Zone electrophoresis: Separation under an electric field
in a solid media e.g. paper, starch, cellulose, Acrylamide
etc. Separates plasma proteins into: Albumin, α1
globulins, α2 globulins, βglobulins,γglobulins and
a. Newborn and infancy
2.Excessive loss of protein:
a. Through the kidney in nephrotic syndrome
b. From the skin after burns
c. Through the skin in protein losing enteropathy.
3.Decreased synthesis of proteins
a.Dietary protein deficiency in Kwashiokar
b.Liver disease (Hepatitis, Cirrhosis).
Decrease albumin synthesis: Defective intake:
-a. Liver disease (chronic
•Increased albumin loss:
-a. Renal disease (nephrotic
-Loss of albumin in urine
-b. Extensive burns:
-Loss of albumin through skin transdution.
-a. Malabsorption due to
gastro-intestinal disease .
–Excessive loss of protein
from the body into the gut.
- Conditions such as :
a. Ulceration of the bowel.
b. Lymphatic obstruction.
19. ACUTE PHASE PROTEIN
Indicates active stage of inflammation
Differential diagnosis of inflammatory
Estimation of the endpoint of therapy.
Monitoring therapeutic effectiveness.
Post surgical follow-up in patients at risk of
Follow-up of patient with malignancy.
20. •C-reactive protein
•Complement component C3 and C4.