Baby Food:The art and science of solid foodintroduction and nutrition in the firstyear
Breast is Best              Health Canada, UNICEF and the             World Health Organization (WHO)                all a...
Why Wait Until 6Months?1. Tongue-thrust reflex diminishes at 4-6 months2. First teeth come in between 5-7 months3. Swallow...
Signs of Readinesso Baby can sit upo Baby shows an  interest in foodo Baby opens his mouth  when food is offeredo Baby can...
Setting the Table –Preparing for Baby’s First Meal         Create a relaxed, distraction-free         environment         ...
Setting the Table –Preparing for Baby’s First Meal         Be patient. It can take 15-20         tries before babies will ...
Did you know?   Babies develop their sense of taste    and smell while still in the uterus. Strong flavours like garlic, c...
Selecting FirstFoods dense o Nutrient o Rich in iron and/ or zinc o Easily digested o Free of preservatives,   added salt ...
Importance of Iron for Infants     Babies are born with enough stored     iron to last them until around 6     months of a...
Zinc for Growth andDevelopmentZinc is one of the most importantnutrients during times of growth. It isused by the body to ...
How to Introduce Foods to Baby  o One at a time  o Give once or twice daily for 2-3 days  o Watch for allergic reactions  ...
Signs of Food Intoleranco Gas, bloatingo Rash around mouth or  diaper rasho Irritability, fussinesso Spitting up or vomiti...
Foods to Avoid                 o Honey                 o Peanuts                 o Potential choking                   haz...
Allergies and FoodIntroduction – TheControversy                             Parents are often                        couns...
Allergies and FoodIntroduction – TheControversy                     However, recent research                        sugges...
Food Allergy and Solid FoodIntroduction Research Early introduction of fish decreased the incidence of eczema in the first...
Food Allergy and Solid FoodIntroduction Research No protective effect was seen at 6 years of age against development of as...
Food Allergy and Solid FoodIntroduction Research No protective effect against the development of eczema is seen on delayed...
Food Allergy and Solid FoodIntroduction Research Late introduction of egg and milk is associated with an increased inciden...
Selecting FirstFoods
First Food Groups - Grains A popular first choice because grains are:      o Easy to prepare and feed      o Can be fortif...
First Food Groups - Grains If using commercial baby “cereals” select ones with:        o Single grains (not blends)       ...
First Food Groups - Grains You do NOT need to feed your baby commercial baby cereals! These cereals are encouraged as a so...
First Food Groups - Grains  Great Grains for Babies  Food         Nutrient  Brown rice   Protein, B vitamins, zinc  Quinoa...
First Food Groups -Vegetables provide an important source of   Vegetables   nutrients and fiber in baby’s diet   Easy to p...
First Food Groups -Vegetables vegetables contain nitrates and  Some cooked  should not be given to babies under 4-6 months...
First Food Groups -Vegetablesmay contain nitrates:   Foods that      o Spinach      o Beets      o Turnip      o Carrot   ...
First Food Groups -VegetablesVeggies for Babies   Favourite   Vegetable           Nutrients   Broccoli            Iron, fi...
First Food Groups -Fruit    Fruits are popular choices    for both parents and    babies.    They are easy to prepare    (...
First Food Groups -Fruit    Don’t worry about baby    rejecting vegetables once    fruits are introduced.    Breast milk i...
First Food Groups -Favourite Fruits      FruitFruit              NutrientsApplesauce         Fiber, fluids, vitamin CApric...
First Food Groups –Meats and Alternatives Considered by experts to be one of the best first foods for baby. Meats and alte...
First Food Groups –Meats and Alternatives Food        Nutrients Fish        Protein, fatty acids Chicken     Protein, iron...
Iron Rich Foodso Red meatso White, black and kidney beanso Lentilso Chickpeaso Barleyo Riceo Fortified cerealso Spinach, s...
Zinc Rich Foods   o Red meats, pork   o Chicken   o Fortified cereals   o Baked beans   o Yogurt   o Cheese   o Chickpeas ...
Baby-Led WeaningThe practice of allowing baby to fed himself small pieces of wholefood – typically the same food as the fa...
Baby-Led WeaningWhole foods (not purees) are offered to baby that are of a size andshape that he can pick up and feed hims...
Baby-Led WeaningIt has been suggested that baby-led weaning leads to greateracceptance of a variety of foods.             ...
