Plasma Protein

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  • 2. HISTORY 1910- Albrecht Kosel a German scientist got nobel prize for the work “ in recognition of the contribution to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through work on proteins , including the nucleic substances.
  • 3. HISTORY American wounded soldier receiving blood plasma in August, 1943 ."Dried plasmas" were developed and first used in World War II. Prior to the United States' involvement in the war, liquid plasma and whole blood were used. The "Blood for Britain" program during the early 1940s was quite successful (and popular in the United States) based on Dr. Charles Drew's contribution. The resulting dried plasma package came in two tin cans containing 400 cc bottles. One bottle contained distilled water to reconstitute the dried plasma. In about three minutes, the plasma ready to use, stay fresh for around four hours
  • 5. INORGANIC MOLECULES Extracellular -Na+, Ca++,Cl-,HCO3Intracellular -K+, Mg++, Cu++, PO4---,ProteinOthers -Fe++, Fe+++,
  • 6. ORGANIC MOLECULES Plasma protein- 7%  -Albumin-55%  -Globulin-38%  -Fibrinogen-7%  -Prothrombin  Non-protein Nitrogen (NPN)- 1% -Urea :20-40 mg/dL -Uric acid : 2-4 mg/dL -Creatine :1-2 mg/dL -Creatinine :0.6-1.2mg/dL -Xanthine :traces -Hypoxanthine :traces
  • 7. OTHERS Neutral fats (Triglycerides) : 30-150 mg/dL Phospholipid :Lecithin ,spingomyelin, cephalin Glucose (fasting) : 70-90 mg/dL Cholesterol :120-200 mg/dL
  • 8. FUNCTIONS Coagulation of blood Maintain colloidal osmotic pressure Maintaining viscosity of blood Maintaining systemic arterial pressure Stability to blood Maintain acid-base balance Immunity Transport function Reservoir function
  • 9. ALBUMIN 55% blood volume , 5% B.W. Types : Prealbumin & Albumin Prealbumin : MW-60,000, Normal plasma level-0.03 gm/dL , -binds Thyroxine (T 4 and T3) Albumin : MW69,000, Normal plasma level-3-5 gm/dL (avg. 4.8 gm/dL)o -Controls colloidal osmotic pressure -Binding and Carrier protein : anions, cations ,dyes, drugs, hormones, fatty acids, metals, aminoacids , enzymes & bilirubin
  • 10. GLOBULIN •Can be separated into different fractions on the basis of their electrophoretic mobility and  Types : sedimentation coefficient: -α –globulin – 0.78-0.81  α1-Globulin-α1-Fetoprotein gm/dL -α1-Antitrypsin -β- 0.79-0.84 gm/dL  α2-Globulin-α2-Fetoprotein -γ-globulin -0.66-Haptoglobin 0.70gm/dL  β-Globulin-Transferrin -Ceruloplasmin  γ-Globulin-Antibodies (immunoglobulins)
  • 11. METHOD OF STUDY Precipitation by salt Sedimentation in Ultracentrifuge Electrophoresis Isoelectric point
  • 12. ULTRA CENTRIFUGATION Physical Techniques 1.Ultracentrifugation (analytical or Sedimentation velocity ultracentrifuge) at 60,000 per.min. (Refractive index the boundary between the solvent and the protein is visualized by an optical system –called Sehlieren System). Advantage Most useful for the determination of the mol. wt of proteins Disadvantage High cost of each analysis and poor resolving capacity (when applied to whole serum or plasma)
  • 13. ELECTROPHORESIS Protein in aqueous solution are charged groups (e.g. carboxylic (Asp.Glu), amino groups (Lys,Arg), they can be separated under an electric field using various stabilizing media. N.B. Amino groups undergo ionic dissociation at alkaline pH and carboxylic undergo dissociation at acid pH. Most proteins are –ve at pH 8.6. The pH at which +ve charges equal to –ve charges is characteristic for a protein and is called isoelectric point ). •Boundary electrophoresis: Separation in free liquid media •Zone electrophoresis -Separation in stabilizing media(e.g. Paper, Cellulose acetate, Starch, Polyacrylamide , Agarose)
  • 14. ELECTROPHORESIS Separates proteins on the basis of their charge. -Types: -Free boundary: separation under an electric field in a fluid media. Separates plasma proteins five bands: albumin(5458%), α1 globulins(6-7%), α2 globulins( 8-9%), β globulins (13-14%),γ-globulins (11-12%). -Zone electrophoresis: Separation under an electric field in a solid media e.g. paper, starch, cellulose, Acrylamide etc. Separates plasma proteins into: Albumin, α1 globulins, α2 globulins, βglobulins,γglobulins and fibrinogen.
  • 15. HYPOPROTEINEMIA 1.Physiological : a. Newborn and infancy b. Pregnancy 2.Excessive loss of protein: a. Through the kidney in nephrotic syndrome b. From the skin after burns c. Through the skin in protein losing enteropathy. 3.Decreased synthesis of proteins a.Dietary protein deficiency in Kwashiokar b.Liver disease (Hepatitis, Cirrhosis). c. Malabsorption.
  • 16. HYPOALBUMINAEMIA  Decrease albumin synthesis:  Defective intake: -a. Liver disease (chronic diseases). -b. Malnutrition. -c. Alcoholism •Increased albumin loss: -a. Renal disease (nephrotic syndrome). -Loss of albumin in urine (proteinuria). -b. Extensive burns: -Loss of albumin through skin transdution. -a. Malabsorption due to gastro-intestinal disease . -Protein-losing enteropathy –Excessive loss of protein from the body into the gut. - Conditions such as : a. Ulceration of the bowel. b. Lymphatic obstruction. c. Intestinal lymphaangiectasis.
  • 17. INCREASED γ-GLOBULIN Multiple myeloma T.B. Lymphatic leukemia Cirrhosis of liver & Acute hepatitis Nephritis
  • 18. FIBRINOGEN  DECREASED  INCREASED -Congenital -Carcinoma prostrate -Extensive cardiac & pulmonary surgeries -Intravascular coagulation Pregnancy, menstr uation -Malaria -Tissue injury -acute & chronic infections -
  • 19. ACUTE PHASE PROTEIN  Indicates active stage of inflammation  Differential diagnosis of inflammatory     disease. Estimation of the endpoint of therapy. Monitoring therapeutic effectiveness. Post surgical follow-up in patients at risk of postoperative infections. Follow-up of patient with malignancy.
  • 20. •C-reactive protein •α1-antitrypsin. •α1-antichymotrypsin. •α1-acid glycoprotein. •Ceruloplasmin. •Haptoglobin. •Complement component C3 and C4. •Antithrombin III.
  • 21. PROTEIN DISEASE α1-antitrypsin -Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. -Neonatal hepatitis syndrome , -cytogenic cirrhosis. Ceruloplasmin- Hepatitis or cirrhosis Haptoglobin -- - In-vivo haemolysis. -Ineffective erythropoiesis α1-Antitrypsin -Obstructive pulmonary disease (Chronic or emphysema) liver disease. Anti-thrombin-Thrombosis -Pulmonary embolism Immunoglobulin -Severe recurrent Complement-Recurrent infection. C1 esterase inhibitor - Recurrent non- pruritic swelling of skin and mucus membrane (hereditary angioneuroticedema
  • 22. OEDEMA Abnormal collection of fluid in interstitial spaces. Decrease in plasma level Decreased COP Increased filtration at arterial level & decreased absorption at venous end . When capillary permeability increased anorexia, urticaria, inflammation etc,-protein escapes from capillary membrane interstitial spaces producing oedema
  • 23. THANK YOU