Lecture 1 intro and scientific method

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Physical Anthropology Lecture 1

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Lecture 1 intro and scientific method

  1. 1. Anthropology 101: Human Biological Evolution Lecture 1: Intro & Scientific Method Dr. Leanna Wolfe LAWolfe@aol.com Office AHS Drop In Hours: 5:00-6:30 PM AHS 303
  2. 2. Anthropology = the study of humankind Four subfields of Anthropology Applied Anthropology Biological Anthropology Archeology Linguistic Anthropology Cultural Anthropology
  3. 3. The Subfields of Biological Anthropology Paleo- anthropology Human Osteology Paleo- pathology Forensic Anthropology Human Biology Primatology Behavioral Ecology Evolutionary Psychology Biological Anthropology
  4. 4. Anthropology: Study of Humans + How Evolution Works Charles Darwin Peppered Moths in Industrial England
  5. 5. How Does Evolution Works in Other Primates? Macaques Ring-tailed Lemur
  6. 6. What is the History of the Human Lineage? A. afarensis A. africanus A. aethiopicus H. erectus H. sapiens
  7. 7. How did Evolution shape hominin adaptations? • Bipedality • Tool use • Behavior • Culture
  8. 8. How does Evolution shape minds, bodies, & behavior in modern humans?
  9. 9. Introduce yourself to your neighbor. What do you think/how do you feel about studying anthropology? Do you believe in Natural Selection?
  10. 10. Course Requirements How to do well in this class • Do the reading ahead of class • Come to class on time • Ask questions • Pay attention • Be curious • Do the assignments on time • Take notes during lecture • Access lecture notes online • Form a study group • Two Midterm Exams with short in-class Essays • Two Take-Home Essays • In-class activities • Final Exam (no essays) • Zoo Project (Class Trip on Saturday June 28) • Schedule of Assignments & Exams on Syllabus • Extra Credit Options
  11. 11. Class Website • To access go to http://drleannawolfe.com/physicalanthro.html • Essay Topics • Link to Power Points • Link to Zoo Project • Links to Assigned Articles • Links to Class Lectures • Links to Extra Credit • Exam Review Information
  12. 12. Important Dates and Enrollment Changes • Last day to drop a class without receiving a “W” June 18 • Last day to drop the class receiving a “W” July 9 • Only 3 attempts allowed per class • If you miss class during the 1st week, I will drop you • If you miss 2 classes at all, I can drop you.  3 in a row, I will drop you.  Unless you speak with me and make arrangements • But, its your responsibility to drop if you aren’t attending!!
  13. 13. Plagiarism Cheating • Turning in work done by another person • Copying the words of another person • Presenting the ideas of another person as your own without proper citation • Copying and pasting text from a website • Looking at another person’s test, homework etc when asked to work independently • Use of study aids when asked to work from your own memory • Sharing your work with another student
  14. 14. To understand why we are the way we are, we need to know • How the scientific method operates • Science is essential to our lives • You need to understand how it operates • You need to be able to evaluate science in the media • Measure things as a way of testing hypotheses
  15. 15. What is Science? • Process of explaining natural phenomena through observation and experimentation  Measure observed phenomena  Test hypotheses  Follow the Scientific Method J.J. "Mad Scientist". common.wikimedia.org 02/25/08. 03/31/06 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Mad_scientist.svg
  16. 16. What is a hypothesis? • provisional explanations requiring verification or falsification through testing  proposes a causal relationship between two variables  Predict how X will affect Y • (X) Independent variable(s) – things that are – Water, sunlight, soil • (Y) Dependent variable(s) – things that are affected – Height of plant – Thickness of roots – Number of leaves
  17. 17. The Scientific Method • Question • Read • Hypothesis • Methods • Collect data  Rigorous & replicable  Quantitative  Statistics  Falsifiable • Relate back to your hypothesis Repeat!
  18. 18. The process of science generates a theory • broad statement of scientific relationships • underlying principles • substantially verified through the testing of hypotheses • A broad explanatory statement of scientific fact • It guides the formation of hypotheses to explain things observed in the world • It has been supported by repeated and varied testing of related hypotheses • Hypothesis - narrow focus explaining the relationship between a few specific phenomena
  19. 19. A theory IS • A theory is backed by lots of evidence • A theory is a statement of scientific fact • A theory is open to evaluation and testing • A theory has the potential to be falsified/revised IS NOT • A theory is NOT a hunch or a guess • A theory is not an absolute • A theory is not unknowable or immeasurable Any proposition that is stated as absolute or doesn’t allow for the possibility of falsification is not a scientific hypothesis.
