Obstacles To Development in Mexico ( Romania Too)


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30 obstacles to development in Mexico. Analysis.

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  • Dr Olga M Lazin, Copyrighted, 2013.
  • See the Castas.
  • To check on more pobstacles: http://www.mexicanhistory.org
  • Obstacles To Development in Mexico ( Romania Too)

    1. 1. Mexico's 30 Obstacles to Development. Comparative Differences with the United States. 1) Mexico's Place in World Times. New Spain misses out on (Charts A-B): a) Industrial, Ag, & Commercial Revolutions b) Enlightenment & Catholic Reformation, c) Transportation Revolution, d) Print Revolution & Rise of Active Citizens
    2. 2. e) Technological Revolution in Europe and in Britain’s 13 American Colonies, f) Rise of real town councils, free speech and free press - all enjoyed by British Colonies and denied in Spanish Colonies, where printing presses only permitted under Church supervision.
    3. 3. g) New Spain watches rise of capitalism in & world trade by American colonies, which defy the British crown’s orders to only produce raw materials. 1776 Declaration of Independence comes to legitimize a new economic, social, political order already in place & won by defeat of British Crown in 1783. VERSUS: g) Mexico (based on mining and haciendas) hears in 1810 a call to make “Mexico for the Mexicans” by expelling Spanish Colonial authorities-- “Independence” comes “accidentally” in 1821 to maintain in power the Spanish monopolists & conserve the old anti- capitalist order--not lay the legal basis for a new one, which must await the rule of Porfirio Díaz, 1876-1911.
    4. 4. 2) Geography (Chart 1A-2A): a) Most of country has too much, or too little rainfall. b) High Mountain ranges, North to South, impede travel between Gulf and Pacific. c) Only two major sea ports (Veracruz and Acapulco) – no coastwise shipping.
    5. 5. d) No navigable rivers as enjoyed by British Colonies - such rivers allowed British Colonies to engage in smuggling. e) Tropical coasts a hardship place to live until the advent of electrical refrigeration and air conditioning in the 1950s.
    6. 6. 3) Loss of Territory and Mineral Wealth (Chart 2B-C): a) Mexico “lost” Central America in 1823; reduced to 1,618,000 sq. mi b) Mexico “lost” American West in 1848, reduced to 760,000 sq. miles, or now only 47% of the country in 1824. c) Mexico lost Gold, oil, and silver (in California. Texas, and today’s U.S. West)
    7. 7. 4. Population decrease (Charts 3-4): a}25 million in 1521 and 1950. In 1608 population fell to one million, b} Missions brought disease, especially in the parts of Mexico which suffer from high heat all year, a problem not faced by the American Colonies with their cold winters c} New Spain’s culture for classifying social status by degrees of “blood”, thus stigmatizing dark people.
    8. 8. 5) Crown "taxes" on New Spain were 35 times greater than taxes extracted in English Colonies to the North: a) Depleted base for Mexico wealth. b) Long term decline in GDP/C (gross domestic product per capita) begins in Colonial period: In 1800 New Spain’s GDP/C was 44% that of USA; today it is about 21%. See Chart 6 & CIA: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)_ per_capita). 6) Lost Mining Revenue because mines destroyed between 1810 and 1876.
    9. 9. 7) Reconstruction period after Independence delayed by rural chaos--Hacienda becomes a "refuge" for rural families. By 1880, a “prison” 8) Spaniards expelled so loss of: a) Intellectuals, managers, engineers b) Flight of Spanish capital 9) Weak central government control & police: a) Due to lack of communication 10) Disruption of countryside by warring factions: a) Disruption of bureaucracy
    10. 10. 11) Three land systems: a) Haciendas versus b) Ejidos c) 50% of usable land to the Church, much not used. 12) State fails to replace Church, 1821-1921: a) The Church runs most hospitals, schools, orphanages--State lacks necessary fund, organization, personnel, buildings, etc b) 3 Judicial Systems: Church, Military, Civil. 13) Govt. standing armies vs. Guerrilla Warfare.