Children with AllergicFamily MembersChildren with family members who haveallergies are more likely to developallergies.If ...
The Top EightAllergenic Foods  1.   Cow’s milk dairy  2.   Egg white  3.   Peanut  4.   Tree nuts (cashew,       almond, w...
Vitamin D forAllergy PreventionVitamin D is necessary forabsorption of calcium and forhealthy immune functioning.Emerging ...
Vitamin D forAllergy PreventionEpidemiological studies showthat allergies are more prevalentin areas with endemic vitamin ...
Probiotics forAllergyPreventionStudies have shown thatsupplementation withprobiotics during pregnancy,and in the first yea...
Probiotics forAllergyPreventionThis effect was especiallypronounced in children ofmothers who have allergies.Probiotics ar...
ReferencesWorld Health Organization. Global strategy for infant and young childfeeding. 2003Available online at:http://www...
ReferencesZutavern A, Brockow I, Schaaf B, et al. Timing of solid food introductionin relation to eczema, asthma, allergic...
ReferencesPali-Scholl I, Renz H, Jensen-Jarolim E. Update on allergies in pregnancy,lactation, and early childhood. Journa...
ReferencesKuo AA, Inkelas M, Slusser WM, et al. Introduction of solid foods toyoung infants. Maternal and Child Health Jou...
Thank you for joining us!                  www.drlisawatson.com
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Baby Food: The Art and Science of Solid Food and Nutrition in the First Year of Life

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Introducing solid food to baby is an exciting time! Learn when, how and what to offer your baby based on current research on allergy prevention and the nutritional needs of infants.
Presented by Dr. Lisa Watson, ND - a naturopathic doctor practicing in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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  • Great presentation! Just wondering about grains? Easily digested? I read in a Weston Price type book that babies don't develop enzyme to digest grains properly until 2 years? My feeling is that if my babe is reaching for my quinoa I am just gonna let her experiment with it rather than denying and risk a picky eater.
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  • Great presentation Dr. Watson! Baby Brenna thanks you!
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Baby Food: The Art and Science of Solid Food and Nutrition in the First Year of Life

  1. 1. Baby Food:The art and science of solid foodintroduction and nutrition in the firstyear
  2. 2. Breast is Best Health Canada, UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO) all agree that babies should be exclusively breastfed until 6 months
  3. 3. Why Wait Until 6Months?1. Tongue-thrust reflex diminishes at 4-6 months2. First teeth come in between 5-7 months3. Swallowing solid foods is difficult before 4 months1. Baby’s digestive system matures by 6-7 months. The intestines are able to filter food and secrete IgA, preventing allergic foods from entering the bloodstream and potentially inducing allergic sensitization2. Baby can turn head towards or away from food and express hunger (open mouth) and fullness
  4. 4. Signs of Readinesso Baby can sit upo Baby shows an interest in foodo Baby opens his mouth when food is offeredo Baby can turn head away from spoon when he’s fullo Baby can pick up pieces of food for self-feeding
  5. 5. Setting the Table –Preparing for Baby’s First Meal Create a relaxed, distraction-free environment Sit your baby in a high chair at eye level Let baby guide the process!
  6. 6. Setting the Table –Preparing for Baby’s First Meal Be patient. It can take 15-20 tries before babies will accept some foods! Consider using both purees and finger foods to allow baby more choices (“baby led weaning” – more on this later.)
  7. 7. Did you know? Babies develop their sense of taste and smell while still in the uterus. Strong flavours like garlic, curry andcumin are detectable in the amniotic fluid, which is swallowed by baby. Research shows that babies who were exposed to strong flavours during development are more accepting of these flavours during infancy.Schaal B, Marlier L, Soussignan R. Human Foetuses Learn Odours from their Pregnant Mothers Diet. Chemical Senses 2000;25:729–737.
  8. 8. Selecting FirstFoods dense o Nutrient o Rich in iron and/ or zinc o Easily digested o Free of preservatives, added salt or sugar o Offer a variety of textures, flavours and nutritional value
  9. 9. Importance of Iron for Infants Babies are born with enough stored iron to last them until around 6 months of age Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency in childhood and has long-term impacts on health. Iron is necessary for growth, and is critical for brain development.
  10. 10. Zinc for Growth andDevelopmentZinc is one of the most importantnutrients during times of growth. It isused by the body to make proteinsand DNA.Zinc is also used by our immune systemto produce immune peptides that fightoff viruses and bacteria.