  20. 20. Why we use the scientific method • Testable (falsifiable) hypotheses • Replicable methods • Competition and collaboration among scientists • New theories gain acceptance  Explain odd findings that older theories can’t explain  Lead to new TESTABLE predictions  Lead to new discoveries • All results and theories open to debate & refinement
  21. 21. Creationism & Intelligent Design • Biblical explanation for the origin of the universe, species, humans  relies on faith in bible not evidence  Not open to testing = absolutes • Argue that evolution is an unproven theory • Intelligent Design = creationism  No testable predictions regarding the designer or creator  Try to disprove or discredit evidence for evolutio Can you Understand Evolution and Be Religious?
  22. 22. Geologic Time Scale • Measures history of Earth – 4.5 billion years • Organizes history of Earth into various units • Eon > Era > Period > Epoch • Important to understand the scale and pace of evolution
  23. 23. Solar System forms Earth forms Life appears on Earth 3.5 Billion YA Cenozoic Phanerozoic Eon
  24. 24. Animal life diversifies starting in the Paleozoic Marine invertebrates First vertebrates Arthropods Age of Fishes, 1st amphibians & insects Age of amphibians, 1st reptiles, 1st great insect radiation 570 mya 500 430 395 345 280 225 190 Cambrian Expansion of reptiles, decline of amphibians Ordovician Silurian Devonian Carboniferous Permian Triassic Jurassic & Cretaceous Paleozoic Era Mesozoic Era
  25. 25. 225 190 136 65 1st Mammals (Monotremes) & dinosaurs Age of dinosaurs 1st birds 1st flowering trees (angiosperms) !st Marsupials, Placental mammals Dinosaurs vanish @ 65mya Continent(s) breaking apart Mammals, birds, insects flourish Triassic Period Jurassic Period Cenozoic EraCretacous Period Mesozoic Era Recognizable fauna of the Mesozoic
  26. 26. Starting in the Mesozoic the earth rearranged itself (200 mya – present)
  27. 27. The Mesozoic: Triassic (225 mya) • Pangea was a single continent • Dinosaurs & small mammals evolve • Pangea HUGE land mass  Hot, arid, seasonal, some coastal areas more humid Transition from Triassic to Jurassic
  28. 28. The Mesozoic: Jurassic (190 mya) • 200 mya Pangea starts breaking up  Laurasia & Gondawana • Oceans are barriers to gene flow = new species form • World gets warmer, climate stable when continent splits • Dinosaurs and mammals evolve in this warmer world
  29. 29. The Mesozoic: Cretaceous (136 mya) • Rise of angiosperms = fruits bearing trees = new foods • Placental mammals evolve • Adaptive Radiation Gymnosperms Angiosperms
  30. 30. The Mesozoic: Cretaceous (136 mya) Continents & Climate @ 94 mya Life’s great until mass extinction of dinosaurs 65 mya
  31. 31. Primates finally start to enter the scene, 65 mya 65 54 34 23 5 Paleocene Epoch Eocene Miocene Pliocene Pleistocene Oligocene Plesiadapiforms First Primates Evolve Prosimians thrive 1st Anthropoids Evolve Monkeys & 1st primates in South America Hominoids Humans Hominins 1.8 mya Cenozoic Era: 65 my - present: 7 Epochs Holoocene 10 kya
  32. 32. Continental drift is important part of human history because it changed global climates 25C = 77 F 10C = 50 F Temperatures have declined steeply from Eocene to present Huge fluctuations in last 5 my
  33. 33. The Cenozoic: Paleocene • Paleocene wet & warm  Radiation of mammal taxa with some primate-like traits  Plesiadapiforms – not quite yet primates thrive  Europe & North America  Primate-like molars  Ankles for climbing trees Purgatorius Dryomomys
  34. 34. The Cenozoic: Eocene • Eocene  wetter & warmer  Tropical forests  SA isolated from NA & Europe = new species  First true primates  Prosimian-like traits  Two families in North America & Europe  Adapidae – Lemur-like prosimians  Omomyidae – Tarsier-like prosimians • Mass extinction at end of Eocene • First Anthropoids evolve Smilodectes
  35. 35. The Cenozoic: Oligocene • Oligocene getting colder & drier  more seasonal variation  Mostly modern continent positions  South America still separate  Cold water currents cooling earth  Africa & SA tropical forests remain  Tropics receding in other areas  Age of the Anthropoid (monkeys)  Parapithecidae (Apidium)  Proliopithecidae (Aegypotopithecus)  First platyrrhines in South America!  First Hominoids (apes) evolve Aegypotopithecus
