Language Acquisition And System


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Language Acquisition And System

  1. 1. Language and Language Acquisition Directions: Navigate through the presentation. Answer embedded questions and tasks in your notebook. Respond to final questions in Blackboard forum.
  2. 2. Language is… An arbitrary set of sounds and signs that have meaning in social settings Define each of the highlighted words. What is the significance of each to the definition of language?
  3. 3. Characteristics of Language Languages are…  Systematic  Complex & Social  Equal  Evolutionary  Creative  Human  Means of Communication See module readings for deeper explanations. Click on links for more info.
  4. 4. Languages are systematic.  Rule governed structure  Sounds form words; words together make meaning  Grammatical structure – Learned through immersion – Tacit knowledge – Descriptive (describing) vs. prescriptive (right and wrong) – Context meaning supersedes grammatical structure Try a Mad Lib here: How do Mad Libs demonstrate that languages are systematic? Back to Characteristics
  5. 5. Languages are social.  Changes depending on situation  Dialect (marks who we are)  Register (marks where and when we are)  Convergence (attempting to speak like others)  Divergence (attempting to show difference in speech from others)  Inadequacy felt when exposure to an environment is limited Additional Reading 1 List some of your different languages. When have you tried to converge? Back to Characteristics Diverge?
  6. 6. Language is a means of communication.  Speech (oral and aural)  Writing The Great Divide Theory (orality vs. literacy) – Continuum – Additional Reading 2 How does the Great Divide Theory play out in school? What implicit beliefs must teachers realize in order to value the literacy that all students bring to the classroom? Continue
  7. 7. Orality to Literacy Orality Literacy  Fleeting  Lasting  Illogical  Logical  Narrative, myth,  Analytic poetry  Skill stratification  Situated in social  Writing as a tool for settings advancement Back to the Great Divide Theory
  8. 8. What do you think?  “Spoken language is the real language, and writing is merely a representation of it” (Thomas & Tchudi, 1999, p. 45).  “If speaking makes us human, writing makes us civilized” (Pyles & Alger, 1994, p. 9). Select one quotation and respond to it.
  9. 9. Linguistics: The structure of language  Phonetics  Phonology  Semantics  Syntax  Morphology  Pragmatics See module readings for deeper explanations. Click on links for more info.
  10. 10. Phonetics  The study of speech sounds – Considers where sounds are produced in the body – Considers the property of sounds (intensity, frequency, duration) – Uses phonetic symbols Make the “s” sound. Now make the “z” sound. What is different in your body? Your mouth stays the same; the “z” requires you to activate your vocal chords. Back to Linguistics
  11. 11. Phonology  The study of use of sounds in a language – Phoneme: basic unit of sound in a language – How and where sounds occur – Looks at patterns – Phonemic awareness – ability to distinguish and produce sounds and to combine them to form words Put your hand in front of your mouth. Say the word “spin.” Now say the word “pop.” What do you notice about the pronunciation of “p?” In English the aspirated and non-aspirated “p” does not differ in meaning. In some languages aspiration changes Back to Linguistics the meaning.
  12. 12. Semantics  The study of meaning in language  Relationships and schema important Have you ever said, “It’s just semantics.” Semantics might be more important than we make it out to be! Back to Linguistics
  13. 13. Syntax (Grammar)  The study of how words are arranged to form meaningful utterances (word order) S --- V --- O In English sentence order follows subject- verb-object patterns. Do you speak another language? What is the sentence Back to Linguistics pattern for that language?
  14. 14. Morphology  The study of how words are structured – Focus is on meaning – Smallest unit is morpheme  Free morpheme - can stand on its own  Bound morpheme – must be attached to a free morpheme S = plural CAT
  15. 15. Test Yourself NOUNS VERBS  Morphology – Add “s” to make plural  Syntax – Modified by adjectives  Semantics – Person, place, thing, or idea
  16. 16. Learning Language  Emergent Literacy  Early Literacy  Primary and Secondary Discourses
  17. 17. Emergent Literacy  Acquisition of language is oral, transactional, and cultural.  Print is situated in contexts of meaning – homes and communities.  Understandings about print are developed at a young age. Features of Emergent Literacy
  18. 18. Features of Emergent Literacy You are developing it if you have…  Awareness that print symbolizes objects and represents speech  Appreciation for functional uses of print  Recognition of word boundaries  Letter recognition that comes with understanding the alphabet  Emerging phonemic awareness, or how words “sound”  Facilitated by a rich print culture  Understanding of who gets to participate and how Back to Language Learning
  19. 19. Early Literacy  Presumes emergent literacy has developed prior to formal schooling  Move to formal instruction  Focuses on decoding of more complicated sounds, combinations, and structures  Fundamental disagreements on the nature of instruction (phonics vs. whole language) What was your formal literacy instruction like? Back to Language Learning
  20. 20. Features of Early Literacy  PHONICS – Direct instruction – Reading begins with mastery of component skills (sounds, syntax, semantics) – Emphasis on phonemic awareness and sound- letter correspondence – Learning to read precedes reading to learn – Reading precedes writing Back to Early Literacy
  21. 21. Features of Early Literacy  WHOLE LANGUAGE – Reading situated in functional literacy events – Emphasis on engagement with whole texts and plot prediction – Learning to read and reading to learn occur simultaneously – Reading and writing are integrated strategies Back to Early Literacy
  22. 22. What is Discourse?  Additional Reading 3 and 4 – “Big D” discourse – Primary and Secondary Discourse  How do we help students acquire an academic Discourse?
  23. 23. Questions to ponder: Post responses to Blackboard  What consequences exist in severing literacy from orality in the classroom?  How does a student’s primary Discourse/discourse affect his/her classroom experience? Consider the various aspects of linguistics as you respond.