  11. 11. How to Introduce Foods to Baby o One at a time o Give once or twice daily for 2-3 days o Watch for allergic reactions o If any symptoms develop, remove that food from the diet and do not reintroduce for at least 6 weeks
  12. 12. Signs of Food Intoleranco Gas, bloatingo Rash around mouth or diaper rasho Irritability, fussinesso Spitting up or vomitingo Diarrhea or constipationo Nasal congestiono Eczema or dry skin
  13. 13. Foods to Avoid o Honey o Peanuts o Potential choking hazards
  14. 14. Allergies and FoodIntroduction – TheControversy Parents are often counseled to postpone introduction of allergenic foods to prevent development of food allergies.
  15. 15. Allergies and FoodIntroduction – TheControversy However, recent research suggests that delaying certain foods does NOT reduce incidence of food allergy and may in fact increase food allergies.
  16. 16. Food Allergy and Solid FoodIntroduction Research Early introduction of fish decreased the incidence of eczema in the first year of life. Egg and milk introduction had no impact on development of eczema. Alm B, Aberg N, Erdes L, Mollborg M, et al. Early introduction of fish decreases the risk of eczema in infants BMC Pediatrics, 2008 Later introduction (after 6 months) of formula or rice/wheat cereal decreased incidence of food allergy. Kumar R, Caruso D, Arguelles L, et al. Early life eczema, food introduction and risk of food allergy in children. Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology. 23:3, 2010.
  17. 17. Food Allergy and Solid FoodIntroduction Research No protective effect was seen at 6 years of age against development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, food or environmental allergies in children with delayed introduction of solid foods beyond 6 months of age. Zutavern A, Brockow I, Schaaf B, et al. Timing of solid food introduction in relation to eczema, asthma, allergic rhinitis and food and inhalant sensitization at the age of 6 years: results from the prospective birth cohort study LISA. Pediatrics, 2008 A review of 13 studies found no strong evidence to support an association between early introduction of solid food and development of persistent asthma, food allergy, allergic rhinitis or animal dander allergy. There may be an increased risk of eczema. Tarini BA, Carroll AE, Sox CM, Christakis DA. Systemic review of the relationship between early introduction of solid foods to infants and the development of allergic disease. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 2006.
  18. 18. Food Allergy and Solid FoodIntroduction Research No protective effect against the development of eczema is seen on delayed introduction of allergenic foods after the sixth month of infancy. Filipiak B, Zutavern A, von Berg A, et al. Solid food introduction in relation to eczema: results from a four-year prospective birth cohort study. Journal of Pediatrics, 2007 Longer delay in introduction of cow’s milk is associated with a higher risk for eczema. Delayed introduction of other food products was also associated with an increased risk of atopy by 2 years of age. Snijders BE, Thijs C, van Ree R, van den Brandt. Age at first introduction of cow milk products and other food products in relation to infant atopic manifestations in the first 2 years of life: the KOALA birth cohort study. Pediatrics, 2008
  19. 19. Food Allergy and Solid FoodIntroduction Research Late introduction of egg and milk is associated with an increased incidence of eczema, and a slight increase in incidence of wheezing. Zutavern A, von Mutius E, Harris J, et al. The introduction of solids in relation to asthma and eczema. Archives of diseases in childhood, 2004
  20. 20. Selecting FirstFoods
  21. 21. First Food Groups - Grains A popular first choice because grains are: o Easy to prepare and feed o Can be fortified with iron o Are a natural source of zinc o Easily digested
  22. 22. First Food Groups - Grains If using commercial baby “cereals” select ones with: o Single grains (not blends) o No added salt or sugar o Organic grains
  23. 23. First Food Groups - Grains You do NOT need to feed your baby commercial baby cereals! These cereals are encouraged as a source of IRON. If your baby is consuming other iron-rich foods they do not need baby cereal.
  24. 24. First Food Groups - Grains Great Grains for Babies Food Nutrient Brown rice Protein, B vitamins, zinc Quinoa Protein, fiber, iron, zinc, magnesium Oats Protein, fiber, iron, zinc, magnesium Millet Protein, iron, fatty acids Amaranth Protein, fiber, iron, calcium Barley Fiber, B vitamins, iron
  25. 25. First Food Groups -Vegetables provide an important source of Vegetables nutrients and fiber in baby’s diet Easy to prepare and provide baby with a variety of colours, flavours and textures.