    11. 11. 14) High rate of illiteracy. 15) Northern European migrants not admitted to New Spain & after 1810 migrants avoid violent Mexico. Rather they go to America with their knowledge with their ideas of expanding Industrial, Tec, Educational Revolutions. 16) Culture of domination by one group to 1910 a) Aztecs, then b) Viceroy/Church, then c) Generals, 1810-- d) French Army 1861-66
    12. 12. 17) Long Struggle to Achieve in Mexico: a) standard weights and measures b) civil registry of births, marriages, deaths 18) Arbitrary State Intervention: History of corruption and smuggling to protect against excessive powers of Spanish crown. 19) System of bribery (too often called “taxes”): Internal taxes at each state border (alcabala) within Mexico increases cost of goods in Calif. 400 times over the landing price at Veracruz.
    13. 13. 20) Deficient Commercial System: a) No joint stock companies b) No patent law 21) Tradition of learning in Mexico's universities until the 1950s by and for a) elite b) Church
    14. 14. 22) Mexico invented the “amparo” for a noble purpose, which has been distorted to protect rich criminals. In theory, the amparo prevents persons from being unjustly prosecuted by the Executive Power in Mexico, by permitting judges to assume custody over the accused. This equals habeas corpus before the arrest. (Compared to U.S. legal system wherein habeas corpus takes place after the arrest and indictment.)
    15. 15. 23) Accidental Independence of Mexico: a) Protest in 1810 began in New Spain by Father Miguel Hidalgo; his movement to readdress grievances eventually becomes movement for Independence. b) French 1808 capture of Spanish King Ferdinand VII led Mexico to begin its own political culture 1810-1821, but “Independence” in 1821was the made by conservatives seeking to maintain their Spanish Monopoly System by preventing the rise of democracy and private capitalism c) 1821-1910 was occupied with battles between Liberals and Conservatives (Chart 7B)
    16. 16. 24) Spread of Napoleon’s legal codes: a) Napoleon’s 1807 war against Portugal to break its alliance with Britain that had blockaded ships from reaching “his Continent,” led him to seize Spain enroute to Lisbon. he places his brother Joseph I on the throne of Spain, 1808. b) Iberians flee to Latin Am taking with them the Enlightened idea of the “rights of man” and
    17. 17. c) Many Spanish colonies refuse to obey Joseph I; as in Spain, they seek to establish free town councils. d) The small group that holds power in New Spain fears losing its privileges, and seeks to abort the idea of new freedoms many based set to change Spanish laws by tranferring control of towns from central control in Madrid (now held by France) to local control, anti-state control.
    18. 18. e) When Ferdinand VII returns to power in Spain, he cannot stop the proclamation in Cádiz by a Constitution, providing for the autonomy of town councils in Spain and eventually the Colonies. f) In 1821 Mexico, the Spanairds who had controlled power and monopolies of all activity declared themselves against the rise of capitalism (led by USA), by breaking with Spain and declaring “Independence” to create the Mexican Empire (1822-1823), including Central America and what is now the U.S. West (California, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, and part of Colorado). Size 1,818,000 sq. miles.
    19. 19. g) Civil war in Mexico 1821-1876 to determine whether it will be Statist or Anti-Statist, h) Napoleon, the “Man on the White Horse,” is “model” for hundreds of “generals” who seek unsuccessfully to organize an army and impose “order” -- which in 1876 Porfirio Díaz finally does (Napoleonic laws and harsh treatment of the “guilty” have not directly contradicted many Mexican laws).
    20. 20. i) Under Napoleonic Code, accused are presumed guilty until they prove themselves innocent -vice versa the situation in the U.S.) 25) Napoleonic Code persists through 20th -century in Mexico (Chart 7A): a) no trial by jury, no right to face accuser or cross examine police or witnesses c) judges never met most of the accused, only read their depositions d) no real ability for anyone to protest torture (Only in 21st century is change underway for above; Except no jury)