E waste- Dr Kulrajat Bhasin


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  • w-wast is not a problem for us if we can handle it nice and formal way.,without open burning and acid baths
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E waste- Dr Kulrajat Bhasin

  1. 1. By : Dr Kulrajat Bhasin. 1
  2. 2.       Introduction E-Waste Composition Indian and global E-waste scenario Impacts of e-waste Conclusion 2
  3. 3.    Electronics industry is the world's largest and fastest growing manufacturing industry and Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the E-waste comprises of a multitude of components, rapidly growing problems some world. of the containing toxic substances that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment if not handled properly. In India, e-waste management assumes greater significance not only due to the generation of its own 3 e-waste but also because of the dumping of e-waste
  4. 4.  There is no generally accepted definition of e-waste.  A number of countries have come out with their own definitions, interpretation and usage of the term “Ewaste/WEEE”. The most widely accepted definition and description of WEEE/ E-waste is as per the European Union directive. For the purposes of this Directive, following definitions are applied: 1. „Electrical and electronic equipment‟ or „EEE‟ means equipment which is dependent on electric currents or electromagnetic fields in order to work properly and equipment 4
  5. 5. defining E-Waste 2. „Waste electrical and electronic equipment‟ or „WEEE‟ means electrical or electronic equipment which is waste within the meaning of Article 1(a) of Directive 75/442/ EEC, including all components, subassemblies and consumables which are part of the product at the time of discarding.  Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) consists of all waste from electronic and electrical appliances which have reached their end- of- life period or are no longer fit for their original intended use and are destined for recovery, recycling or disposal. It includes computer and its accessories 5 i.e. monitors, printers, keyboards, central processing units;
  6. 6.         Composition. Main sources of E-waste. Magnitude of the problem. Environmental and health hazards. Current disposal and recycling operations. Policy level initiatives: India & The world. Organizations working on this issue. Recommendations for action. 6
  7. 7. Composition of the E-waste is very diverse and complex. E-waste contains more than 1,000 substances, which can be classified as hazardous and non hazardous substances. The electrical and electronic equipment can be broadly categorized into following categories (EU 2002): 1. Large household appliances (refrigerator, freezer, washing machine, cooking appliances, etc.) 2. Small household appliances (vacuum cleaners, watches, grinders, etc.) 3. IT and telecommunication equipment (PCs, printers, telephones, etc.) 4. Consumer equipment (TV, radio, video camera, amplifiers, etc.) 5. Lighting equipment (CFL, high intensity sodium lamp, etc.) 6. Electrical and electronic tools (drills, saws, sewing machine, etc.) 7. Toys, leisure, and sport equipment (computer/ video games, electric trains, etc.) 8. Medical devices (with the exception of all implanted and infected products, radiotherapy equipment, cardiology, dialysis, nuclear medicine, etc.) 7
  8. 8. Composition of E-wastes (cont.…) The main materials found in electric and electronic waste are ferrous material (38%), non-ferrous material (28%), plastic (19%), glass (4%), other including wood, rubber, ceramic, etc. (11%). 8
  9. 9.  Each of these e-waste items has been classified with respect to 25 common components found in them => „Building Blocks‟ => readily „identifiable‟ and „removable.‟ These components are : Metal  Circuit board             Motor/ compressor Cooling Plastic Insulation Glass LCD (liquid crystal display) Rubber Wiring/electrical Concrete Transformer Magnetron Textile            Fluorescent lamp Incandescent lamp Heating element Thermostat Brominated flamed retardant (BFR)-containing plastic Batteries CFC/HCFC/HFC/HC External electric cables Refractory ceramic fibers Radioactive substances Electrolyte capacitors (over L/D 25 mm). 9
  10. 10. Sources of e-waste Flow of e-waste across different sectors 10