  26. 26. First Food Groups -Vegetables vegetables contain nitrates and Some cooked should not be given to babies under 4-6 months of age. Nitrates can cause baby to develop methemoglobinemia – a condition in which blood cells do not transfer oxygen efficiently. Baby can begin to handle nitrates after 6 months of age.
  27. 27. First Food Groups -Vegetablesmay contain nitrates: Foods that o Spinach o Beets o Turnip o Carrot o Green bean o Banana
  28. 28. First Food Groups -VegetablesVeggies for Babies Favourite Vegetable Nutrients Broccoli Iron, fiber, chlorophyll, potassium, calcium Carrot Fiber, carotenes, calcium Cauliflower Iron, fiber Green peas Iron, fiber, chlorophyll, calcium Mung bean sprouts Iron, fluid, fiber, enzymes Sweet potato Carotenes, potassium Chard, spinach Magnesium, chlorophyll, fiber, iron String beans Fiber, magnesium Squash Vitamin C, vitamin A, fiber
  29. 29. First Food Groups -Fruit Fruits are popular choices for both parents and babies. They are easy to prepare (most don’t require cooking) and are sweet and palatable to baby.
  30. 30. First Food Groups -Fruit Don’t worry about baby rejecting vegetables once fruits are introduced. Breast milk is a very sweet food and baby is going to be interested in trying lots of different flavours. Keep trying new foods - not just the favourites!
  31. 31. First Food Groups -Favourite Fruits FruitFruit NutrientsApplesauce Fiber, fluids, vitamin CApricot Vitamin CAvocado Healthy fatsBanana Potassium, vitamin CBerries Fiber, vitamin CKiwi Vitamin C, enzymesPear Vitamin C, fiber
  32. 32. First Food Groups –Meats and Alternatives Considered by experts to be one of the best first foods for baby. Meats and alternatives are rich in iron, zinc and protein which meet the nutritional needs of baby during rapid growth.
  33. 33. First Food Groups –Meats and Alternatives Food Nutrients Fish Protein, fatty acids Chicken Protein, iron Turkey Protein, iron Egg yolk Protein, iron, calcium Tofu Protein, iron, calcium Beans Fiber, protein, iron, calcium Red meats Protein, iron, zinc Dairy Protein, calcium, vitamin D
  34. 34. Iron Rich Foodso Red meatso White, black and kidney beanso Lentilso Chickpeaso Barleyo Riceo Fortified cerealso Spinach, swiss chardo Tofu, edamameo Eggso Chicken, turkey
  35. 35. Zinc Rich Foods o Red meats, pork o Chicken o Fortified cereals o Baked beans o Yogurt o Cheese o Chickpeas o Kidney beans o Green peas
  36. 36. Baby-Led WeaningThe practice of allowing baby to fed himself small pieces of wholefood – typically the same food as the family is eating. Baby is able to decide what, how much and how quickly he would like to eat.
  37. 37. Baby-Led WeaningWhole foods (not purees) are offered to baby that are of a size andshape that he can pick up and feed himself – typically stick shaped. A wide range of foods is suggested as appropriate first foods – fruit, vegetables, meat, cheese, eggs, toast, pasta and fish. Baby-led weaning starts introducing foods at six months of age.
  38. 38. Baby-Led WeaningIt has been suggested that baby-led weaning leads to greateracceptance of a variety of foods. Baby-led weaning also allows baby to develop appropriate energy self-regulation skills and may decrease the incidence of obesity in childhood and adults.
  39. 39. Children with AllergicFamily MembersChildren with family members who haveallergies are more likely to developallergies.If you or your immediate family membershave allergies, you may choose to wait tointroduce the top 8 allergenic foods untilyour baby has tried a number of otherfoods.
  40. 40. The Top EightAllergenic Foods 1. Cow’s milk dairy 2. Egg white 3. Peanut 4. Tree nuts (cashew, almond, walnuts) 5. Fish 6. Shellfish 7. Soy 8. Wheat/ gluten
  41. 41. Vitamin D forAllergy PreventionVitamin D is necessary forabsorption of calcium and forhealthy immune functioning.Emerging research also suggeststhat it may have a roll indecreasing allergy development.
  42. 42. Vitamin D forAllergy PreventionEpidemiological studies showthat allergies are more prevalentin areas with endemic vitamin Ddeficiency (northern US vssouthern US).More studies are needed, butearly evidence suggests that thedaily vitamin D supplement maybe more important than initiallythought.