  36. 36. The Cenozoic: Miocene • Miocene warm & moist at beginning  Got colder & drier  Forests retreating = open woodland habitat  Himalayas form = block warm  cold air currents  Rift valley forms = rain shadow & dry savannah
  37. 37. The Cenozoic: Miocene • Miocene warm & moist at beginning  Golden age of the Hominoids (apes) (early Miocene)  Great diversity of species  Fruit diet specialization  Some arboreal quadrupeds, some terrestrial quadrupeds, suspensory adaptations later • Late Miocene getting drier & colder  Ape shift to knuckle-walking adaptations  Ape species retreat to remaining tropics  Mass extinction of apes at end of Miocene  First hominins evolved (late Miocene) Proconsul Ardipithecus
  38. 38. Proconsul • Lived in African rainforest • DF: 2.1.2.3 • Terrestrial quadruped • Large (165-220 lbs) • No tail • Sexually dimorphic • Frugivorous
  39. 39. Dryopithecus • European Radiation • Brachiator, also terrestrial quadruped on palms • DF: 2.1.2.3 • Frugivorous & Folivorous  Thin enamel, low rounded cusps on molars • Small canines
  40. 40. Sivapithecus • Asian ancestor of Orangutans • Concave face • Flared zygomatic arches • Large (70-150 lbs) • DF: 2.1.2.3 • Large canines • Heavy molars - tough foods  Others ate more fruit • Some species terrestrial, others arboreal  Suspensory adaptations
  41. 41. The distribution of primate species shifted during Miocene 0 20 40 60 80 100 Early Miocene Pliocene ProportionofSpecies Monkeys Apes 5 mya 23 mya • Monkeys are more r-selected than apes • reproduce faster • respond quickly to environmental changes • apes didn’t adapt to changes, stayed in tropical forest niches
  42. 42. The Cenozoic: Age of the Hominins • Pliocene begins frequent temperature fluctuations  Hominins diversify  Australopithecines & Paranthropines • Pleistocene: extreme temperature fluctuations  Genus Homo appears 1.8 mya
  43. 43. Primate Evolution: A summary • Mesozoic: Cretaceous: Placental mammals & Angiosperms • Cenozoic  Paleocene: Plesiadapiforms  Eocene: Age of Prosimians  Oligocene: Age of Anthropoids + first Hominoids (apes)  Miocene: Hominoids expand + first Hominins (7mya)  Pliocene: Hominins diversify (5-1.8 mya)  Pleistocene: First genus Homo (1.8 mya)  200,000 ya: First Homo sapiens  Holocene: 10,000 ya: History
  44. 44. Classifying species into taxa • Linnaeus – classification based on physical similarity  Genus species, e.g. Homo sapiens • Nested hierearchies of similarity due to common descent (Darwin) VERTEBRATES Birds Mammals Sparrow Flamingo Lion Squirrel
  45. 45. Phylogeny • Phylogeny = evolutionary relationships among groups of species • When one species splits into 2  Share some ancestral traits  Differ in some derived traits • Differences accumulate within evolutionary lineages over time
  46. 46. Homologous traits: shared phylogenetic history Similar underlying structures can be modified for very different functions Bats fly Dugongs swim Moles digAll share the same Basic limb structure because share common ancestor
  47. 47. Analogous traits: different phylogenetic history Different structures can be used for similar functions • Bats and birds fly • Bat wing is modified from bones of hand • Bird wings are modified from bones of forelimb
  48. 48. Convergent Evolution: leads to analogous traits Adaptation to solve similar ecological problems (Smilodon): (Thylacosmilus): placental mammal marsupial mammal Both animals adapted to catch large prey with teeth and claws.
  49. 49. Adaptation to solve similar problems (Smilodon): (Thylacosmilus): placental mammal marsupial mammal Convergent Evolution: leads to analogous traits
  50. 50. Where do we fit in? Homo sapiens • Kingdom: Animal • Phylum: Chordata • Class: Mammalia • Order: Primates • Suborder: Anthropoidea • Infraorder: Catarrhini • Superfamily: Hominoidea • Family: Hominidae • Subfamily: Homininae • Tribe: Hominini • Genus: Homo • Species: sapiens

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