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General Principles of Circulation
General Principles of Circulation
General Principles of Circulation
General Principles of Circulation
General Principles of Circulation
General Principles of Circulation
General Principles of Circulation
General Principles of Circulation
General Principles of Circulation
General Principles of Circulation
General Principles of Circulation
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General Principles of Circulation

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  • 1. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF CIRCULATION FUNCTION OF CIRCULATION 1.OXYGEN AND NUTRIENT SUPPLY. 2.REMOVE WASTE PRODUCTS. 3.REGULATION OF HEAT LOSS. 4.BODY DEFENCE MECHANISM.
  • 2. BLOOD FLOW BLOOD FLOWS FROM HEART TO OTHER PARTS AND COME BACK DUE PRESSURE GRADIENT.BLOOD FLOW TO AORTA IS PULSATILE BUT TO SMALL VESSELS IS CONTINUOUS DUE TO WINDKESSEL EFFECT. PUL.C SYS.C LA 7-8/0 RA 4-6/0 LV 120/ RV 25/0 0 AOR 120/ PA 80 25/8 ART 60 MA 10 VEN 10 ART 10 MA 8 VEN 5 VC P.V 2 2
  • 3. ORGANIZATION OF VASCULAR SYSTEM 1.WINDKESSEL VESSEL. 2.RESISTANCE VESSEL. 3.EXCHANGE VESSEL. 4.CAPACITANCE VESSEL. 5.SHUNT VESSELS.
  • 4. WIND KESSEL DISTENDS DURING SYSTOLE. BLOOD FLOWS DUE TO PROPELLING FORCE OF THE HEART. RELAXES DURING DIASTOLE. BLOOD FLOWS DUE TO RECOIL OF AORTA AND LARGE VESSELS KNOWN AS WINDKESSEL EFFECT. WITH AGE THIS EFFECT DECREASES SBP INCREASES,DBP DECREASES,PP INCREASES. DEFECTIVE PERFUSION OCCURS AT PERIPHERY.
  • 5. RESISTANCE OFFER RESISTANCE TO BLOOD FLOW INTO CAPILLARIES. (ARTERIOLES,META-ARTERIOLES,PRE CAPILLARY SPHINCTERS).ARTERIOLES OFFER MAXIMUM RESISTANCE .MAIN SITE FOR PERIPHERAL RESISTANCE. RESISTANCE-R IS INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO r 4. SLIGHT CHANGE IN RADIUS – HUGE CHANGE IN RESISTANCE. BLOOD VESSELS HAVE 1.MYOGENIC CONTROL. 2.SYMPATHETIC CONTROL.
  • 6. EXCHANGE CAPILLARIES ARE THE MAIN EXCHANGE VESSELS. THEY ALLOW EASY EXCHANGE OF OXYGEN AND NUTRIENTS TO ALL TISSUES. BLOOD FLOW TO MANY ORGANS IS ACCORDING TO THEIR IMPORTANCE. BLOOD FLOW IS MAX TO LIVER IN ML/MINUTE(1500) BLOOD FLOW IS MAX TO KIDNEY IN ML/100GM/MINUTE (400ML) DURING VASODILATION, BLOOD FLOW TO SKIN AND SKELETAL MUSCLES INCREASES BY 20 TIMES.
  • 7. MORPHOLOGY OF CAPILLARIES 1.ONE LAYER OF ENDOTHELIUM. 2.LENGTH-500MICRO METER.DIA-6 MICRO METER. CSA-30MIC-MET-SQ TOTAL NUMBER-50000 MILLION. TYPES- 1. CONTINUOUS-INTER CELLULAR AREA 10NM.MOST COMMON TYPE.ONLY EXCHANGE OF FLUID OCCURS. 2.FENESTRATED-CONTAINS PORES.PORE SIZE-20-100NM. EX-RENAL GLOMERULI,INTESTINAL VILLI. 3.DISCONTINUOUS-LARGE GAPS.EX-BONE MARROW,LIVER,SPLEEN.
  • 8. CAPACITANCE THESE VESSELS CAN ACCOMMODATE LARGE VOLUME OF BLOOD WITHOUT INCREASING MUCH PRESSURE. EX- VEIN AND THE VENULES. AT REST 54% BLOOD REMAINS IN VEINS.THEY HAVE ALSO MYOGENIC TONE. GRAVITY HAS EFFECT ON IT – LYING TO STANDING POSTURE PERIPHERAL PULLING OF BLOOD- DIZZINESS - POSTURAL HYPOTENSION. NORMAL CVP-4 TO 6 MM HG. PVP – 10 MM HG.
  • 9. SHUNT SYNONYM-THOROUGHFARE VESSELS. THE META ARTERIOLES SHUNT WITH THE VENULES BYPASSING THE CAPILLARIES.EX-VESSELS IN SKIN,LIPS TOES,EAR LOBULES,PALM AND FINGERS. THE WALL HAS STRONG MUSCULAR COAT WITH RICH SYMPATHETIC NERVE SUPPLY. WHEN THEY CONTRACT-DECREASE BLOOD SUPPLY AND WHEN THEY DILATE INCREASE BLOOD SUPPLY.THEY ARE OF MUCH USE DURING THERMAL STRESS. HEAT-DILATES-INCREASE HEAT LOSS. COLD-CONSTRICT-DREASED HEAT LOSS.
  • 10. PHYSICS OF CIRCULATION FLOW VELOCITY IS INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO CROSS SECTIONAL AREA. FLOW (F)=(P1-P2)/R ,P1-P2 = PRESSURE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO ENDS OF THE VESSEL AND R IS THE RESISTANCE. R= (P1-P2) / F . AT REST PRESSURE AT ARTERIAL END – PRESSURE AT VENOUS END = 100 MM HG AND BLOOD FLOW =100 ML/SEC , R = 100/100 = 1MMHG/ML/SEC.=1 PRU. DURING MAX VASOCONSTRICTION PR = 4 PRU AND DURING MAX VASODILATION PR = 0.2 PRU.
  • 11. TYPES OF BLOOD FLOW FLOW TYPE LAYERS AREA LAMINAR TURBULANT MANY NO LAYERS MOST PARTS SOUND SILENT LARGE ARTERIES NOISY RENOLDS NUMBER < 2OOO >2000

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