  43. 43. Probiotics forAllergyPreventionStudies have shown thatsupplementation withprobiotics during pregnancy,and in the first year of lifeare both protective againstthe development of allergyand eczema.
  44. 44. Probiotics forAllergyPreventionThis effect was especiallypronounced in children ofmothers who have allergies.Probiotics are able to induceregulatory T cells, and helpdecrease over-reactivity ofthe immune system.
  45. 45. ReferencesWorld Health Organization. Global strategy for infant and young childfeeding. 2003Available online at:http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/gs_infant_feeding_text_eng.pdfHealth Canada. Infant Feeding. 2012. Available online at:http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/nutrition/infant-nourisson/index-eng.phpAlm B, Aberg N, Erdes L, Mollborg M, et al. Early introduction of fishdecreases the risk of eczema in infants BMC Pediatrics, 2008Kumar R, Caruso D, Arguelles L, et al. Early life eczema, foodintroduction and risk of food allergy in children. Pediatric Allergy,Immunology, and Pulmonology. 23:3, 2010.SnidersBE, Thijs C, van Ree R, van den Brandt. Age at firstintroduction of cow milk products and other food products inrelation to infant atopic manifestations in the first 2 years of life: theKOALA birth cohort study. Pediatrics, 2008Zutavern A, von Mutius E, Harris J, et al. The introduction of solids inrelation to asthma and eczema. Archives of diseases in childhood,2004
  46. 46. ReferencesZutavern A, Brockow I, Schaaf B, et al. Timing of solid food introductionin relation to eczema, asthma, allergic rhinitis and food and inhalantsensitization at the age of 6 years: results from the prospective birthcohort study LISA. Pediatrics, 2008Tarini BA, Carroll AE, Sox CM, Christakis DA. Systemic review of therelationship between early introduction of solid foods to infants and thedevelopment of allergic disease. Archives of Pediatric and AdolescentMedicine, 2006.Filipiak B, ZutavernA, von Berg A, et al. Solid food introduction inrelation to eczema: results from a four-year prospective birth cohort astudy. Journal of Pediatrics, 2007Abrahamsson TR, Jakobsson T, Bottcher MF, Fredrikson M, Jenmalm MC,Bjorksten B, et al. Probiotics in prevention of IgE-associated eczema: adouble-blind, randomized, placebo- controlled trial. Journal of Allergyand Clinical Immunology. 2007; 119:1174–80.Rautava S, Kalliomaki M, Isolauri E. Probiotics during pregnancy andbreast-feeding might confer immunomodulatory protection againstatopic disease in the infant. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.2002; 109:119–21.
  47. 47. ReferencesPali-Scholl I, Renz H, Jensen-Jarolim E. Update on allergies in pregnancy,lactation, and early childhood. Journal of Allergy and ClinicalImmunology. 2009; 123(5):1012-1021.Cameron S, Heath A-L, Taylor R. How feasible is baby-led weaning as anapproach to infant feeding? A review of the evidence. Nutrients. 2012;4:1575-1609.Leo S, Dean J, Chan ES. What are the beliefs of pediatricians anddietitians regarding complementary food introduction to preventallergy? Allergy Asthma and Clinical Immunology. 2012; 8:3.Friel JK, Hanning RM, Isaak CA et al. Canadian infants’ nutrient intakesfrom complementary foods during the first year of life. BMC Pediatrics.2010; 10:43.Thygarajan A, Burks W. American academy of pediatricsrecommendations on the effects of early nutritional interventions onthe development of atopic disease. Current Opinions in Pediatrics.2008; 20(6): 698-702.Robinson S, Fall C. Infant nutrition and later health: A review of currentevidence. Nutrients. 2012; 4: 859-874.
  48. 48. ReferencesKuo AA, Inkelas M, Slusser WM, et al. Introduction of solid foods toyoung infants. Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2011; 15:1185-1194.Gaffin JM, Sheehan WJ, Morrill J, et al. Tree nut allergy, egg allergy, andasthma in children. Clinical Pediatrics. 2011; 50(2): 133-139.Huh SY, Rifas-Shurman SL, Taveras EM, et al. Timing of solid foodintroduction and risk of obesity in preschool-aged children. Pediatrics.2011; 127: e544-e551.
  49. 49. Thank you for joining us! www.drlisawatson.com

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