DR. LAXMIKANTA SAY
EPINEPHRINE

NOREPINEPHRINE

DOPAMINE
Mechanism
of
Secretion

Nervous Control

Physiological
&
Psychological
Sympathetic Activation

Nerve Impulse travel across
Preganglionic sympathetic fiber
Activation Ach
receptor
Na +
Ca 2+

Ch...
Anxiety - Perception or anticipation of Danger
 Pain, trauma
 Hypovolaemia
 Anoxia
 Exposure to extremes of temp.
 Hy...


1. Negative feedback mechanism by
Dopamine and Norephrine



2. During sleep secretion decreases



3. Increases duri...
HYPOTHALAMUS

SYMPATHETIC PATHWAY
ADRENALINE

STRESS RESPONSE
FIGHT-or-FLIGHT
RECEPTORS

α

β

D


α 1- Post junctional



α 2- Pre junctional

on effector organ
 Location

on nv. Ending
 Location

- Blood vessel, N...








Vasoconstriction
Iris dilation
Intestinal relaxation
Intestinal sphincter contraction
Pilomotor contraction...
β1
 Location – Heart, JG Cell, Renal


β2
 Location – Heart, Bronchi, BV, Uterus, Liver,
GIT, Urinary Tract,, Eye, Skel...












Vasodilation (β2)
Cardioacceleration (β1)
Increased myocardial strength (β1)
Intestinal relaxation ...
Cardiovascular
 Alertness
 Blood glucose
 Metabolic rate
 Lipolysis
 K+

Generalised vasoconstriction – release of NE
 (+)ve ionotropic action
 SBP
 Kidney
1. Vasodilatation – specific dopamin...
ADRENAL

ADRENAL CORTEX

MINERALOCORTIC
OIDS

ADRENAL MEDULLA

GLUCOCORTIC
OIDS
CATECHOLAMINES
HYPERSECRETION

Primary Hyperaldosteronism
(CONN’S SYNDROME)
 Cause
- adenoma, tumor of zona glomerulosa




(
-

Clini...
Acute

– Adrenalectomy, abrupt withdrawal, Sudden
stress or Infection

Chronic – Auto-immune diorders, TB, Carcinoma,
Wate...


ACTH – dependent Cushing’s (80%)

Cause
- 1. Hyperactivity of Pituitary
- 2. Ectopic ACTH production – Ca. Lungs, visce...


Cause - adrenal adenoma, carcinoma,
Iatrogenic

Clinical Features
-1. Trunkal Obesity or centripetal Obesity
- 2. Buffa...


Cause – Benign tumor of Chromaffin cells of
adrenal medulla

Clinical Features
- 1. Episodic or non-episodic Hypertensi...
Adrenal Medulla
Adrenal Medulla
Adrenal Medulla
Adrenal Medulla
Adrenal Medulla
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Adrenal Medulla

826

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
826
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
28
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Adrenal Medulla

  1. 1. DR. LAXMIKANTA SAY
  2. 2. EPINEPHRINE NOREPINEPHRINE DOPAMINE
  3. 3. Mechanism of Secretion Nervous Control Physiological & Psychological
  4. 4. Sympathetic Activation Nerve Impulse travel across Preganglionic sympathetic fiber Activation Ach receptor Na + Ca 2+ Chromaffin Cell •Epinephrine •NE •ATP •β – hydroxylase •Chromogranin
  5. 5. Anxiety - Perception or anticipation of Danger  Pain, trauma  Hypovolaemia  Anoxia  Exposure to extremes of temp.  Hypoglycemia  Severe exercise 
  6. 6.  1. Negative feedback mechanism by Dopamine and Norephrine  2. During sleep secretion decreases  3. Increases during fight or flight reaction  4. Increases during cold
  7. 7. HYPOTHALAMUS SYMPATHETIC PATHWAY ADRENALINE STRESS RESPONSE FIGHT-or-FLIGHT
  8. 8. RECEPTORS α β D
  9. 9.  α 1- Post junctional  α 2- Pre junctional on effector organ  Location on nv. Ending  Location - Blood vessel, Nonpregnant Uterus, Glands - Pre-synaptic nerve Terminal  Functions - Excitatory - Vasoconstriction - Inhibit intestinal Motility  Functions - Inhibitory
  10. 10.        Vasoconstriction Iris dilation Intestinal relaxation Intestinal sphincter contraction Pilomotor contraction Bladder sphincter contraction Inhibition of neurotransmitter release
  11. 11. β1  Location – Heart, JG Cell, Renal  β2  Location – Heart, Bronchi, BV, Uterus, Liver, GIT, Urinary Tract,, Eye, Skeletal Muscle    β3 Location – Adipose Tissue
  12. 12.            Vasodilation (β2) Cardioacceleration (β1) Increased myocardial strength (β1) Intestinal relaxation (β2) Uterus relaxatation (β2) Broncho dilation (β2) Calorigenesis (β2) Glycogenolysis (β2) Lypolysis (β1) Bladder wall relaxatation (β2) Thermogenesis (β2)
  13. 13. Cardiovascular  Alertness  Blood glucose  Metabolic rate  Lipolysis  K+ 
  14. 14. Generalised vasoconstriction – release of NE  (+)ve ionotropic action  SBP  Kidney 1. Vasodilatation – specific dopaminergic receptors 2. Natriuresis – inhibiting Na+-K+ATPase  (Treatment of shock)
  15. 15. ADRENAL ADRENAL CORTEX MINERALOCORTIC OIDS ADRENAL MEDULLA GLUCOCORTIC OIDS CATECHOLAMINES
  16. 16. HYPERSECRETION Primary Hyperaldosteronism (CONN’S SYNDROME)  Cause - adenoma, tumor of zona glomerulosa   ( - Clinical Features Sodium absorption Sodium content in Sweat, Saliva, GIT secretions) Extracellular volume Hypokalemic Nephropathy Hypertension Metabolic alkalosis
  17. 17. Acute – Adrenalectomy, abrupt withdrawal, Sudden stress or Infection Chronic – Auto-immune diorders, TB, Carcinoma, Water – house Friderichensen syndrome) Clinical Features - Cutaneous & Mucocutaneous pigmentation - Hypotension - Hypoglycemia - Fatigability - Weakness - Weight Loss - Anorexia 
  18. 18.  ACTH – dependent Cushing’s (80%) Cause - 1. Hyperactivity of Pituitary - 2. Ectopic ACTH production – Ca. Lungs, viscera - 3. Hypothalamic disorders - 4. Excessive ACTH therapy 
  19. 19.  Cause - adrenal adenoma, carcinoma, Iatrogenic Clinical Features -1. Trunkal Obesity or centripetal Obesity - 2. Buffallo Hump - 3. Moon Face - 4. Purple stria - 4. Muscle weakness - 5. Sodium & water retention - 6. Hyperglycemia - 7. Hirsuitism 
  20. 20.  Cause – Benign tumor of Chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla Clinical Features - 1. Episodic or non-episodic Hypertension - 2. Attacks of Tachycardia, Palpitation, Sweating, Pallor, Head ache - 3. Weight Loss & Waekness - 4. Abdominal pain, Vomiting, constipation & Glucose intolerance 
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×