  11. 11. Magnitude of the problem With respect to indian scenario…  Electronics industry has emerged as the fastest growing segment in India in terms of both production and exports. IT revolution of early 90‟s has intensified the E-Waste problem. 65 Cities in India generate > 60% of total E-waste in India. 10 states generate > 70% of total E-waste. According to the Comptroller and Auditor- General‟s (CAG) report, over 7.2 MT of industrial hazardous waste, 4 lakh tons of electronic waste, 1.5 MT of plastic waste, 1.7 MT of medical waste, 48 MT of municipal waste are generated in the country annually. (Govt of India RS art) At recycling units in New Delhi, 70% of the total electronic waste collected was actually exported or dumped by developed countries (Toxic Link,2004) 11 By 2020, E-waste from old computers in India will jumped by
  12. 12. Magnitude… (cont…) Top 10 E-waste producing states in India 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Delhi Karnataka Gujarat Madhya Pradesh Punjab E-Waste produced in tons 20270.59 13486.24 12780.33 10381.11 10059.36 9729.15 9118.74 8994.33 7800.62 6958.46 Top 10 E-waste producing cities in India 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Mumbai Delhi Bangalore Chennai Kolkata Ahmedabad Hyderabad Pune Surat Nagpur E-Waste produced in tons 11017.1 9730.3 4648.4 4132.2 4025.3 3287.5 2833.3 2584.2 1836.5 1768.9  From the above it is noted that Karnataka stands 7th in the list among the E-Waste generating states.  Bangalore is 3rd in generation of E-Waste among major cities.  Northern India is not a leading generator, it happens to be the leading processing Centre of e-waste in the country.  According to Manufacturer‟s association for information technology (MAIT) report, India in 2007 generated 3,80,000 tones of e-waste from discarded computers, 12 televisions and mobile phones and is projected to grow to more than 8,00,000 tons by
  13. 13. tragedy at Mayapuri in Delhi in which one person lost his life and six persons were admitted to hospital served as a wakeup call drawing attention to the mounting quantity of hazardous waste including e-waste in the country while revealing systemic problems on the issue of waste disposal Hyderabad 13
  14. 14. 0.3 MT 5 MT 15 MT ( Million Tons) 14
  15. 15. in the global context…     As the fastest growing component of municipal waste across the world, it is estimated that more than 50 MT of e-waste is generated globally every year. In other words, these would fill enough containers on a train to go round the world once. China already produces about 2.3 million tons of e-waste domestically, second only to the U.S. with about three million tonnes. The EU and the U.S. would account for maximum ewaste generation during this current decade. In Europe, e-waste contributes up to 6 million tons of solid waste per annum. Data from a single-day recycling collection event revealed 15 that
  16. 16. Magnitude… (cont.…)    The demand for metals from rapidly growing economies, especially India, China and Brazil has been providing an impetus to the global demand for metals. The recycled metal market has been predicted to grow at an average annual growth rate of 8.1 per cent in 2010 and that of recycled plastics at the rate of 10.2 per cent. Easier and cheaper for these countries to ship e-wastes to the developing countries where access to and recycling of such discarded electronic goods make a good economic option. For both sides, it is profitable or a win-win situation. The only difference being that the rich country is dumping toxic waste on the poorer country. This can be further elaborated by giving an example of dismantling of ships, which involves the process by which end-of-life ships are converted into steel and other recyclable items, and the remainder is then disposed of. These operations are performed mainly in South Asia, with India, Bangladesh and Pakistan currently occupying 70-80 per cent of the market. The industry offers a valuable end of-life solution to old ships 16
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  20. 20.     Electronic wastes can cause widespread environmental damage due to the use of toxic materialsreleased on burning E-Wastes such as Smoke wiring, plastic memory chipboards etc. contains highly toxic dioxins and furans Land filling of e wastes can lead to the leaching of toxic material into the ground water. If cathode ray tube (CRT or the TV screen) is crushed and burned, it emits highly toxic fumes and lead into the environment. 20
  21. 21. Element Lead Beryllium Use Harmful Effects Used primarily in soldering of Extremely harmful to the human circuit boards and other device body; damages both the central components and peripheral nervous systems; can cause seizures, retardation, high blood pressure, damage to the kidneys and liver; adversely affects child development Forms significant portions of electrical connectors and battery contacts Long term exposure can be carcinogenic, especially for the lungs. Extreme exposure can lead to a potentially fatal condition known as Acute Beryllium Disease Arsenic Used in some integrated Arsenic is a notoriously potent circuits poison; causes severe damage and semiconductors to the digestive tract Mercury Can be found to a degree in Attacks the central nervous and ‹#› batteries and circuit boards endocrine systems; harmful to
