Lecture 5 intro to primates

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Lecture 5 - Introduction to Primates

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Lecture 5 intro to primates

  1. 1. Anthro 101: Human Biological Evolution Lecture 5: Introduction to Primates
  2. 2. What is a primate?
  3. 3. Which of these animals are primates? Galago Tarsier Possum Loris
  4. 4. Which of these animals are primates? Coati Lemur Red Panda Sifaka
  5. 5. Some primates are easier to recognize Gorilla Capuchin Rhesus
  6. 6. Primates are a diverse order
  7. 7. What makes an animal a primate? • Features of hand & feet  Grasping big toe  Grasping hands  Some opposable thumbs  Sensitive finger tips  Finger prints!  Flat nails  Generalized limb structure
  8. 8. What makes an animal a primate? Features of the sensory organs - Vision • Forward facing eyes  Binocular vision • Stereoscopic vision  Information sent to both hemispheres of brain • Depth perception • Color vision • Limited olfactory senses (except prosimians) Pygmy marmoset Golden monkey
  9. 9. Binocular Vision
  10. 10. Stereoscopic Vision
  11. 11. What makes an animal a primate? Features of life history • K-selected  Large maternal investment in care • small litters • long pregnancy • Long infancy • long juvenile period • long mother-infant bond • long life span • Long reproductive period Savanna baboon
  12. 12. What makes an animal a primate? Features of the skull & teeth Generalized teeth, four kinds, many functions Enclosed bony eye sockets
  13. 13. What makes an animal a primate? Large brain relative to body size & an emphasis on learning
  14. 14. Sociality Sociality
  15. 15. Figure 05.05 Primates are mainly restricted to the tropics
  16. 16. But, monkeys have also adapted to wide range of habitats Primary tropical forest Secondary forest Desert Temperate forests
  17. 17. What are these adaptations for? • Arboreal Hypothesis  Stereoscopic vision  Grasping hands  Nails = adaptive niche of life in the trees But squirrels do pretty well without thumbs…
  18. 18. galago What are these adaptations for? • Visual Predation Hypothesis  Analogy with insectivores  Stalk and capture insects  Depth perception  Grasping hands = adaptive niche of catching fast moving prey
  19. 19. What are these adaptations good for? • Angiosperm Radiation hypothesis • Adaptive niche of exploiting flowering plants • Color vision • Fine visual & tactile discrimination
  20. 20. Basic primate phylogeny Lemurs, lorisesTarsiers ProsimiiAnthropoidea New World Monkeys Old World Monkeys Apes & humans Haplorhines Strepsirrhines Primates (Hominoidea)
  21. 21. Primate Life History • Prenatal (gestation)  Hemochorial placenta (anthropoids)  Rapid Rate of growth  Humans earliest placental formation, onset of rapid growth earlier • Infantile (first adult teeth/nursing) • Juvenile (weaning, last adult teeth)  Together = childhood  Learning, body growth • Adult (sexual maturity, parity)  Age at first reproduction  Menopause in humans
  22. 22. Parental Investment & Life History r-selected species • Produce many offspring • Low investment in offspring • Very few survive • Unpredictable & unstable environments • Small body size • Early maturity • Short generation time K-selected species • Produce few offspring • Invest heavily in each offspring • Higher survival rate • Stable environments  competition for survival • Larger body size • Late maturity • long life-spans
  23. 23. Life History Trajectories Across Primate Taxa 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Lem ur Capuchin M acaque G ibbon Chim panzee H um an Years Gestation Length Infantile Period Juvenile Period Adult Period
  24. 24. Phylogeny for apes: Hominoidea Gorillinae Panini Bonobo Chimpanzee Gorilla Orangutan Gibbon
  25. 25. Prosimians are the most primitive primates (Strepsirhines) The most different from us • Many are nocturnal • Many are solitary • Some w/ claws instead of nails • Some w/ acute sense of smell  Rhinarium & philtrum  Scent marking Two types: Lorises Lemurs Potto (Loris) Bush Baby (Loris)
  26. 26. Prosimians divided into two groups: Lemurs • only on Madagascar • Adaptive radiation • 40+ species evolved in last 100 MY • No large predators on island, until humans 1500 ya sifaka dwarf lemur avahi aye aye
  27. 27. Haplorhines: Monkeys, Apes, Tarsiers Most of the primate adaptations • Vision > Olfaction • Eyes surrounded by bone • Fused midline of lower jaw • Diurnal  Except Tarsiers  Except Owl monkey • Social  Except Orangutan • Larger brain Red faced spider monkey
  28. 28. Tarsier: Prosimian & Haplorhine • Mixture or anthropoid & prosimian traits • Dry nose • partially closed eye socket • Nocturnal • Only carnivorous primate • eat insects and small vertebrates
  29. 29. Anthropoids: monkeys & apes New World monkeys (Platyrrhini) • Latin America • Diurnal • Arboreal • Tropical forests • Dental formula (I.C.P.M.) 2.1.3.3 2.1.3.3
  30. 30. Anthropoids: monkeys & apes Old World monkeys & apes (Catarrhini) • Africa & Asia • All diurnal • Some arboreal, some terrestrial • Broad habitat range • Ischial callosities • Sexual skin • Dental formula 2.1.2.3 2.1.2.3 Barbary Macaque © Karyn Sig Spectacled langur Black and white colobus
  31. 31. Apes: Hominoidea • Bigger brains • Extended life-history • Complex social interactions • Large body size • No tails • Suspensory locomotion • Hylobatidae (lesser apes)  Gibbons & Siamangs • Ponginae (orangutans) • Gorillinae (gorillas) • Homininae  Panini (chimps & bonobos)  Hominini (Humans)

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