  22. 22. Important health hazards  Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are among the list of chemical substances that are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs)  POPs are chemicals that have three main characteristics: 1) they are stable compounds, enabling them to persist in the environment; 2) they are lipid (fat) soluble, which combined with their stability, enables them to accumulate up the food chain; 3) they have the ability to act as endocrine (hormone) disruptors. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are other types of POPs. Plastics made from polyvinyl chloride (26% of the plastic found in e-waste by volume), once processed through uncontrolled open burning, can 22
  23. 23. Important health hazards… Dioxins and furans can enter the body via inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption. Exposure to PCDD/Fs at high levels can lead to chloracne (severe skin disease), darkening of the skin, and altered liver function. Long-term exposure can lead to damage of the immune, nervous and endocrine systems and impaired reproductive function. The estimated daily intake of PCDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposure, according to this study, was two times higher for people who are exposed to e-waste recycling facilities in Taizhou (China) (2.3 and 0.363 pg/kg/day for children and adults, respectively), compared to people who are exposed to 23
  24. 24. Important health hazards… The primitive practices of burning Ewastes not only create an enormous amount of environmental pollution, but also disseminate genotoxic agents that threaten the health of current and are agents that damage Genotoxinsfuture generations livingthe genetic material in cells. in the local environment. Are found to be mutagenic or carcinogenic, i.e.. are capable of causing genetic mutations or the development of cancer. The genotoxins associated with e-waste include: metals such as chromium, beryllium, and cadmium; chlorinated dioxins and furans formed from the burning of plastics; and, flame retardants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers. These can lead to a number of pathologies including genetic 24
  25. 25. Current disposal and recycling operations In India, primarily two types of disposal options based on the composition are in practice. These are Landfilling and Incineration. Both have obvious disadvantages. Reusing and recycling are the other ways of dealing with ewastes. They have been preferable because they increase the lifespan of the products and therefore imply less waste over time. The two main hubs where e-waste is re-cycled in the country are Delhi and Mumbai. The other two major hubs are Hyderabad and Bangalore which have been the centers of the electronics and information technology industry  Delhi:70 percent of electronic waste collected at recycling units in New Delhi was actually exported or dumped by the developed countries. Due to lack of any facility for proper storage and disposal of such waste, mishaps like the ones that occurred in 25
  26. 26. Bengaluru: In Bengaluru, the Silicon capital of India, e-waste recycling is a multi-crore market where e-waste is received in Gowripalya and Nayandahalli. There are a few recycling centres in Karnataka like e- Wardd, e- Parisara, K.G. Nandini Recyclers, Ash Recyclers, New Port Computer Services India Pvt. Ltd. Recyclers and E-R3 Solutions Pvt. Ltd. in the formal sector. There are two E-waste dismantling facilities in formal sector in India. These facilities are M/s. Trishiraya Recycling facilities, Chennai and M/s E-Parisara, Bangalore. Availability of take back service Two brands stand out as having the best take back practice in India, HCL and WIPRO. Other brands that do relatively well are Nokia, Acer, Motorola and LGE 26
  27. 27. Policy level initiatives India & the world In view of the ill-effects of hazardous wastes to both environment and health, several countries exhorted the need for a global agreement to address the problems and challenges posed by hazardous waste. The Basel Convention: The Basel Convention on the Control of Trans boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal is the most comprehensive global environmental agreement on hazardous and other wastes. It was signed by 173 countries on 22 March 1989 and entered into force on 5 May 1992. 3 agenda : 1. Setting up a framework for controlling the „trans boundary‟ movement of hazardous wastes, that is, the movement of hazardous wastes across international frontiers; 2. Developing the criteria for „environmentally sound 27
  28. 28.  Policy level initiatives in India: 1. The Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Amendment Rules, 2003 Under Schedule 3, E-waste is be defined as “Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment including all components, sub-assemblies and their fractions except batteries falling under these rules”. The definition provided here is similar to that of Basal Convention. E-waste is only briefly included in the rules with no detail description. 2. Guidelines for Environmentally Sound Management of E-waste, 2008. This guideline was a Government of India initiative and was approved by Ministry of Environment and Forest and Central Pollution Control Board. It classified the E-waste according to its various components and compositions and mainly emphasizes on the management and treatment practices of E-waste. The guideline incorporated concepts such as “Extended Producer Responsibility”. 3. The e-waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2011. The very recent initiative and the only attempt in India meant solely for addressing the issues related to E-waste. These rules came into practice from 1st May, 2012. According to which, „electrical and electronic equipment‟ means equipment which is dependent on electric currents or electro-magnetic fields to be fully functional and „e-waste‟ means waste electrical and 28 electronic equipment, whole or in part or rejects from their manufacturing
  29. 29. Problems associated with the e-waste management its scientific and environment friendly disposal  Management and disposal of e-waste has become a serious problem among states nationwide.  The problem of electronic waste (e-waste) is growing at an unsustainable rate.  E-waste is now the fastest growing, and most toxic, component of municipal garbage.  Local governments are facing huge costs to handle e-waste, and even greater costs if they do not capture this toxic stream and handle it in an appropriate manner. 29
  30. 30.       Need for a e-waste policy and legislation. Encourage and facilitate organized recycling systems. Providing subsidies for recycling and disposal industries. Collect fee from manufacturers/consumers for the disposal of toxic material. Incentive schemes for garbage collectors and general public for collecting and handling over ewaste. Awareness programs on e-waste for school children and general public. 30
  31. 31.  Transparency and accountability to the public Handling. Large amounts of e-waste poses risks of toxic contamination to workers and surrounding communities if conducted carelessly.  Thus, the most basic criterion that employees and citizens should rightfully expect from any recycling operation is that it be open to public inspection. 31
  32. 32.  General compliance with occupational health and safety standards - Observance of health and safety standards in the workplace is important for protecting workers from exposure to toxics whilst handling ewaste.  Well-trained workers, who are fully protected by the law to seek advice and take action to protect their health and the environment without fear of reprisal from their employer, are the most effective environmental protection. 32
  33. 33.  It is important that we create an effective national framework for the environmentally sound management of e-waste including wide public awareness and education.  Conduct detailed inventories of e-waste.  Initiate pilot schemes on collection and sorting of ewastes , including take back schemes and schemes for repair refurbishment and recycling. 33
  34. 34.       Anwesha Borthakur, Pardeep Singh. Electronic waste in India: Problems and policies. International journal of environmental sciences 2012; Vol 3, No 1:353-62. D. Janagam and M. Jeyamani. E-Waste–a major threat to environment and health. Indian Journal of Science and Technology March 2011; Vol. 4, 3:313-7 Sushant B. Wath, P. S. Dutt , T. Chakrabarti. E-waste scenario in India, its management and implications. Environ Monit Assess. Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010:1-14. Research unit (larrdis) Rajya Sabha secretariat, New Delhi. EWaste in India. June, 2011: 1-122. E-Wastes. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2008 August; 12(2): 65–70. United Nations Environment Programme, Chemicals Branch. Study on the possible effects on Human Health and the Environment in Asia and the Pacific of the trade of products 34
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